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PTFE Handbook - rjchase.com

3 Teflon® PTFE resins are fabricated to form parts by a number of techniques, including ram extrusion, screw extrusion, compression molding, and paste extrusion

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Properties Handbookffluoropolymer resinTeflon PTFE iTable of ContentsIntroduction ........................................ ........................................ ..................................... 1Typical Properties ........................................ ........................................ .......................1Patents ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ..1Effects of Processing ........................................ ........................................ ...................... 1Dielectric Strength ........................................ ........................................ ...................... 3Tensile Strength and Ultimate Elongation ........................................ ....................... 3Specific Gravity ........................................ ........................................ ...........................4Macroscopic Flaws ........................................ ........................................ ...................... 4Microscopic Voids ........................................ ........................................ .......................5Visual Inspection ........................................ ........................................ .....................5Dye Penetrants ........................................ ........................................ ........................ 5Specific Gravity Comparisons ........................................ ........................................ ....5Crystallinity and Molecular Weight ........................................ ................................... 5Practical Crystallinity Limits ........................................ ........................................ ....... 5How to Specify Typical Fabricated Parts ........................................ .......................... 6Suggested Test Methods for Various Shapes ........................................ .................. 6Strength and Stiffness ........................................ ........................................ ...................8General Characteristics ........................................ ........................................ ............... 8Design Considerations ........................................ ........................................ ................ 8Strength and Stiffness ........................................ ........................................ ................ 8Tensile Stress ........................................ ........................................ ..............................9Compressi ve Stress ........................................ ........................................ .................... 9Shear Stress ........................................ ........................................ .................................9Poisso n s Ratio ........................................ ........................................ ............................9Modulus of Elasticity ........................................ ........................................ .................. 9Creep and Cold Flow ........................................ ........................................ .................... 16Apparent Modulus of Elasticity ........................................ ........................................ 16Stress Relaxation ........................................ ........................................ ...................... 16Compressive Recovery ........................................ ........................................ ............. 16Recommendation for Gasket Design ........................................ ............................... 17Effect of Temperature, Fatigue, and Impact ........................................ ...................... 23Thermal Expansion ........................................ ........................................ ...................23Low Temperature Properties ........................................ ........................................ ... 23Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat ........................................ .........................23Heat Distortion ........................................ ........................................ ...........................23Elastic Memory ........................................ ........................................ ..........................23Decompositio n at Elevated Temperatures ........................................ ..................... 25Impact ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ .25iiTable of Contents (continued)Hardness and Friction ........................................ ........................................ ...................25Hardness ........................................ ........................................ ....................................25Fr iction ........................................ ........................................ .......................................2 6Abrasion and Wear ........................................ ........................................ .......................26Electrical Properties ........................................ ........................................ ...................... 28Dielectric Constant ........................................ ........................................ ....................28Dissipation Factor ........................................ ........................................ .....................28Dielectric Strength ........................................ ........................................ ....................28Surface Arc-Resistance ........................................ ........................................ ............. 29Volume and Surface Resistivity ........................................ ....................................... 29Other Properties ........................................ ........................................ ............................29Weathering ........................................ ........................................ ...............................29Miscell aneous ........................................ ........................................ ...........................29Chemical Properties ........................................ ........................................ ...................... 29Resistance to Chemical Attack ........................................ ........................................ 29Permeability ........................................ ........................................ ..............................29Forming and Fabrication ........................................ ........................................ .............. 30Choose Correct Working Speeds ........................................ ....................................30Pr operly Shape and Use Tools ........................................ ....................................... 30Rules for Dimensioning and Finishing ........................................ ........................... 31Closer Tolerances ........................................ ........................................ .................31Measuring Tolerances ........................................ ........................................ .........31Surface Finishes ........................................ ........................................ ...................31Safe Handling ........................................ ........................................ ................................31Typica l Applications ........................................ ........................................ .....................32References ........................................ ........................................ .....................................341 IntroductionTeflon is a registered trademark of the DuPont Companyfor its fluoropolymer resins. Teflon PTFE fluoropolymerresins are part of the DuPont family of fluorine-basedproducts that also includes Teflon FEP and Teflon PFA fluoropolymer resins and Tefzel materials can be used to make a variety of articleshaving a combination of mechanical, electrical, chemical,temperature, and friction-resisting properties unmatchedby articles made of any other material. Commercial useof these and other valuable properties combined in onematerial has established Teflon resins as outstandingengineering materials for use in many industrial andmilitary applications. Teflon resins may also be com-pounded with fillers or reinforcing agents to modify theirperformance in design and engineering data presented in thishandbook are intended to assist the design engineer indetermining where and how Teflon resins may best beused. It is recommended that the design engineer workclosely with an experienced fabricator because the methodof fabrication may markedly affect not only productioncosts, but also the properties of the finished PropertiesTable 1 lists physical property data relating to theTeflon PTFE resins. All properties presented in thishandbook should be considered as typical values and arenot to be used for specification purposes. The age of thisdata varies greatly, ranging in origin from the 1950s tothe large number of existing patents relate to various Teflon resins, but no attempt has been made in this publication torefer to any of these patents by number, title, or descriptions of a process, an apparatus, a composition,or any article may fall within a claim of an existing patent,but we do not intend that such a description should induceanyone to infringe any existing patent. It is the responsi-bility of the prospective user of fluoropolymer resins todetermine whether his/her use constitutes infringement ornoninfringement of any and Tefzel are registered trademarks of of ProcessingTeflon PTFE fluoropolymer resins are tetrafluoro-ethylene polymers, usually fabricated into parts by cold-forming and sintering techniques. Teflon PTFE resinshave a continuous service temperature of 260 C (500 F).Much higher temperatures can be satisfactorily sustainedfor shorter physical properties can be obtained withTeflon PTFE resins by varying the processing tech-nique. Teflon PTFE resins are versatile and can, withinlimits, be tailored to provide fabricated parts withparticular physical can have more impact on the performance ofparts made from Teflon PTFE than for those made fromother types of polymers. For example, preforming pressure,sintering time, cooling rate, void content, and crystallinitylevel can have a significant effect on certain end-use physicalproperties, such as tensile properties, permeability, anddielectric strength. Table 2 lists features of Teflon resinsthat are relatively independent of fabrication 2Properties Relatively Independent of Fabrication ConditionsChemical PropertiesChemical resistance to corrosive reagentsNonsolubilityLong-term weatherabilityNonadhesivenessNonflammabi lityElectrical PropertiesLow dielectric constantLow dissipation factorHigh arc-resistanceHigh surface resistivityHigh volume resistivityMechanical PropertiesFlexibility at low temperaturesLow coefficient of frictionStability at high temperatures2Table 1Typical Properties of Teflon PTFE Fluoropolymer ResinsASTMTeflon PTFEPropertyMethodUnitGranular ResinFine PowderTensile Strength, 23 C (73 F)D4894/4895MPa (psi) (4,500) min. (3,000 min.)Elongation, 23 C (73 F)D4894/4895%400200 Flex, 2 kg load, 10 milD2176Did not break at 106 cyclesFlex Modulus, 23 C (73 F)D790MPa (psi)345 620275 620(50,000 90,000)(40,000 90,000)Stretching Void IndexD4895 15 200+Impact Strength, IzodD256J/m (ft lb/in) 40 C ( 40 F)80 ( )133 267 ( 5)21 C (70 F)106 (2) 24 C (75 F)160 (3) 77 C (170 F)>320 (>6) 204 C (400 F)No breakNo breakHardness, DurometerD2240Shore D5550 65Coefficient of Linear Thermal ExpansionE228mm/mm C10 x 10 5per C ( F), 23 60 C (73 140 F)(in/in F)(7 x 10 5) Thermal Conductivity, mm ( in)D435aW/m (Btu in/h ft2 F)( ) Specific HeatD4591kJ/kg K (Btu/lb F)20 C (68 F) ( ) ( )40 C (104 F) ( ) ( )150 C (302 F) ( ) ( )260 C (500 F) ( ) ( )Thermal Instability IndexD4894/489550 Under Load, 23 C (73 F)D621% MPa (500 psi)< < MPa (1000 psi)2214 MPa (2000 psi)105Heat Deflection TemperatureD648 C ( F)450 kPa (66 psi)73 (160)140 (280)1800 kPa (264 psi)45 (115)55 (130)Dielectric Strength, Short Time, mm ( in)D149kV/mm (V/mil)24 (600)24 (600)Surface Arc-ResistancebD495sec>300>300Volume ResistivityD257ohm cm>1018>1018Surface ResistivityD257ohm sq>1018 Dielectric Constant, 60 to 2 x 109 Factor, 60 to 2 x 109 HzD150< Water Absorption, 24 hrD570%< < 94 Flame Ratingc94 V-094 V-0Resistance to WeatheringExcellentExcellentStatic Coefficient of FrictionAgainst Polished Specific GravityD4894 standard is no longer in not trackcThese numerical flame spread ratings are not intended to reflect hazards presented by this or any other material under actual methods used3Teflon PTFE resins are fabricated to form parts by anumber of techniques, including ram extrusion, screwextrusion, compression molding, and paste extrusionwith an extrusion aid. Although different, these tech-niques have three basic steps in common: cold forming,sintering, and cooling. These fabricating steps refer tooperations that involve, respectively: compactingmolding powder to shape by pressing, bonding adjacentsurfaces of particles by heating, and controlling crystal-linity content of the article by work has pointed out that about 15 mechanicalproperties plus several electrical and chemical propertiesof Teflon PTFE resins are influenced by molding andsintering conditions. Most notably affected are flex life,permeability, stiffness, resiliency, and impact five basic factors that influence these end-productproperties are: Presence of Macroscopic Flaws Internal bubbles,tears, foreign impurities, shear planes, or poor charge-to-charge bonds. Extent of Microporosity Number and size ofmicroscopically visible voids created by imperfectparticle fusion. Percent Crystallinity A percentage based on theweight fraction of a sample consisting of polymerchains fitted in a close-packed, ordered arrangement. Molecular Weight A measure of the average lengthof polymer chains. Degree of Orientation A measure of the extent ofalignment of polymer chains in a given , ideally, a quality control system should be basedon direct measurements of these basic factors, simpleand direct measuring methods suitable for routine useare not usually available. Instead, a number of highlysensitive, indirect tests have been devised. They arebased on measurement of dielectric strength, tensilestrength, ultimate elongation, specific gravity, and heatof fusion. Simple, applicable to a variety of shapes,reproducible, and sensitive, the tests and their relationto the five basic quality factors are explained in thefollowing StrengthDielectric strength is a function of the degree ofmicroporosity. Table 3 shows that it correlates wellwith size and number of microvoids visible with amicroscope. On the other hand, dielectric strength isindependent of molecular weight and 3Teflon PTFE Granular Resin: Relation ofDielectric Strength to Degree of MicroporosityAppearance ofDielectricCross SectionStrength,Samplein MicroscopeV/mil*ANo visible voids at100x magnification760BScattered voidsbetween particles575CScattered voids445DNumerous voids250*1/16-in sheets immersed in A-80 transformer oil perASTM D149Tensile Strength andUltimate ElongationTensile strength and ultimate elongation depend to somedegree on all five quality factors. Table 4, for example,points out the effect of microvoids on the samplesdescribed in Table 3. Limited data indicate that thisreduction of tensile properties by microvoids is influencedto some extent by crystallinity. While definite evidenceindicates that tensile strength falls with rise of percentcrystallinity, ultimate elongation increases at first, andthen drops. Microvoids have their greatest effect in low-crystallinity 4Teflon PTFE Granular Resin:Effect of Microporosity on Tensile Strength and ElongationTensileExtent ofStrength,UltimateSample*MicroporosityMPa (psi)Elongation, % (3,600) (2,520) (2,020) (1,800)170*Free-cooled 1/16-in specimens with relative crystallinity of65 68% tested by ASTM D4894/4895Degree of orientation also affects tensile properties. Ingeneral, tensile strength is greater in the direction oforientation, but ultimate elongation is all flaws can reduce tensile strength to somedegree, imperfect fusion between successive chargesduring extrusion of rod and heavy-wall tubing areprobably the defects of most common GravitySpecific gravity can be readily measured by water-displacement and gradient-tube techniques, such asthose described in ASTM D792 or D1505. These tests donot necessarily give the inherent or precise specific gravity,however, because microvoids introduce a disparity betweenthe measured and the inherent specific gravity. In effect,the displaced water, from which the measured value isderived, accounts for both the resin sample and itscontained voids. The void content, as described later on,although not easy to determine, should be known oraccounted for in the following manner:Measured =Inherent (Inherent [% Void Content])Without this correction, such as shown in the lowerportion of the equation, the precise conversion of theinherent specific gravity to percent crystallinity asshown in Figure 1 will be in error by the amount shownin the two lines representing, by way of example, twoarbitrarily chosen void levels, namely and 1%.Table 5 indicates the relative effect of three of the basicfactors on a number of properties, many of whichdepend upon the level of crystallinity. Relatively fewproperties depend directly upon molecular , crystallization rates, and therefore final levelsof crystallinity, do depend upon molecular weight thus exerts its greatest influence onproperties through supplement standard quality control methods, anumber of laboratory techniques have been developed tocheck directly the presence of macroflaws, extent ofmicroporosity, percent crystallinity, and molecularweight. Because of their complexity, these methods arenot ordinarily suited to routine product testing. Asresearch tools, however, they do aid interpretation ofreasons for quality FlawsFor detection of macroscopic flaws, X-ray radiographicexaminations may be employed. Sufficient views aretaken to give complete coverage of the piece. In partsmore than 2 in thick, at least two views, 90 apart, arerequired. ASTM method E94 is a useful guide inestablishing testing 5Effect on Teflon PTFE Resin Properties Caused by Change in Basic FactorIncreasingIncreasingIncreasingPhysical PropertyMolecular WeightCrystallinityVoid ContentFlex Fatigue Life+100 fold 100 fold 1,000 foldCompressive Stress at 1% Deformation0+50%0Compressibility0 50% Recovery0 70% Permeability to Carbon Dioxide0 30%+1,000 foldFlexural Modulus0+5 fold 30%Hardness: Durometer0+20% Rockwell0 20% 30%Scleroscope0 70% 10%Tensile Impact Strength0 15 fold 80%Dielectric Strength00 70%Proportional Limit0+80% 20%Yield Stress0+15% 20%Yield Strain0 15 fold0Tensile Strength+25% 50% 50%Ultimate Strength+50% 70% 50%Ultimate Elongation 20%+100%* 30%*Reaches a maximum at 85% crystallinity5Microscopic VoidsWhile X-ray radiographic methods are satisfactory fordetecting macroscopic flaws, they are not sensitiveenough for detection of microscopic voids. There are,however, a number of methods developed specificallyfor this purpose, as discussed InspectionVisual inspection by a trained observer without amicroscope can be of real value in detecting excessivemicroporosity and other gross quality defects. While itis difficult to convey in words the experience thatenables one to judge varying degrees of microporosity,some worthwhile hints are: Prepare a comparison series of samples having varyingdegrees of microporosity. It is best to collect samplesthat have been processed by the same sintering andcooling conditions. These will have the same inherentspecific gravity. It is easier to inspect for porosity by transmitted,rather than reflected, light. Use a powerful light source directly behind thesample. A large illuminated panel with a ground-glasssurface is best for inspecting sheet stock. Small cracks are often more readily seen by viewingat an angle of 45 . If permissible, cut off a thin section with a sharp knifeand inspect PenetrantsVividly colored penetrants are valuable as an aid indetecting microporosity or gross defects when: The part to be tested is less than 1/2-in thick. Comparison standards of both acceptable andnonacceptable quality are end user and fabricator should agree on the signifi-cance of occasional structural flaws, such as edge cracksand adhered flakes of resin, or saw Gravity ComparisonsAs has been previously discussed, void content providesa measure of degree of microporosity. It follows, then,that void content* can be defined by rearrangement ofthe specific gravity equation, as follows: (Inherent Measured )% Void Content = 100 Inherent number of techniques have been investigated fordetermining data for this equation. These methods include:torsional damping3 (torsion pendulum), infrared spectros-copy,4 ultrasonics,7 rebound resiliency,7 and Infrared and torsional damping techniquesappear to be the most sensitive it is beyond the scope of this article to cover thedetails and theory behind these two methods, theircomparative precision and limitations can be pointedout. Inherent specific gravity based on an average of twoinfrared determinations is usually precise within gravity units (95% confidence limits). Inherentspecific gravity for an average of two torsion pendulumdeterminations is usually precise to within gravity the torsion pendulum gives slightly better repro-ducibility than the infrared method, it is considerablyless versatile, because it requires a fixed-size , its cost is considerably less than that of asuitable both methods, degree of orientation introduceserrors. Because means of correcting these errors arecurrently unknown, inherent specific gravity ofpaste-extruded wire coatings, tubing, film, and coinedsheeting cannot yet be accurately measured. Withpaste-extruded products, however, apparent specificgravity measurements may be used to estimate degree ofcrystallinity, because void contents are normally and Molecular WeightDegree of crystallinity is controlled by molecular weightand by the length of time during fabrication that a part ismaintained within the temperature range for rapidcrystallization (307 327 C [585 620 F]). By reheatingfabricated parts according to a standard thermal cycle(ASTM D4894/4895), relative molecular weights maybe estimated through crystallinity or inherent specificgravity measurements. In parts with low void contents,relative molecular weights may be approximated fromapparent specific gravity Crystallinity LimitsTechnical papers8, 10 have discussed at length the influenceof degree of crystallinity and voids on properties of partsfabricated from Teflon PTFE fluoropolymer resins. Anumber of questions have arisen, however, pointing tothe need for further clarification of normal limits for thesebasic variables. While, theoretically, fabricators can controlpercent crystallinity or inherent specific gravity over wideranges, there are certain practical limits.* Because of combined errors in inherent and measured specific gravitydeterminations, it is difficult to distinguish between samples having less voids. Precision of measurement is as good as in homogeneoussamples, but may be no better than in nonuniform instance, in parts thicker than 1/4 in, it is not practi-cal for fabricators to cool the interior fast enough toreduce crystallinity below about 55%. Even in thin filmsrapidly cooled in water, it is difficult to reduce crystal-linity below about 46% (inherent specific gravity ).An important point to keep in mind, then, is that mea-sured specific gravities below generally reflectsome voids in any , it is also impractical for fabricators to obtain highcrystallinity levels, because certain parts must be cooledagainst cold metal surfaces to obtain close to Specify Typical Fabricated PartsWhen setting property and tolerance specifications, theneeds of the application must be balanced against thecapabilities of both resin and method of fabrication. Ifneeds are considered and designs frozen before anysuppliers of fabricated parts are consulted, confusion,inefficiency, and often unnecessary costs may an aid in tailoring specifications to wed design needswith capabilities of fabricated parts of Teflon resins,the following suggestions are offered: At the inception of a design program, engineersshould acquaint themselves with the properties ofTeflon resins as given in texts such as the ModernPlastics Encyclopedia. As soon as the preliminary design is on paper, mechani-cal properties and dimensions for the application shouldbe reviewed. A number of articles on designing haveappeared in the literature and may be at this point, competent suppliers of fabricatedparts should be consulted. Usually, there are severalquality grades of a given fabricated form. By having asupplier point out what is available at an early stage, it isoften possible to adjust design to accommodate mosteconomic usage of design is frozen, there are several routes towardsetting specifications. In many cases, suitable specifica-tions are already available from such sources as ASTM,SAE, SPI, NIST, and MIL special situations, the previously cited specificationsources may not be satisfactory. In such instances, thefollowing guides on test methods may be Test Methods forVarious ShapesTable 6 summarizes specific tests for quality checks onextruded rod, molded sheet, molded parts, and tapes orfilms made from Teflon PTFE resins. The significanceof most of these tests has already been the case of extruded rod, tensile strength and ultimateelongation are standard methods for quantitativelydetermining the strength of charge-to-charge are also three qualitative methods sometimes usedfor the purpose: X-ray radiographic inspection (previouslydiscussed), mandrel bend tests for rods smaller than 1 in,and the latter, an unconfined section of rod is resintered at371 382 C (700 720 F) for a period of 1 to 4 hr,depending on rod diameter. Extruded rods with poorcharge-to-charge bonds develop distinctly visible cracksas a result of this heat-aging extruded rods, determination of dielectric strengthand measured specific gravity may be used to check forexcessive testing sheet, dielectric strength and dye penetrantmethods give an indication of microporosity. Measuredspecific gravities also relate to microporosity. The usualpurpose of measured specific gravity determinations,however, is to provide an approximate indication of thesheet s percent crystallinity. Tensile strength andelongation are indicative of overall molded parts, X-ray and dye penetrant methods aresuggested for detection of surface and internal specific gravities detect variations in degreeof microporosity and percent crystallinity, althoughagain, these effects are not separated in this test. Dimen-sional stability at elevated temperatures is usuallychecked by measurements after annealing a part at288 C (550 F).For films and tapes, pinhole counts and dielectricstrength indicate degree of microporosity and theincidence of localized flaws. Measured specific gravityis used as an index of percent crystallinity. Tensilemeasurements, as in the case of sheeting, are used as anall-around index of 6Teflon PTFE Resins: ASTM Tests Applicable to Fabricated PartsPropertyExtruded RodMolded SheetMolded PartsFilms and TapesExtruded TubingTensile StrengthD1710D3293D3294D3308D3295D3369Ultimate ElongationD1710D3293D3294D3308D3295D3369Measured Specific GravityD1710D3293D3294D3308D3295Dielectric StrengthD1710D3293D3294D3308D3295D3369X-RayD1710 D3294 Melting PointD4894D3293D3294D3308D3295D4895D3369Dye Penetrant D3293D3294 Dimensional StabilityD1710D3293D3294 D3295Pinhole Count D3308 D3369*Central section of test specimens machined to 60% of nominal diameter. Tested at 2 in/min crosshead speedFigure 1. Relation of Percent Crystallinity to Specific Gravity, 23 C (73 F)Crystallinity, %1% MicrovoidsInherent, VoidlessWith Voids As Indicated8Strength and StiffnessGeneral CharacteristicsFabricated shapes of Teflon PTFE fluoropolymer resinsare tough, flexible in thin sections, and fairly rigid inthick sections. Useful but varying mechanical propertiesare maintained from 268 to 260 C ( 450 to 500 F) forTeflon PTFE. Surfaces of fabricated parts have anextremely low coefficient of friction. Almost nothingsticks to them. However, specially treated surfaces willaccept conventional industrial adhesives. Teflon PTFEresins are almost completely inert to chemical attack,but, under special conditions, are affected by suchsubstances as alkali metals and halogens. Low-losselectrical characteristics remain essentially constant,regardless of frequency, over a wide temperature PTFE resins tend to be opaque, crystalline, PTFE resins can be aggregated into dense,coherent shapes at normal temperatures by various preforming techniques, which apply uniform pressureto the unheated Teflon PTFE resin. Preformed productsare strengthened by heating above 327 C (620 F),generally 371 382 C (700 720 F), until the resinparticles coalesce, and then cooling below 327 C (620 F).Products sintered in this manner may be further shapedby various postforming techniques that are preformedmost readily at temperatures approaching but below the327 C (620 F) transition temperature. Because Teflon PTFE resins enter into a gel state at 327 C (621 F),which is not conducive to melt flow, preforming,sintering, and postforming are the processing techniquesmost commonly ConsiderationsParts to be made of Teflon may be designed in exactly thesame manner as parts made of other materials, such assteel, brass, lead, concrete, etc. Even the same formulasmay be used if careful attention is paid to specialcharacteristics of the resin. A Teflon resin may be chosenin preference to other materials because of its betterchemical resistance, heat resistance, friction coefficient,dielectric strength, toughness, weather resistance, orcombination of such properties. Most materials are affectedto some extent by temperature, moisture, and Teflon resins exhibit zero moisture absorptionand are unaffected by almost all environmental conditions,designers will be interested mainly in property changesresulting from temperature load is applied over a period of time, creep and coldflow must be considered. Consequently, data are presentedfor long-term loading as well as short-term for the tables and charts was obtained fromsamples described in Table 7. These samples are represen-tative of commercially available and StiffnessTeflon resins are engineering materials whose perfor-mance in any particular application may be predicted bycalculation in the same manner as for other engineeringmaterials. However, just as properties of woods aredifferent from those of metals, the properties of Teflon resins are different from those of other engineeringmaterials. From the following data, strength and stiff-ness values can be selected which, with appropriatesafety factors, will allow standard engineering formulasto be used in designing 7Teflon PTFE Granular Resin: Description of Samples Used in TestsAverageVoidPreformFabricated FormSpecific GravityContentCrystallinityPressure, MPa (psi)Rod, 6 in long x in diameter (molded) < 2% (2,500)Sheet, 14 in x 14 in, 1/8 inand 1/16 in < 2% (2,500)9Tensile StressStress-strain curves for temperatures in the usual designrange (see Figure 2a) show that yield occurs at highdeformations. Elastic response begins to deviate fromlinearity at strains of only a few percent, as with mostplastics. Therefore, in designing with Teflon , it is oftenbest to work with acceptable strain and determine thecorresponding stress. Curves that show ultimate tensilestrength, the point at which fracture occurs, are given inFigure 3 shows strain at corresponding stresses forvarious temperatures. The percent strain selected fordesign calculations should take into account the highesttemperature at which the part will operate. Because it isnot always possible to work with an acceptable strain,Table 8 gives the yield strength in psi as a function 8Yield Strength at Various TemperaturesTeflon PTFETemperature,Yield Strength, C ( F)MPa (psi) 251 ( 420)131 (19,000) 196 ( 320)110 (16,000) 129 ( 200) (11,500) 73 ( 100) (7,700) 56 ( 68) (3,800)0 (32) (1,800)23 (73) (1,300)70 (158) (800)121 (250) (500)Compressive StressCompression and strain are indicated at three tempera-tures for Teflon PTFE resins (see Figure 4). Stress-strain curves for compression are similar to those fortension at low values of strain (see Figure 5). However,as strain increases, the curves become less similar. Yieldpoints for compression and tension occur at about thesame stress values. For compression, the lower strains athigher stress may be a result of analyzing test data onthe basis of original cross StressFigure 6 is a plot of shear stress against shear a part subject to shear, a specified strain should beselected and the corresponding stress used for designcalculations as mentioned s RatioPoisson s ratio is at 23 C (73 F) and approaches alimiting value of with increasing of ElasticityNo attempt has been made to include data on modulusof elasticity. Because modulus of elasticity E isStress (psi)E = Strain (in/in)the preceding stress-strain curves permit substitution,when working at a specified strain, of the correspondingstress so that modulus of elasticity can be 2a. Tensile Stress, Based on Original Cross Section5,0004,0003,0002,0001,000Stress, psi0102030Strain, % 196 C( 321 F) 56 C( 69 F)260 C(500 F)23 C(73 F)100 C(212 F)204 C(400 F) , 2b. Stress vs. Strain in Tension50100150200250300350Strain, % 56 C( 69 F)23 C(73 F)204 C(400 F)260 C(500 F) , psi 0Stress, MPa7,0006,0005,0004,0003,0002,0001,00012Figure 3. Tensile Stress vs. Temperature at Constant Strain5,0004,0003,0002,0001,000 240( 400) 184( 300) 129( 200) 73( 100) 18(0)38(100)93(200)149(300)204(400)Temperature, C ( F)1%5%10%Tensile Stress, Stress, psi13Figure 4. Stress vs. Strain in Compression (ASTM D695)5,0004,0003,0002,0001,0000102030Compressive Stress, psiStrain, %100 C(212 F)204 C(400 F)23 C(73 F) Stress, MPa14Figure 5. Stress vs. Strain in Tension and Compression (ASTM D695)4,0003,0002,0001,0000 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 30 20 100102030TensionCompressionStress, psiStrain, %204 C (400 F) 23 C (73 F)204 C (400 F)100 C (212 F)100 C (212 F)23 C (73 F)Stress, 6. Stress vs. Strain in Shear to 20%1,2001,00080040020002 46810121416182022100 C(212 F)23 C(73 F)Strain, %Stress, psiStress, and Cold FlowA plastic material subjected to continuous load experi-ences a continued deformation with time that is calledcreep or cold flow. A similar phenomenon occurs withmetals at elevated temperatures. With most plastics,however, deformation can be significant even at roomtemperature or below; thus, the name cold flow. Creep is the total deformation under stress after aspecified time in a given environment beyond thatinstantaneous strain that occurs immediately uponloading. Independent variables that affect creep are timeunder load, temperature, and load or stress strain or deformation occurs instantaneously as aload is applied to Teflon resins. Following this initialstrain is a period during which the part continues todeform but at a decreasing rate. Creep data over a widerange of temperatures are plotted for tensile loading inFigures 7a through 7d, for compressive loading inFigures 8a and 8b, and for torsional loading inFigures 9a and Modulus of ElasticityThe concept of apparent modulus is a convenientmethod for expressing creep because it takes intoaccount initial strain for an applied stress plus theamount of deformation or strain that occurs with , apparent modulus EA isStress (psi)EA = Initial Strain + CreepBecause parts tend to deform in time at a decreasingrate, the acceptable strain based on service life of thepart must be determined the shorter the duration ofload, the higher the apparent modulus and the higher theallowable stress. Apparent modulus is most easilyexplained with an long as the stress level is below the elastic limit ofthe material, modulus of elasticity E is obtained from theabove equation. For a compressive stress of 1,000 psi,Figure 4 gives a strain of in/in for Teflon PTFEresin at 23 C (73 F). Then,1,000E = = 66,700 the same stress level prevails for 200 hr, total strainwill be the sum of initial strain plus strain due to total strain is obtained from Figure 8a where totaldeformation under compressive load for 200 hr is for Teflon PTFE resin. Therefore,1,000EA = = 50,000 , EA can be determined for 1 yr. Extrapolationof the curve in Figure 8a gives a deformation of , and1,000EA = = 40,000 plotted against time, these calculated values for apparent modulus provide an excellent means forpredicting creep at various stress levels. For all practicalpurposes, curves of deformation versus time eventuallytend to level off. Beyond a certain point, creep is smalland may be neglected for many RelaxationWhen materials that creep or cold flow are used asgaskets in flanged joints, the phenomenon of stressrelaxation is generally encountered. In flanged, boltedconnections, parts of Teflon will cold flow between theflange faces with a resultant decrease in bolt relaxation in gasket stock may result in a leakyjoint. Tightening the flange bolts during the first day afterinstallation will usually maintain bolting pressure andprevent leakage; thereafter, stress relaxation will curves for tensile stress relaxation illustrate therates at which tensile stress decays when the specimen ismaintained at constant strain (see Figures 10a and 10b).Compressive RecoverySpecimens that were successively compressed andallowed to recover from various percentages of strainindicate that they experience no work of the specimen is nearly complete, providedthe original strain does not exceed the yield for Gasket DesignTo minimize creep and stress relaxation in gaskets, thefollowing rules are recommended: Use bolting loads less than MPa (1,000 psi) forunconfined gaskets. Specify the thinnest possible gasket that will accom-modate flange roughness. Gaskets thicker than ap-proximately mm (1/16 in) increase the amount andrate of stress relaxation. Use reinforced compositions made with Teflon resin,such as 60% Teflon resin and 40% fiber, for tempera-tures higher than 149 C (300 F). Design a self-contained joint with captive gasketwhen such construction is is advisable to check the torque on a gasket madefrom Teflon PTFE and to retighten once, if needed,following the first 24 hr in three forces that act on a gasket that is bolted securelyin position are: bolt load, hydrostatic end force, and internalpressure. The procedure in the 1959 ASME Boiler andPressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Appendix II, may beused to calculate required bolt loadings for solid gasketsof Teflon PTFE resins. The method requires knowledgeof the yield stress and the gasket factor. Yield stressis the stress required to seal the gasket or the minimumstress that will effect a seal against even slight fluidpressure. As internal pressure is applied to the vessel,the flanges tend to separate, thus lowering the effectivestress on the gasket. Obviously, to maintain the sealrequires that resultant stress on the gasket exceed theinternal pressure. The minimum required ratio of thesepressures is called the gasket values for yield stress and gasket factor arelisted in Table 9 for solid Teflon PTFE resins. Withthese values, the necessary gasket load can be calculatedfrom Formula UA-47-2 given in the above ASMEreference. Required gasket load can then be converted tobolt load by standard mechanical engineering calcula-tions (see Mechanical Engineers Handbook, Marks,Sixth Edition, Section 3, page 48).Table 9Values for Calculations of Required Gasket LoadsTeflon PTFEYield Stress,GasketThickness, mm (in)MPa (psi) (1/8) (1,200) (3/32) (1,350) (1/16) (1,600) (1/32) (3,200) made by enveloping fillers or rubber in moldedTeflon PTFE resin are widely used for flanged connec-tions to glass-lined reaction vessels and to glass-linedpipe. Spiral-wound gaskets of stainless steel and sheetstock of Teflon resin have been used successfully inboth large and small flanged joints requiring highbolting pressures. Molded Teflon PTFE resins, eitheralone or in combination with other gasket materials, alsogive excellent service under the most corrosive conditionsencountered in the chemical performance of Teflon PTFE resins is improvedconsiderably by use of fillers. Such modification affectscertain mechanical properties and permits resin fillercompositions to be tailored to the requirements of awide variety of mechanical, electrical, and general, Teflon PTFE resins can be compounded toincrease: Resistance to initial deformation under load byapproximately 25% Resistance to rotating shaft wear by as much as 500 Stiffness by a factor of two or three Thermal conductivity by a factor of five Resistance to creep approximately twofold Thermal dimensional stability by a factor of two Hardness by approximately 10%Further, modified compositions retain the desirableproperties of uncompounded Teflon .18Figure 7a. Total Deformation vs. Time Under Load at 54 C ( 65 F) ,000Time, hrTensile Strain, % MPa (3,000 psi) MPa (2,000 psi) MPa (1,000 psi)Figure 7b. Total Deformation vs. Time Under Load at 23 C (73 F) ,000Time, hrTensile Strain, % MPa (1,500 psi) MPa (1,000 psi) MPa (500 psi)19Figure 7c. Total Deformation vs. Time Under Tensile Load at 100 C (212 F)Figure 7d. Total Deformation vs. Time Under Tensile Load at 200 C (392 F) ,000Time, hrTensile Strain, % MPa (580 psi) MPa (500 psi) MPa (200 psi) ,000Time, hrTensile Strain, % MPa (300 psi) MPa (200 psi) MPa (100 psi)20Figure 8a. Total Deformation vs. Time Under Compressive Load at 23 C (73 F)Figure 8b. Total Deformation vs. Time Under Compressive Load at 100 C (212 F) , %Time, hr101001,00010, MPa (1,750 psi) MPa (1,000 psi) MPa (500 psi) , %Time, hr101001,00010, MPa (750 psi) MPa (500 psi) MPa (200 psi) 9a. Total Deformation vs. Time Under Torsional Load at 23 C (73 F)Figure 9b. Total Deformation vs. Time Under Torsional Load at 100 C (212 F) MPa (1,000 psi) MPa (750 psi) MPa (600 psi) MPa (350 psi)Time, hrShear Strain, % , MPa (600 psi) MPa (350 psi) MPa (200 psi) MPa (100 psi)Time, hrShear Strain, % , 10a. Tensile Strength Relaxation at 23 C (73 F)Figure 10b. Tensile Strength Relaxation at 100 C (212 F)Time, hrStress, psi 101001,00010,00020%10%2% , MPaTime, hrStress, ,00010, , MPa20%10%2% of Temperature, Fatigue,and ImpactThermal ExpansionLinear expansion of Teflon PTFE fluoropolymer resinsis shown in Figure 11 and Table 10. A marked change involume of to is evident for Teflon PTFE resinsin the transition zone from 18 25 C (65 77 F). A partthat has been machined on either side of this zone willobviously change dimensions if permitted to go throughthe zone. Thus, final operating temperature of a preci-sion part must be accurately determined. Measurementon a production basis must allow for this volume changeif the transition zone is traversed in either manufactureor operation of the part. Table 11 gives the coefficientof cubical expansion for various temperature 10Teflon PTFE ResinsLinear Coefficients of ExpansionLinear CoefficientTemperatureof Expansion,Range, C ( F)10 5 mm/mm C (10 5 in/in F)25 to 190 (77 to 310) to 150 (77 to 238) to 100 (77 to 148) to 50 (77 to 58) to 0 (77 to 32) to 20 (50 to 68) to 25 (68 to 77) to 30 (77 to 86) to 50 (77 to 122) to 100 (77 to 212) to 150 (77 to 302) to 200 (77 to 392) to 250 (77 to 482) to 300 (77 to 572) 11Teflon PTFE ResinsCubical Coefficients of ExpansionTemperatureRange, C ( F)cm3/cm3 Cin3/in3 F 40 to 15( 40 to 59) x 10 x 10 415 to 35 (59* to 95) to 140 (95 to 284) x 10 x 10 4140 to 200 (284 to 392) x 10 x 10 4200 to 250 (392 to 482) x 10 x 10 4250 to 300 (482 to 572) x 10 x 10 4*Quinn et al., J. Applied Phys. 22, 1085 (1951)Low Temperature PropertiesParts fabricated of Teflon PTFE resins exhibit highstrength, toughness, and self-lubrication at low tempera-tures. Teflon PTFE resins are useful from 268 C ( 450 F)and are highly flexible from 79 C ( 110 F).Thermal Conductivity and Specific HeatThe average thermal conductivity of Teflon PTFE Btu in/h ft2 F. The average heat capacity Btu/lb F for Teflon PTFE. These data were obtainedat temperatures ranging from 20 260 C (68 500 F).Heat DistortionTemperatures obtained for heat distortion of Teflon PTFEare (ASTM D648) 122 C (252 F) for a stress of 66 psiand 56 C (132 F) for a stress of 264 MemoryParts made from Teflon PTFE resins tend to return to theiroriginal dimensions after a deformation, but the process ofrecovery may require a long time. A fabricated part thatcreeps or deforms over a period of time under stress willrecover its original shape when stress is removed and thepart is raised to sintering temperature. However, partialrecovery will occur at lower temperatures. At any giventemperature, recovery to be expected at that temperature issubstantially complete in 15 min or less, but extent ofrecovery increases with increased example, a filament of Teflon PTFE 4 in long,stretched to a length of 12 in and heated at 100 C(212 F), recovers to approximately 11 in within 15 minand then remains substantially unchanged. A similarpiece heated to 200 C (392 F) recovers to 10 in. Thefirst piece, after additional heating to 200 C (392 F),undergoes further recovery until it is 10 in long. Whenheated to 350 C (662 F), both pieces return to theiroriginal length of 4 11. Linear Thermal Expansion vs. Temperature876543210 200( 328) 150( 238) 100( 148) 50( 58)0(32)50(122)100(212)150(302)200(392)250(482)300(572)Linear Thermal Expansion, %Temperature, C ( F)25Table 12Teflon PTFE Resins: Decomposition Rates at Elevated TemperaturesRate of Decomposition, %/hrFine PowderGranular ResinTemperature, C ( F)InitialInitialSteady State232 (450) x 10 11260 (500) x 10 11316 (600) (700) at ElevatedTemperaturesRate of decomposition of a part of Teflon PTFEdepends on the particular resin, temperature, heat-exposure time, and, to a lesser extent, pressure and natureof the environment. In designs where the rate of outgas-sing is important, as in high-vacuum work or for safetyconsiderations, initial rates of decomposition in Table 12may be used. For most applications these decompositionrates are small enough below the maximum servicetemperature (260 C [500 F] for Teflon PTFE resins),and no special precautions are necessary. Where tem-peratures run above 343 C (650 F) during fabrication,proper ventilation is indicates that in many instances the rate ofdecomposition of an article fabricated from Teflon PTFE resin decreases after continual exposure. Forexample, when parts made of Teflon PTFE are used, avery low, fairly steady decomposition rate is establishedafter less than 1% of the resins have to absorb impact energy, or impact toughness, isdifficult to predict in a part because shape has a majoreffect on performance. Understanding how a part resistsimpact, however, helps in selecting a good energy of an impact has to be absorbed by a forcedeveloped within the part multiplied by the distance thepart can deform. Designing flexibility into the part tolengthen the distance over which the energy is absorbedgreatly reduces the internal force required to resist theimpact. For example, a rigid base made from springsteel would not have as high a capacity for absorbingenergy as a coil spring made from the same same factors that affect metals also affect more and more flexibility is designed into a partsubject to impact load, the better the part will PTFE resins have excellent impact strength overa wide range of temperatures. Average values forspecimens subjected to the tensile and Izod impact testsare given in Table is no exact method for relating impact test data toactual design calculations or performance. Generally, inaddition to incorporating flexibility, the most importantmethod for obtaining toughness or impact resistance isto eliminate all sharp corners and other features subjectto high stress concentration. For exact design, prototypemodels must be tested under actual 13Tensile and Izod Impact StrengthImpact StrengthTemperature,Tensile,Izod,*Resin C ( F)ft lb/in3ft lb/inTeflon PTFE23 (73) 54 ( 65) *ASTM D256Hardness and FrictionHardnessTable 14 lists the hardness of Teflon PTFE resins asdetermined by various tests. Fillers elevate the hardnessof Teflon PTFE resins by 10 to 15% and much of theimprovement is retained over a wide temperature general, the greater the filler loading, the harder thecompound. Spherical or flake fillers impart the 14HardnessRockwellDurometerDurometerResinR Scale*11D Scale**A Scale**Teflon PTFE585298 *ASTM D785 or D2240**23 C (73 F)26Friction (Granular)Teflon PTFE has a smooth surface with a slippery of the low coefficient of friction of Teflon PTFE(see Table 15), there have been many practicalnonlubricated and minimally lubricated mechanicalsystems 15Coefficient of FrictionPropertyTeflon PTFEStatic Load, 500 PV, 8,000 to 10,000,at 10 100 1,000 fpmUnstable OperationTeflon PTFE resins exhibit exceptionally low frictionin nonlubricated applications, especially at low surfacevelocities and pressures higher than 5 psi. The coefficientof friction increases rapidly with sliding speeds up toabout 100 ft/min, under all pressure conditions. Thispattern of behavior (see Figure 12) prevents stick-slip tendencies. Moreover, no squeaking or noise occurs,even at the slowest speeds. Above 150 ft/min, slidingvelocity has relatively little effect at combinations ofpressure and velocity below the composition s PV 13 indicates that static friction of Teflon PTFEresins decreases with increases in limits presented in Table 16 define the maximumcombinations of pressure and velocity at which thesematerials will operate continuously without are based on operation in air at ambient tempera-tures of 21 27 C (70 80 F). The PV limits of allTeflon PTFE resin matrix compositions approach zeroat 288 315 C (550 600 F) ambient temperature. In otherwords, the limiting surface temperature for operation ofTeflon PTFE compositions is 288 315 C (550 600 F),regardless of the cause of the temperature. Reducedambient temperatures, below 21 C (70 F), and/orcooling will provide increased PV limit does not necessarily define useful combina-tions of pressure and velocity because wear is notconsidered in its determination. The useful PV limit of amaterial cannot exceed the PV limit and must take intoaccount the composition s wear characteristics and theallowable wear for the factor, K, is a proportionality factor relating to thewear of a nonlubricated surface (operating against aspecific mating surface at combinations of pressure andvelocity below the material s PV limit). The wearfactors listed in Table 16 can be used to predict wearagainst specific mating surfaces, using the followingexpression:t =KPVTwhere t =wear, inin3 minK =wear factor, lb ft hP =pressure, psiV =velocity, fpmT =time, hTable 16PV and Wear PerformancePropertyTeflon PTFEPV Limit (lb/in2 x fpm)*at 10 fpm1,200at 100 fpm1,800at 1,000 fpm2,500PV for in radial wear in1,000 hr** (nonlubricated)20Wear Factor, K (x 10 10)(in3 min/ft lb hr)***2,500* Ambient temperature 21 27 C (70 80 F)**Based on (1) unidirectional load on fixed bushing or (2) thrustwasher***At PV values below the composition s PV limit when operat-ing unlubricated against soft carbon steels (RC20 to 25)finished to 12 20 in (AA). Factor is also applicable foroperation against most stainless steels and cast and Wear (Granular)Parts fabricated from Teflon PTFE resins have goodwear properties as previously shown in Table 17, 18, and 19 indicate the abrasion resistance ofunfilled fluoropolymer resins for various types of three tests do not represent typical bearing wearbecause in each a new abrading surface is being continu-ously presented versus a repeating 12. Coefficient of Friction vs. Sliding SpeedFigure 13. Coefficient of Friction vs. Load (at <2 ft/min and room temperature) ,000Coefficient of Friction Temperature range: 24 66 C (75 150 F) kPa ( psi)345 517 kPa(50 75 psi) kPa ( psi)Sliding Speed, to 3,600 psi50 to 75 to to to psiup to psi1,0001,5002,000Load, lb2,5003,0003,5004,000Coefficient of Friction28Table 17Weight Loss Caused by Sliding Tape*Average Weight Loss,Resing/in2Teflon *Armstrong Abrasion Test (ASTM D1242): This test measuresabrasion resistance of flat surfaces by drawing abrasive tape,under load, over test specimens at a slip rate of 100 g/in2. WithNo. 320 abrasive under a 15-lb load, weight loss was measuredafter 200 revolutions (1 hr, 40 min).Table 18Weight Lost from Revolving Disk*(Cumulative weight loss in milligrams)Test CyclesResin10501005001,0002,000Teflon *Taber Abrasion Test: This test measures abrasion resistance ofa flat surface by rotating a 4-in diameter specimen disk beneathan abrasive under load. A 1,000 g load was used on a Calibrasewheel No. 19Tape Length Required to Abradethrough Wire Coating*(Average tape length in inches)Heat Aging96 hr500 hr96 hrat 150 Cat 150 Cat 200 CResinNone(302 F)(302 F)(392 F)Teflon PTFE76789884*Tape Abrasion Test (MIL-T-5438): This test measures abrasionresistance of wire coatings by drawing, under load, a cleanabrasive cloth tape of continuous length across the test wireuntil the coating is worn through. A 1-lb load on No. 400 grittape was used on a coating thickness of PropertiesTeflon PTFE fluoropolymer resins offer remarkableelectrical stability over a wide range of frequency andenvironmental conditions. In this respect, they differmarkedly from other insulating ConstantThe dielectric constant of Teflon PTFE resins showsless change over a wide range of temperatures andfrequencies than any other solid material. This valueremains essentially constant at over the entirefrequency PTFE specimens have been heat-aged at 300 C(572 F) for six months, and then cooled to room tem-perature for measurement, with no change in dielectricconstant. Nonfluoropolymer insulating materials do notshow these FactorThe dissipation factor of Teflon PTFE resins remainsbelow over a frequency range up to 108 dissipation factor of Teflon PTFE resins remainsquite constant. For Teflon PTFE at room temperature,it reaches a peak at about 109 Hz. This peak value for Teflon PTFE resins. Theoretical analysis ofthis phenomenon and spot checks indicate that astemperature increases, the peak will occur at StrengthThe dielectric strength of Teflon PTFE resins is highand does not vary with temperature and thermal dielectric strength is very high (600 V/mil mm [ in] thickness) as measured by the ASTMshort-time test. As with any material, the value drops asthickness of specimen at high dielectric stresses is dependent on coronadischarge. The absence of corona, as in special wireconstructions, permits very high voltage stress withoutdamage to Teflon PTFE resins. Changes in relativehumidity or physical stress imposed upon the materialdo not diminish life at these voltage PropertiesResistance to Chemical AttackTeflon PTFE fluoropolymer resins are essentially chemi-cally inert. Up to the upper use temperature (260 C[500 F]) for Teflon PTFE, only very few chemicals areknown to chemically react with these resins, , moltenalkali metals, turbulent liquid, or gaseous fluorine; and afew fluorochemicals, such as chlorine trifluoride, ClF3, oroxygen difluoride, OF2, which readily liberate free fluorineat elevated unique degree of inertness of Teflon PTFE resinsreflects their chemical structure. Molecules of Teflon PTFE resin are formed simply from strong carbon-carbon and super-strong carbon-fluorine inter-atomicbonds; moreover, the fluorine atoms form a protectivesheath around the carbon core of each molecule. Thisstructure also produces other special properties, such asinsolubility and low-surface adherability and a minor degree, halogenated organic chemicals maybe absorbed by fluoropolymer resins. This will cause avery small weight change and in some cases slightswelling. If absorption is very high, it usually indicates afabricated part of high resins may be permeated to a limited extentby some substances. Permeation rates are generallycomparable to those observed for other more detailed data on exposure of Teflon PTFEresins to chemical media, please contact your DuPontrepresentative or call the appropriate sales office listedon the back Arc-ResistanceSurface arc-resistance of Teflon PTFE resins is highand is not affected by heat-aging. When Teflon PTFEresins are subjected to a surface arc in air, they do nottrack or form a carbonized conducting path. When testedby the procedure of ASTM D495, Teflon PTFE resinspass the maximum time of 300 sec without unique nonstick surface of these resins helps reducesurface arc phenomena in two ways: It helps prevent formation of surface contamination,thereby reducing the possibility of arcing. If an arc is produced, the discharge frequently cleansthe surface of the resin, increasing the time beforeanother and Surface ResistivityVolume resistivity (>1018 ohm cm) and surface resistiv-ity (>1016 ohm sq) for Teflon PTFE resins are at the topof the measurable range. Neither resistivity is affectedby heat-aging or temperatures up to recommendedservice PropertiesWeatheringParts fabricated of Teflon PTFE fluoropolymer resins arevirtually unaffected by weather. Conclusive tests onsamples exposed for 15 yr to practically all climaticconditions confirm these weather-resistant properties. Thus,where applications demand the ultimate in dependabilityunder these conditions, these resins are the to extreme heat, cold, and ultraviolet lightencountered in radar and other electronic components, suchas antenna bushings, are excellent examples of the value ofthis material to the industrial Teflon PTFE fluoropolymer resins haveexcellent vibration dampening properties both at sonicand ultrasonic frequencies. Installations for this purposehave been very successful. The thickness of materialrequired must be sufficient to absorb the energy pro-duced and is usually determined and FabricationWhen extreme tolerance must be specified, or whenproduct shapes are very complex, or when just one or twoprototypes are required, the machining of Teflon PTFEresins becomes a logical means of standard operations turning, facing, boring, drill-ing, threading, tapping, reaming, grinding, etc. areapplicable to Teflon PTFE resins. Special machineryis not machining parts from Teflon PTFE resins, eithermanually or automatically, the basic rule to remember isthat these resins possess physical properties unlike thoseof any other commonly machined material. They aresoft, yet springy. They are waxy, yet tough. They havethe cutting feel of brass, yet the tool-wear effect ofstainless steel. Nevertheless, any trained machinist canreadily shape Teflon PTFE to tolerances of inand, with special care, to Correct Working SpeedsOne property of Teflon PTFE resins strongly influenc-ing machining techniques is their exceptionally lowthermal conductivity. They do not rapidly absorb anddissipate heat generated at a cutting edge. If too muchgenerated heat is retained in the cutting zone, it will tendto dull the tool and overheat the resin. Coolants, then,are desirable during machining operations, particularlyabove a surface speed of 150 m/min (500 fpm).Coupled with low conductivity, the high thermal expan-sion of Teflon PTFE resins (nearly 10 that of metals)could pose supplemental problems. Any generation andlocalization of excess heat will cause expansion of thefluoropolymer material at that point. Depending on thethickness of the section and the operation being per-formed, localized expansion may result in overcuts orundercuts and in drilling a tapered procedures then, especially working speeds,must take conductivity and expansion effects speeds from 60 150 m/min (200 500 fpm) aremost satisfactory for fine-finish turning operations; atthese speeds, flood coolants are not needed. Higherspeeds can be used with very low feeds or for roughercuts, but coolants become a necessity for removal ofexcess generated heat. A good coolant consists of waterplus water-soluble oil in a ratio of 10:1 to 20 for the 60 150 m/min (200 500 fpm) speed rangeshould run between mm ( in) perrevolution. If a finishing cut is the object of a high-speedoperation ( , an automatic screw-machine running at240 m/min [800 fpm]), then feed must be dropped to acorrespondingly lower value. Recommended depth of cutvaries from mm ( in).In drilling operations, the forward travel of the tool shouldbe held to mm ( in) per revolu-tion. It may prove advantageous to drill with an in-outmotion to allow dissipation of heat into the Shape and Use ToolsAlong with working speeds, choice of tools is quiteimportant to control of heat buildup. While standardtools can be used, best results come from tools specifi-cally shaped for use with Teflon PTFE resins. The tablebelow presents shape information important to propersingle-point tool design:Top rake0 15 positiveSide rake and side angle0 15 Front or end 10 Boring tools normally require the higher angles quality of a tool s cutting edge not only influencesthe amount of heat generated, but it also controlstolerances in a different way. A tool that is not sharpmay tend to pull the stock out of line during machining,thereby resulting in excessive resin removal. On theother hand, an improperly edged tool tends to compressthe resin, resulting in shallow extremely sharp edge is, therefore, highly desirable,especially for machining work on filled compositions. Stellite and carbide-tipped tools will help to minimizerequired resharpening partially compensate for tool wear, it is helpful to grindtools with a slight nose radius. All drills, either twist orhalf-round, should have deep, highly polished material support is also important, especiallywhen machining long, thin rods of Teflon PTFE. Ifsupport is not provided, stock flexibility may lead topoor characteristic of Teflon PTFE resins will benoted immediately after beginning any turning opera-tion. Rather than chips and ribbons of removed stock, asencountered during the machining of most materials, aTeflon PTFE resin turns off as a long, continuous this curl is not mechanically guided away from thework, it may wrap around it, hampering the flow ofcoolant, or worse, forcing the work away from the an automatic screw machine, a momentary with-drawal of the tool from the stock will for Dimensioning and FinishingNormally, Teflon PTFE resins are machined to toler-ances of about mm ( in). While closertolerances are occasionally required, they usually are notnecessary. The natural resiliency of these resins allowsmachined parts to conform naturally to working dimen-sions. For example, a part with an interference can bepress-fitted at much lower cost than that required forfinal machining to exact dimensions, and the press-fittedpart will perform equally TolerancesWhen it is necessary to produce shapes with extremelyclose tolerances, it is usually essential to follow a stress-relieving procedure. By heating a fluoropolymer resinstock to slightly above its expected service temperature(but below 327 C [621 F]), initial stresses are this temperature for 1 hr per cm (1 in) ofthickness, followed by slow cooling, completes theinitial annealing step. (Stress-relieved stock can also bepurchased from processors.) A rough cut will then bringthe stock to within mm ( in) offinal dimensions. Reannealing prior to a final finishing-cut will remove stresses induced by the transition occurs in Teflon PTFE resin, resulting in a1 increase in volume as temperature is increasedthrough the neighborhood of 19 C (66 F). This must beconsidered when measuring a part for a critical TolerancesPersonnel should exercise caution when measuringtolerances on parts machined from Teflon PTFE resins;in general, results will be better if the measuring instru-ments do not exert excessive pressure on the example, a micrometer used by inexperiencedpersonnel could easily read mm ( in)under the true dimension because of the compressibilityof the Teflon PTFE resin being used. Optical compara-tors are often useful in eliminating this type of is best to check dimensions at the expected servicetemperature, but temperature compensations will sufficeif this is not practical. Parts machined to final size andmeasured at room temperatures or below will not meetspecifications at higher temperatures. The reverse isalso FinishesSurface finishes better than m (16 in) are possible onparts made with Teflon PTFE resins, but rarely are neededbecause of the resin s compressibility and low coefficientof friction. Precision-honed and lapped cutting tools willproduce a m (16- in) surface when required; standardequipment yields a finish of about m (32 in).Lapping compounds may be used, but these as well asgrinding compounds may become embedded in the fluoro-polymer and may prove to be very difficult to from machinery not used exclusively forTeflon resins can also embed in the resin HandlingAs with all organic polymers exposed to high tempera-tures, good safety practice requires the use of adequateventilation when processing Teflon PTFE fluoropolymerresins. The heated fluoropolymer should be kept enclosed,or exhaust ventilation should be used, to prevent inhala-tion of fumes and gases that may arise. Heating mayproduce fumes and gases that are irritating or , care should be taken to avoid contaminationof smoking tobacco or cigarettes with fluorine-containingresins. Precautions are to be used in the handling,processing and use of Teflon PTFE or other fluoropoly-mer resins. Before using Teflon , read the MaterialSafety Data Sheet and the detailed information in theSociety of the Plastics Industry publication, Guide tothe Safe Handling of Fluoropolymer Resins. Copiesmay be obtained from your DuPont Pipe JointTypical ApplicationsHeat Exchanger Tube SheetFilled SealsChemical Transfer Hose33TubingElectrical InsulatorsValve Body34References1. Larsen, H. A., G. R. de Hoff and N. W. Todd,Modern Plastics, August McGrew, F. C., Modern Plastics, Nov. 1957,pp. 162, 273, McGrum, N. G., J. Poly. Science, Vol. 34, 1959,p. Moynihan, R. E., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 81, 1959,p. Pierce, R. H. H., W. N. D. Bryant, and J. , Chicago meeting of Amer. Chem. Soc.,Sept. Press, I. D., Materials & Methods, July Simeral, W. G., Fluoropolymers Div. of SPIConference, Sept. Sperati, C. A., and J. L. McPherson, The Effect ofCrystallinity and Molecular Weight on PhysicalProperties of Polytetrafluoroethylene, Atlantic Citymeeting of Amer. Chem. Soc., Sept. Thomas, P. E., J. F. Lontz, C. A. Sperati, and J. , SPE Journal, June New Design Data for Teflon , Machine Design,Jan. 21 and Feb. 18, O Rourke, J. Tracy, You Can Tailor the Propertiesof Teflon with Fillers, Journal of Teflon ,Reprint de Nemours Int l SADuPont Fluoroproducts2, chemin du Box 50CH-1218 Le Grand-SaconnexGeneva, Switzerland(022) 7175111CanadaDuPont Canada, Box 2200, Streetsville7070 Mississauga RoadMississauga, Ontario, CanadaL5M 2H3(905) 821-5194For more information on Fluoroproducts:(302) 479-7731DuPont Box 80713Wilmington, DE 19880-0713Latin AmericaDuPont FluoroproductsLatin America Regional Box 80711Wilmington, DE 19880-0711(302) 999-3582The information set forth herein is furnished free of charge and is based on technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is intended for use bypersons having technical skill, at their own discretion and risk. The handling precaution information contained herein is given with the understandingthat those using it will satisfy themselves that their particular conditions of use present no health or safety hazards. Because conditions of product useare outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. As with anymaterial, evaluation of any compound under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Nothing herein is to be taken as a license to operateunder or a recommendation to infringe any : Do not use in medical applications involving permanent implantation in the human body. For other medical applications, see DuPontMedical Caution Statement, by DuPont (7/96) 220313D Printed in [Replaces: H-37051-2]Reorder No.: H-37051-3Japan and Asia PacificDuPont Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co., Honsha Building5 18 Sarugaku-cho 1-chomeChiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 Japan81-3-5281-5872

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