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VitalStim Therapy ELECTRODE PLACEMENT WITH - …

Electrode Placements Placement 1 - All electrodes aligned vertically along midline - First electrode is placed well above hyoid bone - Second electrode is placed just

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Electrode PlacementsPlacement 1 -All electrodes aligned vertically along midline -First electrode is placed well above hyoid bone -Second electrode is placed just below first one, above the thyroid notch -3rd and 4th electrode placed at equal distances below first two electrodes-Bottom electrode should not end up below cricoid cartilage Muscles reached Superficial: mylohyoid, possibly sternohyoidDeeper: geniohyoid, cricothyroid VitalStim Therapy ELECTRODE PLACEMENT WITH NECK MUSCLESPlacement 2a -Channel 1: electrodes aligned horizontally at or above hyoid bone-Channel 2: electrodes aligned vertically along midline, top electrode at level of thyroid notch, bottom electrode below it Muscles reached Superficial: mylohyoid, anterior belly digastricDeeper: geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, cricothyroid, possibly sternohyoid, possibly hypoglossal nerve VitalStim Therapy Training Manual Electrode Placement Abstract Copyright Yorick Wijting, PT and Marcy Freed, , CCC-SLP Page 2 of 8 Placement 2b -Channel 1: electrodes aligned along midline, over geniohyoid belly-Channel 2: electrodes placed at either side of thyroid notch, over thyrohyoid muscle belly Muscles reached Superficial: mylohyoid, possibly sterno- and omohyoid Deeper: geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, possibly superior laryngeal nerve (CN X) VitalStim Therapy Training Manual Electrode Placement Abstract Copyright Yorick Wijting, PT and Marcy Freed, , CCC-SLP Page 3 of 8 Placement 3a -Channels aligned vertically on either side of midline -Top electrodes are placed just above hyoid bone -Bottom electrodes are over the thyrohyoid muscle at the level of the thyroid notch-Note: DO NOT place electrodes too far laterally so as not to send current through carotid sinus Muscles reached Superficial: anterior belly digastric, possibly sterno- and omohyoid Deeper: thyrohyoid, possibly geniohyoid, possibly hypoglossal nerve, possibly superior laryngeal nerve (CN X) VitalStim Therapy Training Manual Electrode Placement Abstract Copyright Yorick Wijting, PT and Marcy Freed, , CCC-SLP Page 4 of 8 Placement 3b -Electrodes channel 1 aligned horizontally at or above hyoid bone -Top electrodes are placed just above hyoid bone -Bottom electrodes are over the thyrohyoid muscle at the level of the thyroid notch-Note: DO NOT place electrodes too far laterally so as not to send current through carotid sinus Muscles reached Superficial: mylohyoid, anterior belly digastric, possibly sterno- and omohyoid Deeper: geniohyoid, thyrohyoid; middle pharyngeal constrictors (not depicted) may be stimulated as well with sufficient intensity; if top electrodes are placed far enough apart the hypoglossal nerve may be reached as well Note: with any of the placements with a paramedian electrode placement, the platysma may be recruited. If this presents too much of a nuisance factor or interferes with treatment, try adjusting the position of the Therapy Training Manual Electrode Placement Abstract Copyright Yorick Wijting, PT and Marcy Freed, , CCC-SLP Page 5 of 8 VitalStim Therapy Training Manual Electrode Placement Abstract Copyright Yorick Wijting, PT and Marcy Freed, , CCC-SLP Page 6 of 8 Placement 4a -Electrodes are placed over buccal branch of facial nerve -Channel may be placed bilaterally -Second channel may be placed superior to hyoid (as in top channel of placement 3b) to facilitate recruitment of CN XII -Alternatively, 2nd channel may be placed on opposite side to increase facilitation of oropharyngeal sling Placement 4b -Electrodes are placed over main trunk of facial nerve -Second channel may be placed superior to hyoid (as in top channel of placement 3b) to facilitate recruitment of CN XII -Alternatively, 2nd channel may be placed on opposite side to increase facilitation of oropharyngeal sling m Therapy Training Manual Electrode Placement Abstract right Yorick Wijting, PT and Marcy Freed, , CCC-SLP 4b1 2a2b3a3b4aFunctional muscle actions Possible signs & symptoms Possible VitalStim electrode placements Oropharyngeal sling - Orbicularis oris - Buccinator - Superior pharyngeal constrictor - anterior spillage/leakage - premature spillage, residuals - pocketing, holding, stasis - nasal regurgitation 4a maximum facilitation of synergists when electrodes applied bilaterally Tongue: bolus manipulation and tongue base retraction- Intrinsics tongue - Extrinsics tongue - Superior pharyngeal constrictor - AP transit - premature spillage - coating tongue base/post. pharynx - delayed swallow trigger - vallecular pooling 4a3b increases sensory input - CN V and VII add bottom channel over CN XII to facilitate tongue muscle recruitment bottom channel facilitates thyrohyoid recruitment Velopharyngeal seal- Levator veli palatini - Superior pharyngeal constrictor - nasal regurgitation - residuals - delayed pharyngeal transit 4a maximum facilitation of synergists when electrodes applied bilaterally Hyolaryngeal Excursion- Laryngeal extrinsics - Suprahyoid muscles - decreased hyolaryngeal excursion - penetration, aspiration - voice abnormalities - decreased UES opening - pooling, residuals 2b13a good facilitation of geniohyoid, mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles facilitation supra- and infrahyoid muscles good facilitation of digastric and thyrohyoid muscles Pharyngeal constriction - Superior pharyngeal constrictor - Middle pharyngeal constrictor - Inferior pharyngeal constrictor - Pharyngeal shortening mm - penetration, aspiration - piecemeal deglutition - residuals - decreased pharyngeal transit time 3b electrode placements on attachments of middle (hyoid) and lower (thyroid) pharyngeal constrictors UES seal opens and closes- Cricopharyngeus - Supra- and infrahyoid mm - Pharyngeal constrictors - Pharyngeal shortening muscles - delayed opening UES - decreased opening UES, CP bar - premature closure UES - penetration, aspiration - pyriform pooling, residuals 2b13a3b focus on hyolaryngeal excursion focus on maximal sensory input focus on hyolaryngeal excursion (TH) focus on pharyngeal constriction VitalSti CopyPage 7 of 8 Electrode placement is influenced by multiple factors: A very small neck may not offer sufficient room for 4 electrodes, except maybe for placement 2. Do not place an electrode directly on a fresh surgical incision. Do not allow current to flow through indwelling foreign material (tracheotomy, staples, sutures, etc.) Procedure for electrode placement: Ensure skin is clean, dry and well shaven. Clean skin with included cleaning swab or alcohol swab; the included swab improves adhesion and conductivity. Maintain head position as neutral as possible. Attach electrodes per placements diagrams on previous page. Improve contact with bandage or tape if skin sags too much or as Swallow Attempts during Treatment Swallow hardWhen recovering from dysphagia individual needs to concentrate on a strong swallow. Swallow fastTiming is as important as strength. Any delay in swallowing can result in aspiration. Swallow in single contractions It is important to clear the pharynx as much as possible to prevent passive aspiration. Swallow; clear throat and swallow again An individual who experiences pyriform sinus pooling with residual can help to clear the pharynx by clearing the throat and swallowing. Clearing the throat helps to clear the pyriform sinuses. Carnaby, 2006: Study compared standard low-intensity and high-intensity behavioural interventions with usual care for dysphagia. 306 patients with clinical dysphagia admitted to hospital with acute stroke were randomly assigned to receive usual care (n=102), prescribed by the attending physician; standard low-intensity intervention (n=102), comprising swallowing compensation strategies and diet prescription three times weekly for up to a month; or standard high-intensity intervention and dietary prescription (n=102), at least daily for up to a show a consistent trend towards more favourable outcomes in dysphagic stroke patients who are assigned a standard programme of early behavioural swallowing intervention, including active therapeutic approaches and dietary Therapy Training Manual Electrode Placement Abstract Copyright Yorick Wijting, PT and Marcy Freed, , CCC-SLP Page 8 of 8

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