Example: barber

Soils Of NZ: By Region

Soils Of NZ: By Region Region Name/ Soil Type Classification (NZ and USDA) Soil Description Features Landscape Position Distribution and Associated

Tags:

  Soils, Region, Soils of nz, By region

Information

Domain:

Source:

Link to this page:

Please notify us if you found a problem with this document:

Other abuse

Text of Soils Of NZ: By Region

Soils Of NZ: By RegionRegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureCanterburyLismore Shallow and Stony Silt LoamNZ: Pallic Orthic Brown SoilUSDA: Typic Dystrustept 0 - 20cm: Very dark greyish brown, silt loam, fine and very fine polyhedral structure. 20 - 30cm: Brown to dark brown, stony silt loam, weakly developed fine and very fine polyhedral structure. 30 - 50cm: Dark yellowish brown, very stony sandy loam, weakly massive structure. 50 - 120 cm: Dark brown to dark greyish brown weakly cemented very stony loamy sand layers alternating with olive loose very stony sand soils are formed from gravelly glacial outwash with a variable depth of silty loess deposit at the surface. The soil is well drained and has moderate to rapid permeability. Without irrigation, the soil is very droughty and is used for extensive pastoral farming and Pinus Radiata plantations. With irrigation the soil is used for intensive pastoral farming (dairy, deer, sheep) and for permanent horticultural crops (grapes, nut trees).Occupies extensive gently sloping most extensive soil occupying the Canterbury Plains. Forms an association of soils on the south bank of major rivers - as loess depth increases Lismore soils merge into Chertsey soils then into Hatfield and Barrhill soils. Grades into Ruapuna soils at 880 mm of annual Steepland SoilNZ: Allophanic Firm Brown SoilUSDA: Andic Dystrudept 0 - 18 cm: Very dark greyish brown, silt loam, fine to extremely fine polyhedral structure. 18 - 35 cm: Yellowish brown, stony silt loam, fine to extremely fine polyhedral structure. 35 - 55 cm: Strong brown stony silt loam, fine to extremely fine polyhedral structure. 55 - 90 cm: Yellowish brown; stony silt loam, weakly developed coarse polyhedral drained, friable, acid soils with variable depth and stoniness. Mainly used for sheep farming but land with moderate slope angles has a high potential for forestry. Weed invasion and lack of soil nutrients are major limitations to pastoral farming. A significant are of Tekoa soils occur under beech forest within the conservation on steep land derived from greywacke rocks, with rainfall of 900-1500 mm and elevation of 450-1400 on the west of the extensive frontal mountain ranges. Very similar soil to Bealey steepland soils. Grades into Hurunui soils at lower rainfall and into Kaikoura soils at higher 1 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureCanterburyTempleton Silt LoamNZ: Typic Immature Pallic SoilUSDA: Udic Haplustept 0 - 25 cm: Very dark greyish brown, silt loam, fine and very fine polyhedral structure. 25 - 35 cm: Olive brown to light olive brown, silt loam, weakly developed fine and very fine polyhedral structure, many inclusions of topsoil in worm burrows. 35 - 55 cm: Light olive brown, fine sandy loam, weakly massive structure. 55 - 70 cm: Light olive brown, mottled, silt loam, firm, - 200 cm: Olive loose very stony soils are formed from greater than 45 cm of fine-textured post-glacial alluvium. The soil is moderately well drained and has slow permeability in some subsoil horizons. Without irrigation, the soil is droughty and is used for pastoral farming and mixed cropping. With irrigation the soil is used for intensive pastoral farming and cropping and for a wide range of horticultural the older part (3000 - 10 000 years BP) of the post-glacial fan adjacent to large rivers on the Canterbury Plains. Commonly occurs in close association with shallow and stony Eyre soils. Grades into imperfectly drained Wakanui soils in hollows and wherever water tables Clay LoamNZ: Typic Orthic Gley SoilUSDA: Mollic Endoaquept 0 - 20 cm: Very dark greyish brown, clay loam, coarse to fine polyhedral structure. 20 - 28 cm: Greyish brown, clay loam, coarse to fine polyhedral structure, many inclusions of topsoil in worm burrows. 28 - 50 cm: Grey with yellowish brown mottles, clay loam, very coarse polyhedral structure. 50 - 70 cm: Grey with yellowish brown mottles, clay loam, extremely coarse prismatic structure. 70 - 85 cm: Very dark greyish brown Temuka soils are formed from thick deposits of fine-textured alluvium. The soil is poorly drained and has slow permeability in subsoil horizons when wet but has rapid permeability when cracks open in dry conditions. The soil is used mainly for pastoral farming and a small proportion is used for mixed in former swamps on the older part (5000 - 10 000 years BP) of the post-glacial fan into imperfectly drained Wakanui soils on swamp margins and into Waimairi peat soils in low areas where water tables are 2 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureCanterburyTimaru Silt LoamNZ: Mottled Fragic Pallic SoilUSDA: Udic Haplustept 0 - 16 cm: Dark greyish brown, silt loam, fine and very fine polyhedral structure. 26 - 28 cm: Light olive brown to dark greyish brown, silt loam, weakly developed medium and very fine polyhedral structure, many inclusions of topsoil in worm burrows. 28 - 40 cm: Light yellowish brown, silt loam, common mottles, weakly developed medium to coarse polyhedral structure. 40 - 60 cm: Pale olive, intensely mottled, silt loam, firm, medium to coarse Timaru soils are formed from thick deposits of silty loess. The soil is imperfectly drained, with poorly drained inclusions on flat ridge tops. Fragipans (dense subsoil horizons that inhibit root growth and drainage) occur at 40 to 80 cm from the soil surface. The soil is droughty and is susceptible to wind and rill erosion when cultivated. It is used for pastoral farming and mixed the lower rainfall (<750 mm rainfall per annum) part of easy rolling to hilly on the eastern part of the extensive downlands of North Otago and into more poorly drained Claremont and Opuha soils at higher CapeKiore Hill SoilNZ: Typic Orthic Brown SoilUSDA: Typic Dystrochrept 0 - 12 cm: Dark greyish brown gritty silt loam. 12 - 30 cm: Yellowish brown to light olive brown gravelly silty clay loam with 10% weakly weathered angular mudstone fragments. 30 - 55 cm: Light olive brown gravelly silty clay loam with 10% weakly weathered angular mudstone gravels. 55 - 10 cm+: Olive yellow gravelly clay with 50% mudstone weakly weathered angular mudstone soil is formed from loose-jointed or 'frittered' mudstone and typically slumps easily, giving the landscape an irregular 'humpy' look, so typical of the East Coast of the North Island. The soils tend to be 'fertile' with high levels of exchangeable cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) and reserves of potassium and magnesium. Limitations to intensive agricultural therefore are not fertility but erosion and erosion potential and soils occur throughout Poverty Bay. A wide range of soils occur on loose-jointed mudstone because of erosion. Close-jointed mudstone has less erosion and its landscape has more slips rather than slumps. Locally, bentonic mudstone is extremely unstable. Soils formed from it are clayey and have grey colours in the subsoils indicating poor 3 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureEast CapeKopuawhara Loamy SandNZ: Typic Orthic AllophanicUSDA: Typic Hapludand 0 - 17 cm: Black friable loamy sand. 17 - 31 cm: Dark yellowish brown loose loamy sand. 31 - 54 cm: Yellowish brown friable greasy sandy loam. 54 - 66 cm: Light grey soft sandy loam with many strong brown mottles. 66 - 100 cm+: Light brownish grey firm silty clay loam with common light grey soil is formed from mainly weathered rhyolitic tephra (volcanic ash), which are mostly the sandy textured layers, overlying tertiary alluvium, which is the silty clay loam. The loamy sand layer (17 - 31 cm) is Waimihia Tephra (about 4300 years old). The soil grows excellent pastures and is used for beef and sheep farming. Typical for soil derived from weathered volcanic ash the phosphate retention is high, and exchangeable potassium and magnesium low. Pastures respond well to topdressing with potassic superphophate. Some root restrictions could occur in the heavier, poorly drained soil occurs on high soils occur west and south of Gisborne as far as Wairoa. Locally they grade into the imperfectly to poorly drained Mohaka loamy 4 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureEast CapeOruataiaka Hill SoilNZ: Typic Orthic Recent SoilsUSDA: Typic Udorthent 0 - 20 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam with few weakly weathered greywacke gravels. 20 - 42 cm: Olive brown gravelly silt loam with many weakly weathered greywacke gravels. 42 - 70 cm: Light olive brown gravelly silt loam with abundant weakly weathered angular greywacke soils are very stony as a result of extensive erosion. West of Ruatoria deeply eroded argillite is a good example of this, and the widely braided rivers such as the Waiapu are receiving great loads of eroded argillite and greywacke. The soils are only slightly acid. Available phosphate is low as is phosphate retention. This means that the soils respond well to phosphate topdressing. The soils tend to have high levels of exchangeable calcium and magnesium but low exchangeable potassium and soils occur extensively in northern and western parts of the Gisborne - East Cape area. Soils of the Raukumara Range derived from greywacke are strongly leached with low nutrient levels. Allophanic soils from volcanic ash occur on stable ridges and spurs where some tephra CapeWaiherere Silt LoamNZ: Weathered Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Mollic Udifluvent 0 - 20 cm: Very dark greyish brown friable silt loam. 20 - 45 cm: Brownish yellow friable silt loam. 45 - 64 cm: Brownish yellow firm fine sandy loam. 64 cm +: Light olive brown firm fine sandy loam, few strong brown soil is formed from alluvium and occurs on river levees. Good physical properties and a warm climate make this a versatile soil. It is used for cropping (maize), horticulture(tomatoes, vegetables) and orchards (vineyards, Kiwi fruit) as well as grazing drystock. The soil has a moderately to strongly developed structure, well drained and there are no root barriers. Available water capacity is about 60mm over the upper meter. Naturally the soil is well supplied with plant available soils occur on the flood plains of major rivers on the Gisborne Plains and in Tolaga soils occur on terraces below the levees and flood frequently. Matawhero soils are similar but with deeper topsoils as a result of infrequent flooding. Makaraka soils are like the Matawhero soils but imperfectly drained. Makauri and Kaiti soils are the imperfectly to poorly drained former back swamp soils of the flood 5 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureEast CapeWhakawai Hill SoilNZ: Typic Orthic Brown SoilUSDA: Umbric Dystrochrept 0 - 18 cm: Very dark greyish brown sandy loam with few sandstone fragments. 18 - 29 cm: Yellowish brown and 30% very dark greyish brown sandy loam with few sandstone fragments. 29 - 51 cm: Yellowish brown sandy clay loam with 10% strongly weathered sandstone fragments. 51 - 64 cm: Dark yellowish brown sandy clay loam with 20% strongly weathered sandstone fragments. 65+ cm: Dark yellowish brown weathered soils are formed from calcareous sandstone, which on steep slopes, stands out in the landscape with its sharp contours. Moderate slip erosion occurs and slips heal slowly. Analyses showed the weakly leached soil to have low calcium in the topsoil grading to high levels in the subsoil. Exchangeable magnesium and potassium were of medium to high value and sodium low. Available and reserve phosphorus are to hilly with easy rounded kinds of sandstone occur throughout the Gisborne - East Cape area, the largest areas in the southern part. Such areas are generally regarded as the 'poorer type of country' and often planted in Pinus radiata. Soils derived from massive non-calcareous sandstone have low exchangeable cation values especially in high rainfall areas where they are strongly leached. Soils derived from banded sandstone and siltstone or mudstone have properties in between those of mudstone and BayBluff ClayNZ: Calcareous Orthic Melanic SoilUSDA: Typic Rendoll 0 - 30 cm: Very dark brown clay, strongly pedal, fine polyhedral macrofabric. 30 - 65 cm: Dark brown clay, strongly pedal, medium blocky macrofabric. 65 - 120+cm: White sandy soil is formed by weathering of the underlying limestone. There is a sharp boundary between the topsoil and the limestone. It is moderately deep and well drained. It is only used for pastoral farming because of the steepness of its on moderately steep hillsides, where limestone rock has not been covered by on limestone hills between Waipukurau and Havelock North. Associated soils are Te Onepu clay loam on undulating hilltops, and Matapiro sandy loam on rolling 6 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureHawkes BayKaweka Sandy SiltNZ: Typic Impeded Allophanic SoilUSDA: Typic Hapludand 0 - 18 cm: Dark brown humic sandy loam. 18 - 32 cm: Dark yellowish brown and strong brown loamy coarse sand with many gravel-sized lapilli. 32 - 38 cm: Dark yellowish brown sandy loam with many very fine gravel-sized lapilli. 38 - 100+cm: Dark yellowish brown fine sandy allophanic soil is developed in successive layers of airfall volcanic ash. The upper layers are relatively coarse textured, being formed from Taupo Tephra and Waimihia Tephra, while the lower layer is fine textured and strongly weathered. The slow permeability of the subsoil leads to perching of soil water for most of the time. The vegetation is native beech and kamahi forest, at an altitude of about 1000 metres. In many places the ash has been stripped by erosion, leaving the older, more weathered ash at the on undulating to moderately steep extensively throughout the Kaweka mountains and hills between Kuripapango and Gisborne. Associated with very eroded forms, and with soils which have differing thicknesses of volcanic Clay LoamNZ: Mottled-acidic Orthic Brown SoilUSDA: Mollic Haplaquept0 - 18 cm: Very dark brown clay loam, fine polyhedral - 50 cm: Pale yellowish brown and pale grey clay, many mottles, medium polyhedral structure, clay coats on - 75 cm: Pale brownish grey clay, abundant yellowish brown mottles, medium polyhedral structure, clay coats on + cm: Pale grey soft sandstone, mant coarse brown have formed from weathered sandstone claystone that is often near the surface and influences the soil profile. They are imperfectly drained. Used for pasture and forestry. These is often a limitation of steep on hilly and rolling around Waiwera, parts of hilly land in south Auckland and 7 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureAuckland/CoromandelWaikare ClayNZ: Perch-gleyed Albic Ultic SoilUSDA: Aquic Haplohumult0 - 7 cm: Dark greyish brown clay loam, medium polyhedral - 17 cm: Light brownish grey clay loam, many yellowish brown - 35 cm: Light grey clay, many yellowish brown mottles, coarse prismatic - 65 cm: Light grey and yellowish brown clay, coarse prismatic have formed from weathered claystone and soils pugg easily. They are poorly or imperfectly drained. Low natural fertility. Used for pasture but wintering pads to keep cattle of the soil when it is wet are needed. Trees are grown on these soils but performance is on rolling around Warkworth, Wellsford, parts of hilly land in south Auckland and ClayNZ: Mottled Yellow Ultic SoilUSDA: Typic Hapludult0 - 10 cm: Very dark grey clay, fine polyhedral - 45 cm: Pale yellowish brown clay, many reddish brown mottles, few clay coats on - 72 cm: Brownish yellow clay, many yellowish red - 90 cm: Reddish yellow and red clay, medium polyhedral structure, few clay coats on have formed from strongly weathered sandstone. They are moderately well drained. Low natural fertility. Used for pasture and well suited for on rolling around Warkworth, Wellsford, parts of hilly land in the 8 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureBay of PlentyMamaku Sandy LoamNZ: Humose Orthic PodzolUSDA: Andic Haplohumod 0 - 8 cm: Black sandy loam. 8 - 15 cm: Greyish brown loamy sand. 15 - 43 cm: Dark reddish brown greasy silt loam. 43 - 58 cm: Strong brown greasy silt loam on Dark yellowish brown greasy silt soil is formed from very thin Kaharoa and Taupo Tephra on Mamaku, Rotoma and Waiohau Tephra overlying thick RotoruaTephra with abundant fine pumice lapilli. This rests on ignimbrite. Podzol features such as a bleached layer under the topsoil and reddish subsoils, are common. The soil is used for plantation forestry, beef, deer and sheep :The soil is strongly leached with low nutrient levels. High levels of phosphate soil occurs on the Mamaku Plateau under 2000 mm annual rainfall. It grades into Ngongotaha and Oruanui soils with decreasing rainfall and increasing amounts of Taupo of PlentyOpouriao Silt LoamNZ: Weathered Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrept 0 - 23 cm: Black silt loam with moderately developed structure. 23 - 60 cm: Yellowish brown to olive brown fine sandy loam. 60 - 100 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam ver few yellowish brown soil is formed from alluvium derived from greywacke and tephra. It occurs in a warm climate and has a good natural fertility. One of the most versatile soils of New for pastoral uses, horticulture or cropping. Flooding is rare. Properties: The soil is well drained with moderately deep black topsoils. It is moderately leached with good levels of exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium. Reserves of potassium, magnesium and phosphorus are of high soil occurs on levees on the Opotiki and Rangitaiki Plains. Rangitaiki and Ruatoki soils occur on lower terraces and naturally flood frequently. Associated former back swamps have Otara soils or Paroa soils developed on 9 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureBay of PlentyPapamoa Loamy SandNZ: Typic Sandy Recent SoilUSDA: Typic Udipsamment 0 - 12 cm: Black loamy - 21 cm: Dark brown loamy sand, few very fine Kaharoa lapilli. 21 - 30 cm: Dark yellowish brown sand with few Taupo lapilli on White to very pale brown soil is derived from wind-blown sand with small amounts of tephra in the upper is used for winter grazing of cattle and sheep in association with wetter urban development and : Excessively drained soil with low amounts of plant-available water and nutrients. Potential of wind erosionCoastal areas from Katikati to Opotiki. Similar soils on the Rangitaiki plains have more tephra in the upper horizons. Ohope soils occur closer to the ocean with less profile development (thinner or no topsoil, raw dune sand in the subsoil). Kairua soils occur further inland often with a humus/iron pan in the subsoil formed by indigenous of PlentyParoa Silt LoamNZ: Acid Recent Gley SoilsUSDA: Andic or Aquic Dystrochrept 0 - 18 cm: Very dark brown silt loam with coarse sand (Tarawera Tephra) in the upper 5 cm. 0 - 18 cm: Very dark brown silt loam with coarse sand (Tarawera Tephra) in the upper 5 cm. 44 - 49 cm: Very dark brown silt loam (buried topsoil) 49 - 61 cmLight grey sand (Kaharoa Tephra). 61 - 76 cm: Very dark brown peat. 76 - 91 cm:Yellowish brown islt loam on Brown and pale olive sand with pumice Typical layered soil of the former backswamps of the Rangitaiki Plains derived from tephra,alluvium and soil is in pasture used for dairying,beef and some sheep : The poorly drained soil becomes moderately well drained with artificial drainage. Slow permeability in the subsoil. High water tables in levels of organic matter and exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium in the topsoil. Low phosphorus soils occur throughout the Rangitaiki Plains with several subtypes mapped depending on subsoil layers (Paroa silt loam on peat, peat over gravels) and topsoil 10 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureBay of PlentyRotomahana LoamNZ: Typic Tephric Recent SoilUSDA: Typic Udorthent 0 - 7 cm: Very dark brown loam, friable with moderately developed structure. 7 - 50 cm: Light olive grey friable silt loam with weakly developed soil structure. 50 - 67 cm: Light olive grey slightly firm silt loam. 67 - 78 cm: Pale olive slightly firm sandy loam. 78 - 87 cm:Black sandy loam (buried topsoil of Taupo Pumice).The soil was formed during the 1886 Trawera eruption from hydrothermally altered rhyolitic ejecta from Lake youth is reflected in very shallow topsoils with low levels of organic is used for dairying, beef and sheep :This is one of the few soils derived from volcanic ejecta in New Zealand that can be called fertile. It has high levels of exchangeable and reserve magnesium and to medium calcium and available , the soil tends to compact easily and is therefore not suited to intensive west of Mt Tarawera and east of Rotorua on rolling to hilly land. Tarawera Tephra erupted mostly east of Mt Tarawera and it is the parent material of infertile soilsBay of PlentyTe Ngae RoadNZ: TBAUSDA: TBATBALocation: North-eastern side of Lake Rotorua, Te Ngae Road about 350 m north of the Whakatane 11 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureBay of PlentyTe Puke Sandy LoamNZ: Typic Orthic Allophanic SoilUSDA: Typic Hapludand 0 - 18 cm: Black friable sandy loam. 18 - 60 cm: Dark yellowish brown sandy loam. 60 - 94 cm: Yellowish brown and yellow friable coarse sandy loam on Yellowish brown gritty silt soil is formed from weathered rhyolitic tephra (very thin Kaharoa and Taupo Tephra, on Mamaku, Rotoma, Rotorua Tephra on older rhyolitic tephra). Good physical properties and a warm climate make this a versatile soil. It is used for orchards (Kiwi fruit, citrus), dairying, beef and sheep soil has weakly developed soil structures and there are no root barriers. The soil is free draining yet has very high soil-water storage magnesium and potassium levels and medium phosphate retention are soils occur on dissected tephra-covered surfaces in western Bay of Plenty. Paengaroa soils occur further east and are sandier and Katikati soils occur further to the west and have finer textures. Opotiki soils are Hill and Steepland SoilNZ: Acidic Orthic Brown SoilUSDA: Typic Dystrudept 0 -18 cm: Very dark greyish brown, silt loam, fine and very fine polyhedral structure. 18 - 35 cm: Dark yellowish brown, stony silt loam, very fine to medium polyhedral structure, many inclusions of topsoil in worm burrows. 35 - 95 cm: Yellowish brown, stony to very stony silt loam, fine to coarse polyhedral structure. 95 + cm: Shattered drained, friable, weakly acid soils with variable depth and stoniness. Mainly used for sheep farming but land with moderate slope angels has a high potential for forestry. Woody and scrubby weed invasion is a major limitation to pastoral on hilly and steepland derived from greywacke rocks, with rainfall of 700-1200 mm and elevation of 150-900 on the extensive frontal mountain ranges, east of the Canterbury high country. Grades into Haldon soils at lower rainfall and into Kaikoura and Tekoa steepland soils at higher elevation, or under colder climate, to the 12 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureCanterburyLewis Steepland SoilNZ: Typic Orthic Podzol SoilUSDA: Andic Haplorthod 0 - 12 cm: Dark brown, silt loam, very fine to extremely fine polyhedral structure. 12 - 22 cm: Pale brown, stony silty clay loam, weakly developed fine to extremely fine polyhedral structure. 22 - 60 cm: Strong brown stony silty clay loam, fine to extremely fine polyhedral structure. 52 - 85 cm: Dark brown and dark reddish brown, very stony sandy loam, massive. 85 + cm: Olive brown, very stony loamy Well drained, extremely acid soils with distinctive profile features including thin topsoils overlying pale eluvial horizons, overlying rich brown to reddish brown subsoils with high iron, aluminium and humus coatings. Almost all Lewis soils occur under beech forest within the conservation on steep slopes under beech forest with rainfall of1800-5000 mm and elevation of 450-1400 on lower steep slopes of the Southern Alps to the east of the main divide. Grades into Kaikoura soils or alpine soils at higher altitude, and into Tekoa or Bealey soils at lower BayOmahu Gravelly Sandy LoamNZ: Typic Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Typic Ustifluvent 0 - 5 cm: Dark brown gravelly sandy loam. 5 - 18 cm: Olive brown gravelly sand, single grain - 150+cm: Vvery dark greyish brown sandy gravel, single grain in recent alluvial sand and gravel, this soil is very permeable and highly aerated. It is an excessively drained and droughty soil used for viticulture. Note the thin topsoil, and the fluvial bedding in the gravel. Irrigation is essential on this soil on former river courses, and on floodplains where stopbank protection has allowed development of a distinct in the Gimblett Road area of the Heretaunga Plains, and also alongside the three main rivers. Associated with the deeper Omarunui soils, and with the imperfectly drained Flaxmere soils. Older Twyford and Hastings soils are found nearby, on higher and flood-free 13 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureHawkes BayPakipaki Silt LoamNZ: Typic Sandy Gley SoilUSDA: Aquandic Humaquept 0 - 18 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam, moderately pedal, medium blocky macrofabric. 18 - 25 cm: Dark grey fine sandy loam, moderately pedal,fine blocky macrofabric. 25 - 38 cm: Grey fine sand, weakly pedal pedal. 38 - 42 cm: Light brownish grey coarse sand and gravel-size pumice, single grain apedal. 42 - 70 cm: Greyish brown fine sand; 70 - 110+cm: Grey fine sand and gravel-size soil is formed in pumice alluvium deposited after the Taupo Pumice volcanic eruption approximately 2000 years before present. This example has poor drainage, caused both by slow subsoil permeability in the closely packed and structureless fine sand, and also by a high watertable. Note the current bedding in the subsoil layers. Also note the groundwater seeping out from about 85 cm depth. Currently used for pastoral farming and on the alluvial on the the southwestern part of the Heretaunga Plains. Associated with Te Awa soils, which have greater thicknesses of greywacke-derived soil overlying the pumice sand, and also with the very poorly drained Turamoe peaty BayPoporangi Sandy LoamNZ: Mottled Duric Pallic SoilUSDA: Typic Durustalf 0 - 19 cm: Very dark brown sandy loam. 19 - 28 cm: Greyish brown sandy loam with common brown mottles and many worm-channels. 28 - 34 cm: Light brownish grey loamy sand with common brown mottles, weakly pedal. 34 - 45 cm: Yellowish brown clay loam with many greyish brown mottles and common dark brown clay coatings, strongly pedal, coarse blocky macrofabric. 45 - 100+cm: Olive brown sandy loam, This soil is old enough that distinctive horizonation has formed. Note the worm-mixing below the dark topsoil, the pale leached layer above the clay, and the hard duripan which is very difficult to dig into. It is an imperfectly drained soil, with water perching above the clay and the duripan layers. Mostly used for pastoral farming, although may be used for viticulture if the duripan can be disrupted by deep ripping the on ancient alluvial plains and on older parts of the Heretaunga Plains and throughout Central Hawkes Bay. Associated with Ngatarawa sandy loam and Takapau sandy 14 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureHawkes BayTakapau Sandy LoamNZ: Typic Orthic Allophanic SoilUSDA: Andic Ustochrept 0 - 25 cm: Very dark brown sandy - 63 cm: Dark yellowish brown allophanic sandy loam with common dark reddish brown coatings on pores, very friable failure. 63 - 120+cm: Dark yellowish brown sandy gravel, single grain in ancient alluvial silt and gravel with additions of volcanic ash, and quite strongly weathered. Moderately rapidly permeable soil material over very permeable gravels. A somewhat excessively drained and droughty soil very suited to viticulture. Note the abundant roots in the gravel layer. The sandy loam topsoil is very susceptible to wind on alluvial plains and elevated river on the Heretaunga Plains and throughout Central Hawke_s Bay. In association with Poporangi sandy loam, deeper and with a duripan, and also with the non-allophanic Ngatarawa sandy Shallow Sandy LoamNZ: Typic Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Typic Ustifluvent0 - 15 cm: Ddark greyish brown gravelly sandy loam, weakly pedal, coarse blocky - 90+cm: Ddark olive grey sandy gravel, single grain in recent alluvial sand and gravel, this soil is very permeable and highly aerated. It is an excessively drained and droughty soil used for viticulture. Note the roots at 50-55 cm, exploiting moisture held in a thin sand lens. Irrigation is essential on this soil on river floodplains, but where stopbank protection has allowed development of a distinct alongside the Wairau and Awatere Rivers in Marlborough. Associated with the deep Gibsons soils. Slightly older Wairau and Rapaura soils are found nearby, on slightly higher and flood-free 15 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureMarlborough/NelsonGrovetown Deep Clay LoamNZ: Mottled Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Aquic Dystrochrept 0 - 25 cm: Dark grey clay loam, moderately pedal, coarse blocky macrofabric. 25 - 65 cm: Grey heavy silt loam with many strong brown mottles, moderately pedal, medium blocky plus fine polyhedral macrofabric. 65 - 115 cm: Grey fine sandy loam with many dark yellowish brown mottles, weakly pedal. 115 - 130+ cm: Grey sandy loam with many olive brown and light brownish grey mottles, massive imperfectly drained soil is developed in deep alluvial and predominantly fine-textured sediments. It has limitations caused by some perching of water in the heavy silt loam layer, as well as high groundwater influence. This soil is well suited to market gardening, and is also used for pipfruit production. Quite large areas are still being pastorally on lower parts of alluvial plains, near areas of natural on the Wairau plains, near to Spring Creek. Associated soils are the poorly drained Spring Creek soils, and the well drained Wairau Fine Sandy LoamNZ: Mottled Yellow Ultic SoilUSDA: Aquic Hapludult 0 - 28 cm: Dark greyish brown fine sandy loam, weakly pedal, coarse blocky macrofabric. 28 - 55 cm: Brownish yellow clay loam with many strong brown mottles and dark reddish brown organic coatings, weakly pedal, medium blocky macrofabric, few weathered pebbles. 55 - 88 cm: Strong brown clay loam with many light brownish grey mottles and pale brown organic coatings, weakly pedal, coarse prismatic macrofabric, few weathered is a strongly weathered soil formed in ancient weathered gravels. It has low pH and very low nutrient levels. It is also slowly permeable, leading to considerable wetness during wet seasons. It is classed as imperfectly drained, and artificial drainage is required, as much of the Nelson apple crop is produced on this soil type. Past land use practices have led to severe topsoil on slopes and crests in rolling soil occurs primarily on the Moutere Gravels geological formation near Nelson. It is associated with the Mapua hill soils on hilly land, and with the Braeburn soils of the adjacent valley 16 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureMarlborough/NelsonRapaura Shallow Silt LoamNZ: Typic Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Mollic Ustifluvent 0 - 22 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam, moderately pedal, medium polyhedral macrofabric. 22 - 45 cm: Olive brown fine sandy loam, massive apedal. 45 - 110+ cm: Dark greyish brown sandy gravel, single grain shallow soil is formed in recent alluvial sediment, and has sufficient age that topsoil is well developed and there is some weathering of the subsoil, causing brown rather than grey colours. The topsoil and subsoil are moderately permeable, and the gravel is very permeable. The soil is somewhat excessively drained, and is ideal for on alluvial plains, some distance from the river course, and free from flood in the Wairau and Awatere Valleys of Marlborough. Associated with deeper Wairau soils. Younger Awatere and Gibsons soils are located nearer the river Silt LoamNZ: Typic Immature Pallic SoilUSDA: Udic Ustochrept 0 - 23 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam, weakly pedal, fine polyhedral macrofabric. 23 - 55 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam, weakly pedal, medium blocky macrofabric. 55 - 85 cm: Yellowish brown fine sandy loam, incipient fragipan. 85 - 98 cm: Olive brown fine sandy loam with many strong brown mottles. 98 - 160+cm: Clay coated and sandy moderately deep soil is formed in loess (wind-deposited sediment) over alluvial gravel. The fragipan is not sufficiently developed to cause perching of water or restriction of roots. Some mottling is found in the lowest fine earth layer, where water perches before draining into the gravel. The soil is moderately well drained. Although previously only used for dryland pastoral farming, large areas of this soil type are now being used for on intermediate height river soil is found predominantly on southern terraces of the Awatere River. It is associated with the shallow and stony Dashwood soils, and the slightly older Seaview soils which are formed in deeper loess 17 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureMarlborough/NelsonWairau Deep Silt LoamNZ: Typic Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Mollic Ustifluvent 0 - 24 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam, weakly pedal, medium blocky macrofabric. 24 - 40 cm: Olive brown fine sandy loam, weakly pedal, fine blocky macrofabric. 40 - 48 cm: Dark greyish brown loamy sand, single grain apedal. 48 - 74 cm: Olive brown fine sandy loam; 74 - 106 cm: Olive sand. 106 - 120+cm: Sandy gravelThis deep soil is formed in recent alluvial sediment which overlies gravel. The soil is moderately rapidly permeable, and also stores large quantities of soil water. It is well drained, and is very suitable for most horticulture. It is used for viticulture, but tends to cause high on alluvial plains, far enough from the river courses, or elevated sufficiently to be free from flood in the Wairau and Awatere Valleys of Marlborough. Associated with shallow Rapaura soils, and imperfectly drained Grovetown soils. Younger Awatere and Gibsons soils are located nearer the river Friable ClayNZ: Orthic Typic Oxidic SoilUSDA: Typic Haplohumult0 - 15 cm: Dark brown heavy silt loam, fine polyhedral - 27 cm: Dark brown clay loam with hard - 45 cm: Dark brown clay loam, coarse block structure, few hard - 72 cm: Dark brown clay loam, medium block structure, few weathered basalt - 110 cm: Dark brown clay, fine block structure, many concretions and The soil is formed in strongly weathered basalt, is well drained and can dry out rapidly over summer. Low natural fertility. Suited to pasture and horticulture. Horticultural crops often need on flat to gently undulating surfaces of ancient basalt in the vicinity of Kerikeri and often associated with Okaihou 18 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureNorthlandOkaihau Gravelly ClayNZ: Nodular Typic Oxidic SoilUSDA: Orthoxic Palehumult0 - 22 cm: Dark greyish brown gravelly silt loam, medium polyhedral - 61 cm: Brown clayey gravel (up to 60 mm diam.) of hard - 70 cm: Dark brown clay loam, fine block structure, many fine hard concretions, few clay - 89 cm: Dark yellowish brown gravelly clay loam, few fine soil is formed in strongly weathered basalt, is well to moderately well drained and can dry out rapidly over summer. Low natural fertility. Suited to pasture and horticulture. Horticultural crops often need irrigation and may require on flat to gently undulating surfaces of ancient basalt in the vicinity of Kerikeri and often associated with Kerikeri soils. Some Okaihau soils can have impeded drainage and their subsoils look "greenish" (dark greyish brown). Generally they have more gravel and coarser structure than Kerikeri Silt LoamNZ: Typic Orthic Allophanic SoilUSDA: Acrudoxic Hapludand0 - 15 cm: Dark reddish brown silt - 32 cm: Dark red gritty silt loam, fine blocky - 54 cm: Dark red silt loam, medium polyhedral - 85 cm: Dark red clay loam, fine polyhedral - 111+ cm: Yellowish red clay loam, coarse polyhedral soil is red in colour, including the topsoil. They are friable well drained soils and can dry out rapidly in summer. Suited to a variety of uses such as pasture, cropping and horticulture. They are physically resilient soils and require high levels of P on flat to gently undulating surfaces of land around the perimeter of basalt a common soil. Found in the vicinity of Kaikohe and 19 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureNorthlandTe Kopuru SandNZ: Humus-pan Densipan PodzolUSDA: Typic Duraquod0 - 15 cm: Grey loamy - 40 cm: White sand, loose single grain - 50 cm: Black cemented sand, massive, very hard, strongly - 80 cm: Brownish yellow sand, massive, hard, weakly - 110+ cm: Brownish yellow sand, massive, very firm, weakly soil has a hard shallow pan which restricts roots and drainage. It has formed under Kauri vegetation on old sand dunes. It has very low natural fertility. Becomes very wet in winter and very dry in summer. Suited to pasture. One of the most difficult on flat to gently undulating surfaces of rolling land which was once sand dunes or sand blown particularly on the west coast and inland of Ninety Mile Beach which were under former Kauri North Heavy Silt LoamNZ: Typic Orthic Oxidic SoilUSDA: Andeptic haplohumult0 - 13 cm: Dark red heavy silt - 23 cm: Dark red silt loam, fine polyhedral - 44 cm: Dark red clay loam, medium polyhedral - 58 cm: Dark red clay loam, fine polyhedral - 91+ cm: Dark red clay, fine block soil is red in colour, including the topsoil. They are friable well drained soils and can dry out rapidly in summer. Suited to a variety of uses. Well suited to dairy farming and horticulture, however irrigation may be needed for some on gently undulating surfaces of land formed from weathered scoriacious in the vicinity of Kaikohe and often associated with Papakauri 20 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureNorthlandWharekohe Silt LoamNZ: Densipan Perched-gley Ultic SoilUSDA: Typic Albaquult0 - 18 cm: Greyish brown loamy - 27 cm: Pale brown clay, few grey mottles, firm, coarse polyhedral - 62 cm: White clay, massive, firm, brown coatings on vertical - 85 cm: White clay, massive, brown coatings on vertical - 110 cm: White silty clay, massive, many yellowish brown soil is formed in strongly weathered mudstone, is poorly drained and has very low natural fertility. Becomes very wet in winter and is easily pugged. A very hard cemented pan can also be present just below the surface. Suited to pasture. One of the most difficult soils to grow a crop on flat to gently undulating surfaces of the rolling hilly throughout Northland especially under former Kauri forest. There is also a sandy loam : Typic Allophanic Brown SoilUSDA: Andic Lithic Dystrochrept0 - 15 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam with 10% gravel, earthy, - 40 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam with 40% gravel, earthy, apedal, + cm: Jointed schist soil is formed in schist colluvium on schist rock, is well drained and has high phosphate retention. The soil is similar to Allophanic Soils of the North Island formed from volcanic ash. Low natural on steep land of the Otago at mid to high altitudes in the Central Otago 21 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureSouthlandLowburn Loamy SandNZ: Typic Aged-argillic Semiarid SoilUSDA: Arenic Haplargid0 - 8 cm: Dark grey gravelly sand, massive, single - 32 cm: Yellowish brown gravelly coarse - 50 cm: Strong brown gravelly sandy loam, compact, gravel cemented with clay very firm and with boulders, white carbonate + cm: Dark brown stoney and bouldery loamy coarse sand, weakly cemented and soil is formed in loess over alluvium of sand, gravel and boulders. There is carbonate accumulation in the soil profile. The climate is very dry and it is a difficult soil to farm despite high natural on flat to gently undulating surfaces of high uncommon soil. Occurs in the Alexandra Shallow Clay LoamNZ: Typic Rendzic Melanic SoilUSDA: Lithic Rendoll0 - 5 cm: Black calcareous clay loam, fine spheroidal structure, friable, - 20 cm: Very dark brown calcareous clay loam, friable, non-sticky, fine polyhedral structure, few limestone - 32 cm: Dark brown calcareous gravelly clay loam, friable, slightly sticky, fine and medium polyhedral structure, many limestone + cm: Hard, massive, jointed soil is formed in hard limestone, is excessively drained with rapid permeability and can dry out rapidly over summer. Moderate natural fertility with alkaline pH. The shallow soil depth is a limitation to many uses. Suited to on flat to gently undulating surfaces of mesas, crests of scarps of limestone country. Under tussock grassland or in the vicinity of the Ngapara district, Enfield-Te Aneraki district. Associated with othe Oamaru soils on hill slopes and with shallow loess coverings. Also Roseberry steepland soils which are formed from 22 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureSouthlandOpuha Silt LoamNZ: Mottled Fragic Pallic SoilUSDA: Aquic Fragiochrept0 - 20 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam, firm, fine polyhedral - 30 cm: Pale brownish grey silt loam with many mottles, + cm: Yellowish brown silt loam with grey and brown mottles, very firm, compact, coarse prismatic soil is formed in loess, is poorly drained and has low natural fertility. Becomes very wet in winter and is easily pugged, drainage is often essential. Suited to on strongly rolling hilly on the foothills boardering the steeplands in the vacinity of Orari Gorge, near Hampden and the Fairlie District. They grade eastward into Claremont soils and westward into Kakahu Loamy Silt on Sandy LoamNZ: Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Typic Udifluvent0 - 27 cm: Dark greyish brown loamy silt, medium polyhedral - 44 cm: Light olive brown sandy loam, massive single grain - 62 cm: Light yellowish brown sandy loam, massive single grain + cm: Dark greyish brown sandy loam, massive single grain soil is formed in silty and loamy alluvium, often over gravel. The soil is sandy, well drained and has moderate natural fertility. Buried topsoils may also be present. Highly suitable for horticulture with many areas in pasture. Stopbanks have decreased the flooding on flat to gently undulating surfaces of levees and on the Taieri Plains. There are several Pomahaka soil types mainly seperated on sand 23 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureSouthlandTe Anau Sandy LoamNZ: Fragic Allophanic Brown SoilUSDA: Andic Dystrochrept0 - 20 cm: Very dark grey sandy loam, friable, fine spheroidal and polyhedral - 43 cm: Dark yellowish brown sandy loam, friable, fine spheroidal and polyhedral - 67 cm: Dark yellowish brown sandy loam, friable, fine spheroidal structure, many + cm: Light olive brown boulders, gravel and sand, soil is formed from gravelly glacial moraine, is well drained and has very low natural fertility. Suited to pasture and tussock grasses or forestry. The soils have high P retention and are droughty. They are liable to serious erosion when cultivated and are unsuitable for cropping. Boulders on the surface can also be a problem in some on ridges of in the lowland areas of the Te Anau Basin, southeast of Lake Te Anau. There is also a hill soil on steeper Black LoamNZ: Typic Orthic Allophanic SoilUSDA: Typic Hapludand 0 - 20 cm: Black loam, very fine polyhedral structure; friable. 20 - 38 cm:Dark yellowish brown loam; very friable; fine polyhedral structure. 38 - 55 cm: Dark yellowish brown loam; very friable; medium polyhedral structure. 55 - 89 cm: Dark yellowish brown silt loam; friable; dark brown humic cutans; coarse polyhedral structure. 89 - 147 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam; firm; fine and medium polyhedral soil is formed from andesitic tephra erupted mainly from Mt Taranaki. Egmont soils are well drained with a rapid permeability in the topsoil and a moderate to moderately rapid permeability in the subsoil. Very suited to grassland farming, forestry, market gardening and green-feed cropping, with a little barley cropping south of Waverley. Egmont soils have a very low structural vulnerability and a high resilience. This is due, in part, to the high proportion of allophane present, and to the stabilisation of soil organic matter by the formation of organo-mineral complexes. The soil, as a result, can be grazed or cropped intensively with little decline in soil on flat and rolling country where andesitic tephra has mantled ancient marine terrace remnant on flat and rolling land along the central west coast of the North Island. Associated with well-drained Westmere silt loams and Parakino sandy loams to the south and Egmont brown loam, and Stratford and New Plymouth soils to the 24 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDistribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureTaranaki/ManawatuFoxton Black SandNZ: Typic Sandy Brown SoilsUSDA: Typic Udipsamment 0 - 25 cm: Black loamy sand, fine polyhedral structure. 25 - 40 cm: Yellowish brown sand; very fine blocky structure. 40 - 65 cm: Olive brown loose sand, single grain. > 65 cm: Light olive brown grading to grey loose sand; single soil is formed from weakly weathered wind-blown sand that is often severely water-repellent in the upper part of the topsoil. Foxton soils are somewhat excessively drained and have a rapid to very rapid permeability. Suited to forestry and intensive grazing, and especially useful as wintering country for stock. The soils are, however, drought prone and susceptible to wind erosion if on sand on the older, more consolidated inland dunes of the sand country. Associated with Awahou loamy sands and sandy loams of the flat, higher parts of the older sand plains (somewhat excessively drained), the Carnarvon black and brown sandy loams and loamy sands of the flat, lower lying older sand plains (imperfectly and poorly drained), and the very poorly drained Omanuka peaty loams and peaty silt loams of the flat peaty Silty ClayNZ: Typic Orthic Gley SoilUSDA: Typic Endoaquept 0 - 20 cm: Dark grey silty clay; fine polyhedral structure with many Fe/Mn concretions at the boundary to the horizon below. 20 - 35 cm: Grey silty clay; fine and medium blocky structure with abundant strong brown and dark brown mottles. 35 - 60 cm: Grey silty clay; coarse to very coarse prismatic structure with many strong brown reddish brown mottles. > 60 cm: Grey clay; very coarse blocky to massive structure; common strong brown soil is formed from moderately weathered, fine-textured quartzo-feldspathic sediment washed down off the Ruahine and Tararua Ranges and deposited on the lowland plains as alluvium by the main river systems. Kairanga soils are poorly drained and have a slow to very slow permeability. Used extensively for pastoral grazing and cropping. They are, however, susceptible to severe structural degradation under intensive continuous cropping, and as a result of pugging under stock treading, if not carefully on flat alluvial plain adjacent to the river lev on the alluvial plain adjacent to the lev es deposited by the Rangitikei, Manawatu, Oroua and Otaki Rivers. Associated with the Manawatu (well-drained) 25 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureTaranaki/ManawatuManawatu Silt LoamNZ: Weathered Fluvial Recent SoilUSDA: Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrept 0 - 18 cm: Dark greyish brown silt loam, very fine and fine polyhedral structure. 18 - 30 cm: Olive brown silt loam; very fine polyhedral structure. 30 - 65 cm: Light olive brown silt loam; medium and fine blocky structure. > 65 cm: Light olive brown silt loam grading to sandy loam at depth; few yellowish brown mottles; medium blocky soil is formed from weakly weathered quartzo-feldspathic sediment washed down off the Ruahine and Tararua Ranges and deposited on the lowland plains as alluvium by the main river systems. Manawatu silt loams are well drained and have a moderate permeability throughout the profile. While they have a high versatility and are suited to most land uses, they have a high structural vulnerability and therefore need to be managed well to maintain their soil quality for economic and environmental on higher flat surfaces of the lev e adjacent to the river systems meandering across the alluvial on the levees of the alluvial plain adjacent to the Rangitikei, Manawatu, Oroua and Otaki Rivers. Associated with the Kairanga (poorly drained) 26 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureTaranaki/ManawatuMarton Silt LoamNZ: Argillic-fragic Perch-gley Pallic SoilUSDA: Aeric Kandiaqualf 0 - 25 cm: Dark greyish brown to very dark greyish brown silt loam, fine polyhedral structure. 25 - 50 cm: Greyish brown to light olive brown silty clay; common reddish yellow and light olive grey mottles; few dark brown clay cutans; coarse blocky structure. 50 - 63 cm: Light brownish grey to light yellowish brown silt loam; many yellowish red and pale olive mottles; many dark brown clay cutans; medium blocky structure. 63 - 105 cm: Light brownish grey to light yellowish brown silty clay with many light olive grey and strong brown mottles; many dark brown clay cutans; extremely coarse prismatic structure with large grey vertical soil is formed from moderately weathered quartzo-feldspathic loess and tephric loess blown from the aggrading beds of rivers. Kawakawa Tephra, a rhyolitic volcanic ash erupted from Lake Taupo about 22,600 yrs BP, occurs between 50 63 cm depth. Marton soils are poorly drained with a moderate permeability in the topsoil and slow permeability in the subsoil. Typically has large vertical grey veins between the prismatic, gammate structures. Used extensively for cropping (mainly barley, wheat and maize) and grassland farming. The soil has a high structural vulnerability and therefore needs to be managed carefully to maintain soil quality and productive on flat and rolling uplifted Tokomaru marine-cut terrace on the extensive flat to rolling terraces on the west coast of New Zealand between Palmerston North and Wanganui. Associated with Kiwitea silt loam (moderately well drained), Dannevirke silt loam (well drained), Westmere silt loam (well drained) and imperfectly drained Westmere mottled silt Humic ClayNZ: Acidic Recent Gley SoilUSDA: Fluvaquentic Endoaquoll 0 - 35 cm: Very dark grey humic clay, fine polyhedral structure. 35 - 50 cm: Dark brown clay; dark brown mottles; medium blocky structure. 50 - 75 cm: Dark grey clay; dark brown mottles; coarse columnar structure. 75 - 90 cm: Very dark grey silty clay; medium blocky and polyhedral structure. >90 cm: Dark grey silt loam; dark brown mottles; massive soil is a deep, dark, strongly structured topsoil formed from fine-textured quartzo-feldspathic alluvium. It is very poorly drained, with a moderately rapid permeability in the topsoil and very slow permeability in the subsoil. Very suited to cropping, market gardening and grassland farming when drained. High watertables during wet winter months can, however, give rise to periodic on flat low-lying backswamps and basin depressions of the alluvial on flat backswamps of alluvial floodplains. Associated with very poorly drained Opiki silty clays where flood waters have occurred frequently in the past, and poorly drained Kairanga silty 27 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureTaranaki/ManawatuRamiha Silt LoamNZ: Acidic Allophanic Brown SoilUSDA: Andic Haplumbrept 0 - 30 cm: Dark brown silt loam; very fine and fine polyhedral structure. 30 - 65 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam; fine polyhedral structure. 65 - 95 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam; fine and medium blocky structure. >95 cm: Light yellowish brown silt loam; medium blocky structure; grading to weathered greywacke at soil is formed from quartzo-feldspathic loess, tephric loess and thin distal deposits of mainly andesitic tephra. A notable feature of the Ramiha soil is the very strongly developed topsoil structure and its very high aggregate stability. The soil is well drained with a rapid permeability in the topsoil and moderate permeability in the subsoil. Very suited to grassland farming and on the rolling and hill slopes of hill and steepland country as Ramiha silt loam, rolling phase and Ramiha silt loam, hilly phase on the rolling and hill slopes of the Tararua and Ruahine Ranges between 300 to 600 m elevation with a rainfall of 1300 to 1800 mm. Associated with well-drained Korokoro silt loam, hilly phase, well-drained Ruahine silt loam, steep phase, and well to somewhat excessively drained Makara silt loam, steep SandNZ: Welded Impeded Pumice SoilUSDA: Typic Udivitrand 0 - 7 cm: Very dark greyish brown sand with angular pumice lapilli. 7 - 13 cm: Yellowish brown and dark brown sand with many angular pumice lapilli. 13 - 26 cm: Light yellowish brown sand with many angular pumice lapilli. 26 - 100 cm: Pale yellow gravelly sand with angular pumice lapilli and blocks from 1 to 6 cm diam., compact in soil is formed from flow-tephra during the Taupo eruption. with a welded-compacted subsoil which has a massive soil stucture in situ breaking to single Vegetation was mostly tussock- low shrub before most of it was planted in plantation forest. Soils need to be ripped and mounded in preparation of planting with Pinus : Low nutrient levels, especially phosphorus,magnesium,nitrogen and topsoils with low percent organic carbon. Low water-holding soils occur chiefly on the Kaingaroa Plateau on flat to easy rolling topography. At lower elevation they are named Atiamuri soils and in southern Taupo where the flow-tephra is overlain by a thin layer of Ngauruhoe Tephra, they are named Moerangi 28 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureTaupoOruanui SandNZ: Podzolic Orthic Pumice soilUSDA: Andic Haplorthod 0 - 19 cm: Black friable sand with few pumice lapilli. 19 - 27 cm: Dark reddish brown sand with many fine pumice lapilli. 27 - 38 cm: Brown to dark brown sand with many fine pumice lapilli. 38 - 65 cm: Dark yellowish brown sand. 65 - 73 cm: Pale olive coarse sand with abundant pumice lapilli on Pale yellow pumice soil is formed from airfall Taupo Pumice (1850 10 years BP) under podocarp forest under 1400 to 1800 mm annual rainfall on rolling to hilly soil is well drained and suited to be used for beef and/or sheep farming,plantation forestry and pip fruit : Strongly leached with low levels of P,K,N,MgK,Bo. Low bulk densities and high plant available water holding capacity. The soil has no physical root barriers and is resistant to stucture is weakly in northern Taupo. part of a climo sequence of Taupo-Oruanui-Tihoi soils. Similar soils in southern Taupo are Rangipo soils with thin Ngauruhoe Tephra at the surface and weathered andesitic tephra below Taupo SandNZ: Immature Orthic Pumice SoilUSDA: Typic Udivitrand 0 - 9 cm: Very dark brown friable gritty sand. 9 - 24 cm: Yellowish brown and olive yellow gravelly sand, friable with many pumice and rhyolitic lapilli and fragments. 24 - 34 cm: Pale brown gritty sand. 34 - 64 cm: Very dark grey and very pale brown pumice soil is formed from Taupo Pumice (1850 10 years BP) under tussock-shrub vegetation and relatively low annual rainfall (10000 - 1400 mm). This resulted in thin topsoils and B soil is somewhat excessively drained and summer droughts are soil is suited to sheep and beef farming, lucerne cropping, and plantation : Low bulk densities, no physical barriers to root penetration, moderate water-holding capacity, good resistance to compaction despiteweakly developed soil sructure. Low nutrient levels (low P,K,N,Mg, Bo)Generally in low rainfall areas such as Taupo township on easy rolling to hilly topography. Low rainfall member of a climo-sequence of Taupo - Oruanui - Tihoi 29 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureTaupoTaupo TephraNZ: TBAUSDA: TBATaupoTihoi Loamy SandNZ: Humose Orthic PodzolUSDA: Andic Haplorthod 0 - 9 cm: Black to very dark greyish brown loamy sand. 9 -19 cm: Greyish brown fine sand. 19 - 38 cm: Dark reddish brown loamy sand. 38 - 50 cm: Strong brown gritty sand on Yellowish brown pumice gravel with dark grey fragments of soil is formed from Taupo Pumice(1850 10 years BP) under rimu forest and over 1800 mm annual rainfall. It has a bleached (whitish-looking) horizon below the topsoil indicating very strong for sheep and beef farming and plantation : Low levels of nutrients (P,K,Mg,N,Bo). Low bulk density, no root barriers, good water-holding capacity and resistance to compaction depite weakly developed soil northern Taupo at elevations of 1800 to 2000 m on rolling to hilly country. Part of a climosequence of Taupo - Oruanui - Tihoi soils where Taupo Pumice has eroded off and the soil is formed from weathered rhyolitic 30 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureTaupoWaipahihi SandNZ: Immature Orthic Pumice SoilUSDA: Typic Udivitrand 0 - 12 cm: Very dark brown sand with many fine rounded pumice lapilli. 12 - 29 cm: Yellowish brown and dark yellowish brown gravelly sand with many strong brown pumice lapilli. 29 - 100 cm: Light yellowish brown and greyish brown pumiceous sand containing much dark grey soil is formed from water-sorted Taupo Pumice that eroded off adjacent hilly pumice lapilli layers,often cross-beded, occur throughout the profile. Summer droughts occur on this well to somewhat excessively drained : Very low nutrient levels of phosphate,magnesium, potassium and are no root barriers, low bulk densities and medium water-holding capacity. Soil structure is single soil occurs in usually U-shaped valley floors throughout the pumice country. They are named Turangi soils in southern Taupo where the water-sorted pumice is overlain with thin Ngauruhoe TephraWaikatoBruntwood silt loamNZ: Typic Impeded Allophanic SoilUSDA: Aquic Hapludand 0 - 20 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam, fine polyhedra structure. 20 - 60cm: Brownish yellow silt loam, medium polyhedral structure. 60 - 80 cm: Light yellowish brownsilt loam, yellowish brown mottles. 80 - 100+cm: Light grey loose sand or moderately firm silty soil is formed in layers of alluvium. The soil is moderately well drained and has a moderate permeability. Suited to intensive grassland, mixed cropping and horticultural on the edges of the raised flat to gently undulating land of the on flat to undulating land at intermediate levels between higher and lower areas. Associated with Horotiu silt loam (better drained), Bruntwood silt loam imperfectly drained variant (imperfectly drained), and Te Kowhai silt loam (poorly drained).Page 31 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWaikatoBruntwood silt loam pale subsoil variantNZ: Typic Gley Allophanic SoilUSDA: Aquic Hapludand 0 - 20 cm: Dark brown silt loam, fine polyhedral structure. 20 - 50cm: Brownish yellow silt loam, yellowish brown mottles, medium polyhedral structure. 50 - 80 cm: Light grey silt loam, yellowish brown mottles, moderately weak strength. 80 - 100+cm: Moderately weak sand or moderately firm silty clay soil is formed in layers of alluvium. The soil is imperfectly drained and has a moderate permeability. Suited to intensive grassland, mixed cropping and horticultural on the edges of the raised flat to gently undulating land of the a very common soil and rarely occurs in large areas. Often associated with Te Kowhai soils where elevation has increased slightly resulting in improved clay loamNZ: Typic Orthic Granular SoilUSDA: Typic Haplohumult 0 - 18 cm: Very dark greyish brown clay loam, medium polyhedral structure. 18 - 60cm: Dark yellowish brown clay, many mottles, clay coats, polyhedral structure. 60 - 80 cm: Strong brown clay, many mottles, strongly developed polyhedral and block structure, clay coats. 80 - 100+cm: Strong brown clay with light grey mottled layers, coarse polyhedral structure, abundant clay soil is formed in strongly weatherd volcanic ash of the Hamilton Ash Formation. The soil is moderately well drained with moderatly slow permeability. Suited to pastoral farming, cropping and forestry. Root mats can form at the boundary between ash on low rolling hills of the Hamilton and Hauraki on the rolling hills, particularly North of Cambridge and Hamilton City. Kainui silt loam can occur with Hamilton soils but have siltier topsoils and upper subsoils. There are various phases of the Hamilton soil types depending on 32 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWaikatoHorotiu silt loamNZ: Typic Orthic Allophanic SoilUSDA: Typic Udivitrand 0 - 20 cm: Dark brown silt loam, medium polyhedral structure. 20 - 60cm: Yellowish brown silt loam, medium polyhedral structure. 60 - 80 cm: Yellowish brown to brownish yellow sandy loam, very weak strength. 80 - 100+cm: Loose yellowish brown sand or gravelly soil is formed in layers of alluvium. Sand or gravelly sand can occur below 60 cm from the surface. The soil is well drained with moderate permeability. Suited to pastoral farming, horticulture, cropping and on the raised flat to gently undulating land of the on the higher undulations of the flat land and can form either narrow or broad areas of uniform soil. On the edges of the raised land are Bruntwood soils, and the surrounding lower areas are Te Kowhai soils (see adjacent figure). There are two other Horotiu soil types; Horotiu shallow silt loam (sand a gravels less than 60 cm from the surface), and Horotiu mottled silt silt loamNZ: Typic Sandy Gley SoilUSDA: Aquantic Humaquept 0 - 25 cm: Black to very dark greyish brown silt loam, often humic. 25 - 40cm: Light greyish brown to dark greyish brown loamy silt to loamy sand. 40 - 60 cm: Very pale brown to yellowish brown fine to coarse loamy sand, reddish yellow to strong brown 60 - 100+cm: Light grey to light yellowish brown fine to coarse loamy sand, reddish yellow to strong brown soil is formed in layers of alluvium. Both humic and peaty topsoils are present, as the soil has formed adjacent to peat swamps. This soil appears to have has poor drainage, but it is not yet known whether this is still the case today. Occurs in the flat to gently undulating land, forming in mounds and hollows of alluvial with the Te Kowhai silt loam, other soils that have formed on alluvial material in lower lying areas ( Ngaroto soils), and the Te Rapa soils that have similar humic and peaty 33 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWaikatoMotumaoho Silty PeatNZ: Acid Humic Organic SoilUSDA: Terric Medisaprist 0 - 25 cm: Black completely decomposed peat, fine polyhedral structure. 25 - 65 cm: Dark brown moderately decomposed peat. 65 - 80 cm: Yellowish brown silty clay. 80 - 100+cm: Light yellowish brown silty soil is formed in layers of completely to moderately decomposed peat with minor additions of silty volcanic ash, on clayey alluvium. The soil is poorly drained but artificial drainage means that many are now moderately well drained. Maintenance of the drainage system is important to prevent flooding. Suited to pastoral farming, but not suitable for horticultural crops susceptible low pH (acid) or wet soil on flat to gently undulating land on the margins of large peat distributed throughout the Waikato lowland on the perimeter of large peat swamps or in old stream channels. Associated with Te Kowhai peaty loams and Te Rapa soils which have a shallower thickness of peat (less than 40 cm thick). Soils formed in deeper peat (Kaipaki and Rukuhia soils) can occur peatNZ: Acid Fibric Organic SoilUSDA: Hemic Medifibrist 0 - 15 cm: Reddish black very weakly decomposed peat. 15 - 50 cm: Reddish black weakly decomposed peat. 50 - 100+ cm: Very dusky red weakly decomposed peat wth soil is formed in layers of peat over 100 cm thick with minor additions of silty volcanic ash and can have buried wood. The soil is very poorly drained. Maintenance of the drainage system is important to prevent flooding. The soil also has low bearing strength and care must be taken not to overdrain the soil so as to preserve the peat resource. Suited to pastoral farming, but not suitable for horticultural crops susceptible to low pH (acid) or wet soil on flat to gently undulating land of large peat swamps. The land surface of the swamp is usually domed and there can be peat shrinkage on the edges of deep distributed throughout the Waikato lowland on the large peat swamps. Associated with Kaipaki soils on the swamp 34 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWaikatoSilverdale silt loam and clay loamNZ: Mottled Orthic Brown SoilUSDA: Oxyaquic Kanhapludalf 0 - 20 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam (or clay loam), fine polyhedral structure. 20 - 60cm: Yellowish brown clay loam, few fine mottles, medium polyhedral structure. 60 - 100+ cm: Loose yellowish brown gravelly soil is formed in clayey alluvium, with sands or gravel occurring below 60 cm from the surface. The soil is moderately well drained with moderately slow permeability. Can be confused with Horotiu soils but are more clayey and sticky, and have lower P-retention. Suited to pastoral farming, cropping and on the raised flat to gently undulating land of the plain. Often in the same landscape position as the Horotiu on the higher undulations of the flat land and can form either narrow or broad areas of uniform soil. In the surrounding lower areas are Te Kowhai soils. Associated with Horotiu soils. There are two Silverdale variants, one with a pale subsoil, and another which is imperfectly silt loamNZ: Artifact Fill Anthropic SoilUSDA: Typic Udivitrand 0 - 18 cm: Black, slightly gravelly coarse loamy sand. 18 - 33 cm: Dark brown, slightly gravelly coarse sand. 33 - 46 cm: Yellowish brown, silt loam. 46 - 49 cm: Dark reddish brown, silt loam with charcoal fragments. 49 - 95 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam. 95 - 100+ cm: Light brownish grey, slightly gravelly coarse soil is formed in layers of gravelly sand dug up from below the soil and spread by the early Maori over the surface of what was originally a Horotiu soil. The soils are well drained and often have layers of charcoal and buried topsoil. Suited to pastoral farming, horticulture and on well drained flat to gently undulating land. Remnants of the gravel borrow pits are often nearby and these now resemble smooth-sided craters I 0 to 20 metres diameter and 2 to 4 metres mainly along main rivers and streams occurring on river terraces and slightly higher land of the Plain. Associated with Horotiu 35 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWaikatoTe Kowhai silt loamNZ: Typic Orthic GleyUSDA: Typic Ochraqualf 0 - 20 cm: Dark greyish brown silt loam, fine polyhedral structure. 20 - 50 cm: Light grey silt loam, many yellowish brown mottles, medium prismatic structure. 50 - 80 cm: Light grey silt loam, firm, coarse polyhedral structure. 80 - 100+ cm: Light grey medium soil is formed in layers of alluvium. The soil is poorly drained resulting from compact subsoil layers with slow permeability. Suited to pastoral farming, but not suitable for horticultural crops susceptible to wet soil in the lower areas of flat to gently undulating distributed throughout the Waikato lowland. Associated with other Te Kowhai soils ( Peaty loams, brown subsoils variants), also associated with Bruntwood and Horotiu soils (see figure with Horotiu soil), and Te Rapa Kowhai, brown subsoil variantNZ: Typic Orthic GleyUSDA: Typic Ochraqualf 0 - 20 cm: Dark greyish brown silt loam, fine polyhedral structure. 20 - 50 cm: Light grey silt loam, many yellowish brown mottles, medium prismatic structure. 50 - 80 cm: Light grey silt loam, firm, coarse polyhedral structure. 80 - 100+ cm: Light grey medium soil is formed in layers of alluvium. The soil is poorly drained resulting from compact subsoil layers with slow permeability. Suited to pastoral farming, but not suitable for horticultural crops susceptible to wet soil in the lower areas of flat to gently undulating distributed throughout the Waikato lowland. Associated with other Te Kowhai soils ( Peaty loams, brown subsoils variants), also associated with Bruntwood and Horotiu soils (see figure with Horotiu soil), and Te Rapa 36 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWaikatoTe Rapa peaty or humic silt loam brown subsoil variantNZ: Humose Orthic PodzolUSDA: Humic Haplorthod 0 - 20 cm: Black peaty or humic silt loam, medium granular or polyhedral structure. 20 - 40cm: Brown to dark brown silt loam, moderately weak soil strength. 40 - 80 cm: Dark yellowish brown silt loam, moderately weak soil strength. 80 - 100+ cm: Yellowish brown sand or gravelly soil is formed in layers of alluvium. The soil is well drained with a moderate permeability. Suited to pastoral farming, forestry, horticulture and on low ridges or flat areas slightly higher than the surrounding land, commonly adjacent to peat Rapa peaty and humic silt loams occur adjacent to the Te Rapa brown subsoil variant. The Te Rapa shallow brown subsoil variant is similar to the Te Rapa brown subsoil variant. The Te Rapa shallow brown subsoil variant has sand and gravels present less than 60 cm from the surface, which makes it a more excessively drained Rapa peaty or humic silt loamNZ: Humose Groundwater - gley PodzolUSDA: Humic Aquic Haplorthod 0 - 20 cm: Black to very dark greyish brown peaty or humic silt loam, medium polyhedral. 20 - 35 cm: Dark brown to dark reddish brown silt loam, moderately weak soil strength. 35 - 70 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam, medium polyhedral structure. 70 - 100+ cm: Light grey sand to sandy soil is formed in layers of alluvium, and has a characteristic topsoil of completely decomposed black peaty or humic silt loam. The soil is moderately well drained with moderate permeability. Suited to intensive grassland, mixed cropping and horticultural on low ridges or broad flat areas, commonly adjacent to peat Te Rapa brown subsoil variant occurs next to the Te Rapa silt loams, on slightly higher ground. The Te Rapa pale subsoil variant occurs adjacent to the Te Rapa silt loams, on lower 37 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWellington/WairarapaKourarau Hill SoilsNZ: Typic Rendzic Melanic SoilUSDA: Lithic Rendoll 0 - 20 cm: Very dark brown clay, strongly pedal, fine polyhedral macrofabric. 20 - 50+ cm: white shelly soil is formed by weathering of the underlying limestone. There is a sharp boundary between the topsoil and the on moderately steep hillsides, where limestone rock has not been covered by in hills to the east of the Wairarapa Valley, near Gladstone. Associated soils are Taihape hill soils formed in siltstone, and Rangitumau steepland soils on steeper adjoining Steepland Soils - ErodedNZ: Mottled Immature Pallic SoilUSDA: Aeric Epiaquept 0 - 4 cm: Brown silt loam. 4 - 23 cm: Yellowish brown clay loam with profuse light olive grey mottles, moderately pedal, coarse blocky macrofabric. 23 - 43 cm: Light yellowish brown weathered siltstone, with many light olive grey clay loam veins, weakly pedal, very coarse inclined lentiform macrofabric. 43 - 73 cm: Light yellowish brown weathered siltstone with common light olive grey clay loam shallow soil is formed by soil slip erosion of the originally deep soil on compact weathered siltstone rock. The thin topsoil is developed immediately on the exposed lower subsoil of the former uneroded Soil water still perches on the slowly permeable siltstone layer, giving rise to grey colours and surface wetness. The soil is classed as imperfectly drained because of this, yet it also dries out completely for weeks during summer and on moderately steep and steep extensively throughout eastern Wairarapa hill country. Closely associated with deeper uneroded 38 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWellington/WairarapaTaihape Steepland Soils UnerodedNZ: Mottled Argillic Pallic SoilUSDA: Aquic Haplustalf 0 - 17 cm: Very dark grey silt loam, moderately pedal, medium polyhedral macrofabric. 17 - 30 cm: Light yellowish brown silt loam, weakly - 38 cm: Light brownish grey silt loam with yellowish brown mottles, moderately pedal. 38 - 75 cm: Yellowish brown clay loam with strong brown and light brownish grey mottles, strongly pedal.(out of picture see eroded variant):The deep, uneroded soil is formed on compact weathered siltstone rock. The pale layer below the topsoil shows the results of worm activity. Soil water perches on the slowly permeable siltstone layer, giving rise to grey colours which extend through the clayey layer into the mottled silt loam. The soil is classed as imperfectly drained because of this, yet it dries out completely for weeks during summer and on moderately steep and steep extensively throughout eastern Wairarapa hill country. Closely associated with shallower eroded Shallow Silt LoamNZ: Typic Orthic Brown SoilUSDA: Dystric Ustochrept 0 - 18 cm: Very dark greyish brown silt loam. 18 - 34 cm: Gravelly yellowish brown silt loam with some allophanic soil material. 34 - 80+cm: Yellowish brown sandy in ancient alluvial silt and gravel, and quite strongly weathered. Moderately permeable soil material over very permeable gravels. A somewhat excessively drained and droughty soil very suited to on alluvial plains and elevated river on the Wairarapa Plains and around Martinborough. Associated with deeper,and well drained Tauherenikau silt loam, and imperfectly drained deep silty Martinborough 39 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWellington/WairarapaWharekaka Silt LoamNZ: Mottled Fragic Pallic SoilUSDA: Aeric Fragiaquept 0 - 20 cm: Dark greyish brown silt loam. 20 - 64 cm: Yellowish brown silt loam with profuse light brownish grey and strong brown mottles, coarse blocky macrofabric. 64 - 110+cm: Yellowish brown silt loam with common light brownish grey veins, extremely coarse columnar macrofabric, hard soil is formed in post-glacial loess (wind deposited silt) and is old enough to have formed a compact layer (fragipan) in the lower subsoil. It is imperfectly drained, because the fragipan is slowly permeable, and water perches on it, causing the upper subsoil to become very wet and show grey and orange on rolling loess-covered along the eastern side of the Wairarapa Plains, chiefly between Martinborough and Gladstone. Poorly drained version occurs in lower landscape positions. Wharekaka hill soils extend onto moderately steep slopes and are moderately well AlpsAhaura Stony Silt LoamNZ: Acidic Mafic Brown SoilUSDA: Typic Haplorthod0 - 16 cm: Dark greyish brown slightly gravelly silt - 30 cm: Yellowish brown moderately gravelly silt - 46 cm: Yellowish brown very gravelly silt - 94 cm: Dark yellowish brown extremely gravelly loamy soil is well drained and composed of abundant gravels, many of which are very coarse in size. The soil is formed from alluvial gravel and sand. Often used for sheep and cattle terraces formed from alluvial glacial in the Grey 40 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWestcoast/Southern AlpsHochstetter Fine Sandy LoamNZ: Acidic-mafic Allophanic Brown SoilUSDA: Typic Dystrochrept0 - 15 cm: Dark red brown slightly gravelly fine sandy loam, fine polyhedral - 23 cm: Yellowish brown very slightly gravelly fine sandy loam, few humus - 45 cm: Yellowish brown very slightly gravelly fine sandy - 75 cm: Pale yellow slightly gravelly fine sandy - 100+ cm: Very gravelly coarse on glacial moraine and so contains gravel of various sizes. The soil has high P retention which is a feature also found in Allophanic soils. The soil is mainly under native forest. The soil is in the foothills of the Southern along the length of the Southern Alps, particularly on the western AlpsKini PeatNZ: Acid Humic Organic SoilUSDA: Typic Medisaprist 0 - 55 cm: Very fluid highly decomposed brownish black forest peat with abundant tree roots. 55 - 90 cm: Very fluid to moderately fluid dark brown silty peat with abundant tree roots. 90 - 190 cm: Dark greyish yellow moderately firm silt loam, - 200 cm+: Compact iron and organic-coated outwash soil is formed in forest peat over loess. The soil is extremely poorly drained, being saturated to the soil surface throughout the year. Naturally, the soil supports very dense stands of small rimu and silver pine forest but once cleared supports only swamp vegetation (sphagnum moss, rushes, ferns) and gorse. Areas of these soils have been utilised for commercial sphagnum moss production. The soil is so wet that the soil fauna include free swimming of outwash terraces and in intermoraine hollows, but more common on older loess-mantled soil is found across Last-Glaciation-age landforms wherever drainage is impeded. Small pockets of these soils occur in moraine country at the wettest end of drainage sequences from moraine crests through to toeslopes or intermoraine hollows. They are associated with Kumara soils in these landscape positions. Larger areas of are found on outwash terraces. The soil is usually associated with Kumara soils on late Last Glaciation terraces and Okarito soils on older 41 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWestcoast/Southern AlpsKumara SoilsNZ: Silt-mantled Perch-gley PodzolUSDA: Typic Alaquod 0 - 10 cm: Reddish black greasy peat derived from forest litter. 10 - 34 cm: Brownish grey silt loam, weak polyhedral structure. 34 - 49 cm: Bluish grey silt loam, massive. 49 - 90 cm+: Brownish black humic gravelly sandy loam, soil is formed in glacial outwash gravels. It is very poorly drained and of very low natural fertility. Under natural conditions it supports dense stands of rimu forest with a sparse hardwood subcanopy; many of these stands have been logged throughout Westland. When developed it is very difficult to maintain in pasture because of the poor drainage and low fertility. Land with these soils is often recontoured into a hump and hollow form to alleviate drainage Last Glaciation outwash soils are found on low terraces above present river floodplains. They are associated with extremely poorly drained Kini peats in swales and former channels on the terraces. On higher terraces occur soils with a similar appearance (Okarito soils) but they are formed in loess and the grey silty subsoil is much AlpsMoana SoilsNZ: Typic Perch-gley PodzolUSDA: Typic Epiaquod 0 - 20 cm: Very dark reddish brown forest litter. 20 - 25 cm: Greyish brown silt loam, fine polyhedral structure. 25 - 32 cm: Greenish grey silt loam, coarse polyhedral structure to massive. 32 - 51 cm: Yellowish brown gravelly silt loam, fine and medium polyhedral structure. 51 - 52 cm: Reddish brown weakly cemented iron pan with dark greyish brown organic stained silt loam soil is formed in glacial till. The soil is relatively well drained because of its landscape position although its permeability is moderate to low in the subsoil. Fertility is extremely low and it is difficult to maintain in a healthy pasture. Under natural conditions this soil supports mixed stands of large rimu and or shoulders of moraine ridges or soil found on late Last Glaciation moraines which are not mantled by loess. It is associated with a number of other soils along drainage sequences from moraine crests to toeslopes or intermoraine hollows. These include well drained Hochstetter soils on steep sideslopes, Flagstaff soils on footslopes and gentle sideslopes, and Kini peats or Kumara soils in intermoraine hollows and toeslopes or 42 of 43RegionName/Soil TypeClassification (NZ and USDA)Soil DescriptionFeaturesLandscapePositionDist ribution and Associated SoilsSoil PictureWestcoast/Southern AlpsOkarito Silt LoamNZ: Silt-mantled Perch-gley PodzolUSDA: Placic Haplaquod0 - 21 cm: Brown humic silt - 54 cm: Light grey silt loam, firm, massive, many thin humus and clay - 138 cm: Light olive grey silt loam, firm, massive, many yellowish brown mottles, humus and clay coats on + cm: Olive brown very gravelly coarse sand, poorly drained low fertility acid soil with a dense slowly permeable subsoil. Formed from loess over gravel. A very difficult soil to manage and on terraces of glacial alluvium. Often with a rimu or swamp on the West Coast, often in association with those with peaty of humic topsoils. Kumara Soils are similar but have formed from alluvium and have a thinner silty AlpsWaita Loamy SandNZ: Typic Orthic Podzol SoilUSDA: Typic Haplorthod0 - 10 cm: Dark grey loamy - 25 cm: Light grey - 60 cm: Light yellowish brown sand, + cm: Very pale brown sand, soil is formed on coastal sand dunes at Haast, is well drained and has very low natural fertility. Currently under native forest. There is a distinct E on the crest of coastal on the West Coast near 43 of 43

Related search queries