Example: bachelor of science

Pile Design from Constructability Perspective - …

Pile Design from Constructability Perspective Prestressed Concrete Piles in Coastal Georgia Presented by: Guoming Lin, Ph.D., G.E., D.GE Senior Principal / …

Tags:

  Form, Design, Perspective, Epil, Constructability, Pile design from constructability perspective

Information

Domain:

Source:

Link to this page:

Please notify us if you found a problem with this document:

Other abuse

Text of Pile Design from Constructability Perspective - …

Pile Design from Constructability PerspectivePrestressed Concrete Piles in Coastal GeorgiaPresented by:Guoming Lin, , , Principal / Senior ConsultantSavannah, GeorgiaNovember 8, 2017Outline Geology and Geotechnical Challenges Prestressed Concrete Piles in the MarloMarl FormationoDriveability and Driving StressesoSetup and Freeze Bearing Project Case HistoryoGeorgia Ports Container Berth 8oTruman Parkway Phase VoKinder Morgan Elba Island Terminal Summary & Conclusions Savannah is in Coastal Plain Bedrock 1500 -2000 ft deep Three Geology Regions Blue Ridge Piedmont Coastal PlainSoil Strata in SavannahRef: Dames & Moore Talmadge Memorial Bridge Foundation Load Testing Report Sept Clay SandSoft LimestoneMarl FormationSilty Clay Sand380 boringFloridian LimestoneSPT SamplesNo Rock CoreSoft Clay SandMarl FormationSoil Profile in upper 150 ft boring Supported on 6 piles Ground settled >12 inches below pile-supported buildingRestroom for Hutchinson Island GolfElba LNG Terminal Administration BuildingA new step every 5 yearsBuilding Constructed in 1975Photo taken in 2002 Martin Marietta Aggregates / Marine Terminal Soils have consistency close to peanut butterSoil Bearing Failure/Mud WaveOutline Geology and Geotechnical Challenges Prestressed Concrete Piles in the MarloMarl FormationoDriveability and Driving StressesoSetup and Freeze Bearing Project Case HistoryoGeorgia Ports Container Berth 8oTruman Parkway Phase VoKinder Morgan Elba Island Terminal Summary & Conclusions Prestressed concrete pilesoMost commonly used along the Savannah River, Why? All piles are supported in the MarloWhat is Marl?oDriveability and Driving StressesoSetup and Freeze BearingPSC PilesAdvantages Quality and reliability Local experience Corrosion resistant Cost: less expensive than steel H piles or pipe piles or drilled shaftsDisadvantages Heavy to transport and handle Difficult to adjust length Cost: more expensive than timber pile, auger cast pilesMarl Loose or crumbling earthy deposit (as of sand, silt, or clay) that contains a substantial amount of calcium carbonate MioceneFormation-(5 to 23 million years ago) Olive green and gray colorMarlMarl, Origin and CharacteristicsThe Cooper Marl* Skeletal remains of microscopic sea organisms Apparent over-consolidation due to cementation Uniform across the area Constant properties along depth SPT N=10 to 20, CPT tip qT~50 tsf, VS~1500 fps, SU~4 ksf * ref: Camp (2002) Drilled and Driven Foundation Behavior in Calcareous Clay Proc. GeoCongress, Orlando, of Savannah Marl Higher sand content Less calcareous Denser, SPT N=15 to 50, CPT tip qT~50 to 100 tsf Pile driving difficulties: high blow counts and limited penetration High driving stresses and pile damageDense sandy silty claycan be excavatedimperious Marl, Excavated atSHEP Upper Water Intake StructureRincon, GeorgiaPSC Pile Behaviors in the Marl in Savannah High side frication capacities High pore pressure (CPT or pile driving) Setup/freeze effect Low compressibility/settlement Limited penetration High driving stresses (~hammer)Outline Geology and Geotechnical Challenges Prestressed Concrete Piles in the MarloMarl FormationoDriveability and Driving StressesoSetup and Freeze Bearing Project Case HistoryoGeorgia Ports Container Berth 8oTruman Parkway Phase VoKinder Morgan Elba Island Terminal Summary & ConclusionsGPA Container Berth 8Kinder MorganElba Island TerminalTruman ParkwayPhase VThree Case HistoriesGeorgia Ports Garden City TerminalThe longest contiguous berth in the USCB8 and 9 Construction: barge mounted cranes Pile driving rig with swing lead Rigid steel framed templates Dock: 1700 ft longSubsurface ProfileMarl (silty sand clay, CL/CH)SPT N ~ 20 to 60+15, Top of dock-16, Top of marl, undredged-48, Dredge depth+10, Ground surface on landRef: Lockwood Greene, GPA Container Berth 8 Dock, Aug Design Sizes: 20 , 18 , 16 square PSC Length: 60 to 98 ft Compression Capacities: 100 to 135 tons Pile Test Program 11 Indicator piles with PDA testing PDA testing: initial driving, 6 or 7 day restrike Static Load Testing: 2 Compression tests 1 Tension test Pile Test Results-Driveability and StressesPile Hammer Model APE 46-32 Rated Energy: kips-ft Ram Weight: kips Pile cushion: 9 thick plywood Pile Casting Details 7000 psi concrete (actual>10,000 psi) 1000 psi effective prestressing Allowable Stress: compressive: ksi Allowable Stress: tensile: ksi Driving Resistances (blow counts): 10 to 45 bpf in the marl Occasionally > 50 bpf in dense layers All driven to tip elevations No pile damage observed Driving Stresses: Compressive: to ksi Tensile: to ksi Lower fuel setting to 2 to reduce driving stresses Pile Test Results-Pile CapacitiesMax Load=360 tonsMax deflection= inchesPile did not failMax Load=440 tonsMax deflection= inchesPile did not failPile Test Results-Setup Effect and Capacity IncreasesPile Capacity (tons)Test PileEnd of Initial Drive6D/7D RestrikeIncrease (tons)PercentIP4 (E-76)36841219252%IP5 (E-66)27642314753%IP6 (A-53)26449322987%IP7 (A-18)226539313139%IP8 (F-52)24848623896%IP9 ( )258525266103%IP10 (D-38)14025611582%IP11 (E-24)19333213972%IP12 (D-4)2472772912%IP13 ( )19936816985%IP14 (G-31)253526273108%Average19281%Piles at CB8 Over 2,000 Piles Vertical and Horizontal Tolerance (rigid template) Only One Pile DamagedGPA Container Berth 8Kinder MorganElba Island TerminalTruman ParkwayPhase VThree Case HistoriesTruman Parkway VMarsh and Vernon River$72 million1782 piles16 for end bents18 for intermediate bentsDesign Load: 80 tons compressionPile Casting Details-GDOT Standards 5000 psi concrete 734 psi prestressing Allowable Stress: compressive: ksi Allowable Stress: tensile: ksi Pile Hammer Model ICE I-30 Rated Energy: kips-ft Ram Weight: kips Pile cushion: 8 thick plywood BFI Report Min tip elevation=-12 to -16 m Estimated tip elevation=-17 m Pile Testing and Driving ConditionsPile Testing: 17 probe piles along alignment GDOT does not require continuous monitoring End of Driving Blow Count as acceptance criteriaDriving Resistances (blow counts): Mostly normal driving, achieved the required bearing Occasionally > 50 bpf in dense layers Min tip was adjusted to -13 meters for a few bends Truman Parkway Phase VPile Damage due to Tensile Driving StressPDA Testing and Driving StressesPDA Testing: Bent 44, 18 Square, ft long and tip m (-40 ft) CAPWAP Capacity 312 tonsDriving Stresses: Max compression stress: ksi Max tension stress: ksi Pile driving procedures were adjusted to avoid driving damage GPA Container Berth 8Kinder MorganElba Island TerminalTruman ParkwayPhase VThree Case HistoriesElba Island LNG Terminal20,000 piles at the terminal>9,000 piles in current phaseSPT, CPT and DMT within 5 ft at Tank CenterComparison of SPT, CPT and DMT SoundingsComparison of SPT, CPT and DMT at Tank CenterT5B5 T5C5 T5D1SPTCPTDMTStatic Load Test-SetupStatic Test-Load Deflection CurvesPile Instrumentation PlanPiles cast at Standard Concrete ProductsSavannah, GeorgiaStatic Test-Unit Side FrictionPile Driving Stressesand DamagePDA MonitorTest Pile Load Test Results (tons)EOD14DR26DSTN312DSLT4TP118-in sq PPC186321447TP218-in sq in dia. ICP123322430TP418-in sq PPCNot TestedTP518-in sq : EOD=EndOfDriving(Dynamic) 4DR=4DayRestrike(Dynamic) 6DSTN=6DaySTATNAMICtest SLDcapacity 12DSLT=12DayStaticLoadTestPile Setup Effect (Strength Gain over Time)Average increases: 4 days=70%; 6 days=151%Pile Driving Sequence Started with peripheral rings Over-densified sand layers Predrilling required to complete pile drivingLiquid Level = 113 ftInner diameter = 252 ftOuter diameter = 258 ft68 ft1600 18-inch Square prestressed concrete pilesElba Liquefaction Project (on-going) $ billion project to convert the terminal into an LNG export facility 10 MMLS (movable modular liquefaction system) >9,000 prestressed concrete piles Pile Test Program Prestressed concrete piles (18 and 14 square) Steel H piles Three types of auger cast piles: conventional auger, displacement and partial displacement pilesVery long caseDifficult drillingSpeed !Speed !Speed !Very large hammerHigh driving stressGreen concreteNo templatesAlignmentOutline Geology and Geotechnical Challenges Prestressed Concrete Piles in the MarloMarl FormationoDriveability and Driving StressesoSetup and Freeze Bearing Project Case HistoryoGeorgia Ports Container Berth 8oTruman Parkway Phase VoKinder Morgan Elba Island Terminal Summary & ConclusionsConclusions The Marl Formation is a reliable bearing stratum for piles. Marl has special characteristics that affect pile foundation design and construction. Prestressed concrete piles (PSC) have been the most popular foundation system along the Savannah River. Pile driving into the Savannah Marl can be difficult. Selection of pile hammer is critical for pile drivability. PSC piles are prone to damage by excessive driving stresses (compression and tension). Using higher strength concrete and prestressing than the current GDOT standards can help reduce the risk of pile damage. The setup effect for PSC piles in the marl is very significant and should be taken into account in the design and Clients: Georgia Ports, Georgia DOT, Chatham County, Kinder Morgan Partners: CH2M-Hill, Moffatt Nichol, Jacobs, CB&I, IHI E&C Contractors: Orion Marine, Balfour Beatty, TIC, Bo-Mac, Cajun n Standard Concrete Products The Terracon Team (65+ strong in Savannah)Thank You!Any Questions / Comments ?Guoming Lin, , , ConsultantsSavannah, GeorgiaP:(912) 629

Related search queries