### Text of Physics Practical Handbook: 12th Science

Std. 12th Science, Physics Practical Handbook INDEX No. Experiments Page No. Group A Mechanics, Heat and Sound 1 Young s Modulus Y by Searle s Method12 Determination of force constant and mass of helical spring 63 Determination of surface tension of water124 Verification of Newton s law of cooling165 Sonometer(I) Relation between frequency and length of a given wire 24 6 Sonometer(II) Relation between the length of a given wire and tension 28 7 Use of resonance tube 32 Group B Electricity, Magnetism, Light and Modern Physics 8 Meter bridge-specific resistance of the material of unknown resistance 369 Laws of resistance in series / parallel by using meter bridge 3910 Comparison of by using potentiometer4311 Internal resistance of a cell by using potentiometer4812 Resistance of galvanometer by Wheatstone s metre bridge5213 P-N junction diode characteristics5514 n-p-n or p-n-p transistor characteristics6215 Zener diode-characteristics 70 Activities1 Dissipation energy of simple pendulum 73 2 Effect of detergent on surface tension 74 3 Factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of liquid754 Effect of load on depression of a suitable clamped meter scale 78 5 Resistance and impedance of inductor 80 6 Variation in potential drop with length of wire827 Fault finding of electronic circuit 83 8 Effect of intensity of light on 84 9 Identification of electronic components and devices8510 Study of multimeter and its use 86 11 Polarization of light using polaroids 89 12 Assembling the household circuit90 Logarithms and other tables Logarithms 92 Antilogarithms 94 Natural Sines 96 Natural Cosines 98 Natural Tangents 100 Std. XII Sci. Physics Practical Handbook Prof. Mrs. Jyoti D. Deshpande ( , , R. Jhunjhunwala College) Target PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD. Mumbai, Maharashtra Tel: 022 6551 6551 Website : email : Std. XII Sci. Physics Practical Handbook (New Syllabus) Target Publications Pvt Ltd. Second Edition: June 2012 Price: ` 50/- Printed at: India Printing Works 42, Ambekar Marg, Wadala, Mumbai 400 031 Published by Target PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD. Shiv Mandir Sabagriha, Mhatre Nagar, Near LIC Colony, Mithagar Road, Mulund (E), Mumbai - 400 081 : 022 6551 6551 email: PREFACE Physics is the study of matter and energy and the interaction between them. It reveals the magic behind the wonderful existence of natural phenomenon. Hi-tech gadgets, modern machinery, gigantic skyscrapers, speedy trains, superior infrastructure are some of the marvels of physics. Practical physics has laid the groundwork in the fields of engineering, technology and medical diagnostics. In practical physics the student obtain laboratory skills, design experiments and apply instrumentation such as electronic circuits to observe and measure natural phenomena. To master the science of physics practical one needs to have a complete and thorough knowledge of all the experiments. Hence we bring to you Std. XII Sci. : PHYSICS PRACTICAL HANDBOOK a handbook which covers all the experiments of Std. XII. This handbook written according to the needs and requirement of the board exam helps the student to score high. It includes different sets of experiments with proper steps and neat and labeled diagrams. These experiments help the student to understand the practical applications of many principles and laws involved in Std. XII. The handbook also includes all the useful tables given at the end. And lastly, we would like to thank all those who have helped us in preparing this book. There is always room for improvement and hence we welcome all suggestions and regret any errors that may have occurred in the making of this book. A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops. Best of luck to all the aspirants! Your s faithfully Publisher TARGET Publications Syllabus Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook SYLLABUS List of Practicals 1. To determine Young s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. 2. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T2 --m graph using method of oscillations. 3. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. 4. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. 5. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. 6. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. 7. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. 8. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. 9. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistance using a metre bridge. 10. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. 11. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. 12. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. 13. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. 14. To study the characteristics of common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. 15. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. TARGET Publications Syllabus Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook List of Activities 1. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. 2. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. 3. To study the factor affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. 4. To study effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) as its end (ii) in the middle. 5. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. 6. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 7. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are nor connected in proper order the correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. 8. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an 9. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and 1C, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. 10. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors, (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component ( diode, transistor or IC) is in working order. 11. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. 12. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source. TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 1 A F2 C M S D H W EF1B R N R Rigid support A, B Wires of same material and diameter F1, F2 Metal frames S Spirit level M Micrometer screw D Circular disc C Support for screw E Dead load H Hanger to which the weights (W) are attached N Main scale GROUP - A EXPERIMENT Aim: To determine Young s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire by Searle s method. Apparatus: Two long (nearly 2 m or more) identical wires of the same material and diameter, Searle s apparatus, micrometer screw gauge, slotted weights each of 500 g, metre scale, etc. Diagram: Formula: Y = 2MgLre = 2gLr Me [ = ] Y = 2gLr . 1Slope Where, Y = Young s modulus of the material of wire M = Mass suspended from experimental wire g = Acceleration due to gravity L = Original length of experimental wire r = Radius of the experimental wire e = Extension produced in wire. Young s Modulus Y By Searle s Method 01 TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 2 Procedure: i. Arrange the experimental set up as shown in diagram. Attach a zero load (slotted hanger it self) and dead load (E) to the frames of the experimental wire and dummy wire respectively so that the wires become free of kinks and remain vertically straight. ii. With the help of micrometer screw gauge, find the correct diameter of the wire at three different places. At every place two readings of the micrometer are taken while holding it in one position and another perpendicular to it by rotating through 90 . iii. In all, six readings of the diameter of the wire are taken. Hence mean diameter and radius of the wire is found out. iv. Adjust the spirit level so that the air bubble is at the centre. Note down the reading of the micrometer screw (M) attached to it. This is zero reading. (This contains main scale reading and circular scale reading.) v. Using a meter scale measure the length L of the experimental wire (A) from the point of suspension to the point fixed on the frame. vi. Add half kg weight to experimental wire, wait for two minutes. Bring the air bubble in the Spirit level at the centre. Note the main scale and circular scale reading of the micrometer (M) of searle s apparatus. Repeat the above procedure, each time by adding half kg weight to the hanger. vii. Take six readings for six different weights. Care should be taken that elastic limit is not crossed. viii. Decrease the load in same steps of half kg weight and note the corresponding reading for a given load for unloading. Find the mean of the two readings corresponding to loading and unloading. ix. Find the extension (elongation) produced in the wire for every load. Observations: i. of micrometer (M) attached to Searle s apparatus, No. of divisions on circular scale N = 100, pitch (P) = x5 = cm5 = cm = PN = cm100 = cm ii. of micrometer for diameter of wire, No. of divisions on circular scale = N = 100 Pitch (P) = x5 = cm5 = cm = PN = cm100 = cm Zero error of micrometer = Z = ..... cm iii. Original length of the experimental wire (A) = L = .... cm TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 3 Observation table: i. For radius of the wire: Obs. No a (cm) b c = b a + c (cm) Corrected diameter d = (a + c) Z (cm) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mean corrected diameter = d = ...... cm Radius = r = d2 = ..... cm ii. For extension of wire: Load M (gm-wt) Loading Unloading Mean reading a (cm) Exten-sion for each load e (cm) Exten-sion for 1000 gm-wt e (cm) x (cm) n y = n (cm) x + y (cm) x (cm) n n = y (cm) x+ y (cm) 1. 0 ao = a0 a0 = 2. 500 a1 = a1 a0 = a2 a0 =3. 1000 a2 = a2 a0 = a3 a1 = 4. 1500 a3 = a3 a0 = a4 a2 = 5. 2000 a4 = a4 a0 = a5 a3 = 6. 2500 a5 = a5 a0 = Mean extension e = ...... cm TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 4 Graph: The graph of extension e against load M is plotted with (0, 0) origin. Calculations: i. Y = 2gLr 1000e' ii. Y = 2gLr 1slope Result: i. Young s modulus of the material of the wire (by calculation) = .....dyne/cm2 ii. Young s modulus of the material of the wire (by graph) = ......dyne/cm2 Precautions: i. Measure the diameter of the wire accurately. ii. Rotate the circular scale of Searle s apparatus in one direction for loading and in opposite direction for unloading to avoid error due to backlash. iii. Readings of loading and unloading should be taken within elastic limit. iv. Once the wire is loaded or unloaded wait for complete extension of the wire. Space for calculation: Slope = 2121yyxx 1slope= 2121xxyy e (cm) Y X (0, 0) M (gm-wt) Scale on X-axis 1 cm = ..... on Y-axis 1 cm = ..... (x1, y1) (x2, y2)TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 6 EXPERIMENT Aim: i. To find the force constant. ii. Effective mass of helical spring by plotting T2-m graph using method of oscillations. Apparatus: Spring supported from rigid support, pointer, scale, masses each of 50 g slotted weights with hanger each of 50 g (or whichever is convenient), stop watch. Diagram: Formula: i. F = kx where, F = External force x = corresponding extension produced k = force constant ii. Mass of the helical spring = Ms = 3 (Intercept on x-axis of T2 - m graph) Procedure: i. Fix one end of the spring to a rigid support and attach a pointer to the other end which can move along a vertical scale. ii. Hang the hanger with total weight 250 g and note the reading of the pointer. This is initial reading x0. iii. Take three readings less than the initial reading by decreasing weights in the hanger in equal steps. Note down the corresponding reading (x) of the pointer in each case. iv. Take three readings greater than the initial reading in the hanger in equal steps. Note down the corresponding reading (x) of the pointer in each case. v. Hence determine extension in each case. vi. Hang the hanger alone, if required add masses in the hanger, say total mass 100 g. vii. Displace the mass (m) (along with hanger) slightly by pulling gently and oscillate the spring in the vertical plane. viii. Measure the time required for suitable number of oscillations (say 10 or 15 or 20). Repeat this for two more times. ix. Hence determine periodic time (T) for that mass (m). x. Increase the mass (m) in the hanger in equal steps of 50 g and find out periodic time (T) for each mass (m). Hence T2 in each case. Pointer Spring scale Masses/slotted weights each of 50 g or whichever is convenient Rigid supportDetermination of Force Constant and Mass of Helical Spring 02 TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 12 12 Determination of Surface Tension of Water 03 1- (b)1- (a) 1- (d)1- (c)Diagram - 1 EXPERIMENT Aim: To determine the surface tension of a water using capillary rise method. Apparatus: Travelling microscope, capillary tube, beaker containing water (liquid), stand, pin, with wax, etc. Diagram: M1 - Travelling microscope focussed on liquid meniscus M2 - Travelling microscope focussed on tip of reference pin Formula: T = rh g2cos Where, T = Surface tension of liquid (water) r = Radius of the capillary tube h = Height of water column = Density of water g = Acceleration due to gravity = 980 cm/s2 = Angle of contact between water and solid h1 h23 - (i) Inverted image of raised liquid in the capillary (meniscus) 3 - (ii) Inverted image of reference pinDiagram - 3 Diagram - 2 M1M2Liquid (water) Beaker Wooden BlockRetort stand Reference pin Capillary tube h Experimental set upTARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 13 13 Procedure: I. To measure radius r of the capillary tube: i. Hold the capillary tube horizontal in the clamp of a retort stand and focus the travelling microscope on its bore at one end. Adjust the travelling microscope to such position that one of the cross wires (See diagram 1 - a) vertical cross wire is tangential to the bore at one point. Note down this reading a with proper scale of the travelling microscope. ii. Now move the travelling microscope in such a way that the cross wire is tangential to diametrically opposite point on the bore with respect to 1 - (a) position. See diagram 1 - (b). Note down the reading b of same scale of the travelling microscope. iii. Move the travelling microscope in such a way that horizontal cross wire is tangential to the bore at one point (See diagram 1 - (c)). Note this reading c on the proper scale of travelling microscope. iv. Lastly move the travelling microscope in such a way that the horizontal cross wire is tangential to the bore which is diametrically opposite to point of 1 - (c). Note down this reading d on the proper scale of travelling microscope. II. To measure the height of water column h : i. Take clean dry capillary tube whose radius is to be found out. Fix this capillary tube in a hole drilled in a piece of cork. A long thin needle (or a pin with wax can also be used as reference pin) called reference pin is also passed through the cork . Reference pin is very close to the capillary tube and parallel to it. The cork is then clamped firmly. ii. A clean beaker filled with water upto its rim is placed over the wooden block of proper height. iii. Now adjust the position of capillary tube and the reference pin in such a way that capillary tube dips in water and tip of the pin just touches the surface of the water. This arrangement is shown in diagram - 2. iv. Remove air bubbles in the capillary if required with the help of rubber tube attached to the upper end of capillary tube. v. Move the travelling microscope and adjust it in M1 position. Focus the microscope on the meniscus in the capillary. This is shown in diagram 3 - (i). Care should be taken that horizontal cross wire is tangential to meniscus. Note down the reading (h1). vi. Take away the beaker without disturbing the cork with capillary tube and reference pin. Bring the travelling microscope infront of the pin. Focus it on this pin. Adjust the cross wire (cross point) touching the tip of the pin. This is shown in diagram 3 - (ii). Note down the reading h2 . vii. Repeat for h1 and h2 again for twice or thrice by dipping the capillary tube to different levels in the water. Observations: of travelling microscope = Smallest division on number of divisions on Value of smallest division on = M = .... cm Total number of divisions on = N = ..... = MN = .... cm TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 16 16 Verification of Newton s law of cooling 04 EXPERIMENT Aim: To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. Apparatus: A calorimeter, thermometer, wooden enclosure (or double walled enclosure), a stop watch, arrangement of heating water. Diagram: Formula: ddt = k ( 0) Where, ddt = Rate of fall of temperature = Temperature of (hot) body 0 = Temperature of surrounding (Room temperature) k = constant of proportionality Procedure: i. Fill the calorimeter to nearly two third of its capacity with hot water at about 75 C to 85 C [( 0) should be small]. ii. Place the calorimeter in the enclosure. Insert a thermometer in the hot water. iii. Record the temperature ( ) of the hot water at regular intervals of one minute as it cools. Note down the readings of temperature while cooling for 30 to 40 minutes. During this period the temperature ( ) of hot water falls by about 30 C. iv. Plot a graph of temperature against time t as shown in graph - 1. This is a cooling curve. Draw tangents at five different points approximately equidistant, on this curve with the help of plane mirror. For this, first draw normal and then perpendicular to the normal tangent with the help of plane mirror. Find the slope of the tangents ddt at five different temperatures and complete the second observation table of and ddt . Wooden box Hot waterCalorimeterThermometer TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 28 28 EXPERIMENT Aim: To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. ( 2TTorll = constant, if n and m are constant.) Apparatus: A tunning fork, sonometer, rubber pad, paper rider, a set of slotted weights. Diagram: Formula: n = 12l Tm where, m = Mass per unit length of sonometer wire n = Frequency of tuning fork l = Vibrating length of the sonometer wire T = Tension in the wire = Mg m = 214n 2T l or n = Sonometer (II) Relation between the length of a given wire and tension 06 l B1 B2WSPH T T tableH hanger with weightsP pulleyW wireB1 B2 movable bridgesS sonometerR Paper rider R TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 29 29 Procedure: i. Keep sonometer wire under tension (T) about one kg-wt including weight of the hanger. ii. Start with the smallest distance between the bridges. Keep paper rider on the wire midway between the bridges. iii. Hold the given tuning fork by the stem and strike it lightly with rubber pad. Keep it on the box of sonometer. iv. Adjust the distance between the bridges so that can vibrate in unison with the given tuning fork. For a particular length of the wire, the rider flutters and falls off. This happens when natural frequency of the wire becomes equal to that of the frequency of tuning fork for that tension. v. Measure the vibrating length l of the wire. Repeat the procedure twice for one value of tension to get more accurate vibrating length. vi. Repeat the above procedure for five different tensions. vii. Plot the graph of l2 against T. Observations: Frequency of tuning fork = .... Hz Observation table: Obs. No. Mass M (g) Tension T = Mg (dyne) Vibrating length of the wire l2 (cm2) 2Tl (dyne/cm2) l1 (cm) l2 (cm) Mean l (cm) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mean 2Tl = .............dyne/cm2 Graph: l2 (cm2) Y X (0, 0) T (dyne) Scale on X-axis 1 cm = ..... on Y-axis 1 cm = ..... (x1, y1) (x2, y2) Slope = 2122yyxx 1slope = 2121xxyy TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 30 30 Calculations: i. m = 214n 2meanT l ..........g/cm ii. m = 214n 1slope ......g/cm Result: i. Mass per unit length of the wire (or linear density) by calculation = m = ......g/cm. ii. Mass per unit length of the wire (or linear density) by graph = m = .....g/cm iii. The graph of l2 against T is a straight line passing through the origin. This verifies second law of sonometer. T l2 (n, m are constant) Precautions: i. Paper rider should always be kept on the wire midway between the two bridges. ii. Strike the tunning fork gently on the rubber pad and hold it at its stem when setting into vibrations. iii. Keep the wire initially at sufficient tension. iv. Avoid air disturbance. Space for calculation: TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 32 32 Use of Resonance Tube 07 EXPERIMENT Aim: i. To determine velocity of sound in air at room temperature. ii. To find out unknown frequency of tuning fork. Apparatus: A long glass jar filled with water and sand (little amount) at the bottom, resonance tube, set of tuning forks, retort stand, meter scale, vernier calliper, rubber pad, etc. Diagram: Formula: i. End correction = e = d = .......cm where d is diameter of resonance tube. ii. V = 4(nL)mean Where n = Frequency of tuning fork L = Correct vibrating air column. iii. V = 4 1Slope iv. nx = ()meanxnLL Procedure: i. Measure the inner diameter (d) of the resonance tube with the help of the upper jaws of the vernier calliper. Take three readings. Hence calculate end correction. ii. Hold the resonance tube vertical with the help of retort stand in the glass jar as shown in diagram. iii. Strike the tuning fork of highest frequency gently on the rubber pad and hold it near the mouth of the resonance tube, so that the prong of the tuning fork vibrate in vertical plane. Adjust the length of the vibrating air column of the resonance tube so that maximum sound called resonance is heard. Clamp the tube. L = l + elGWSTeRAntinodeT Tuning fork R Resonance tube G Glass jar S Sand W Water TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 33 33 iv. Measure the length of the air column from the surface of the water level to the open end of the resonance tube using meter scale. v. Repeat the procedure twice for one tuning fork. vi. Repeat complete procedure for rest of the tuning forks. Remember start taking readings with highest frequency and lowest vibrating air column also for unknown frequency. vii. Find the correct vibrating length of the air column for each frequency. Observations: of vernier calliper = = value of the smallest division on divisions on = cm = cm End correction = e = d = ......cm Observation table: i. For inner diameter of the tube: Obs. No. a (cm) b (cm) c = b (cm) a + c = d (cm) 1. 2. 3. Mean d = ........ cm ii. For resonating length: Obs. No. Frequency n (Hz) Vibrating length Corrected length L = l + e (cm) 1L (cm 1) nL (Hz - cm) l1 (cm) l2 (cm) Mean l (cm) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. nx Lx = x1L= Mean (nL) = ...... Hz - cm = ....... cm/s TARGET Publications Mechanics, Heat and Sound Std. XII Sci. : Physics Practical Handbook 34 34 Graph: Slope = 2121yyxx 1slope = 2121xxyy Calculations: i. 4(nL) = v ii. nx = ()xnL meanL iii. 41slope = v Result: i. Velocity of sound at room temperature (by calculation) = v = ..... cm/s ii. Velocity of sound at room temperature (by graph) = v = ..... cm/s iii. Unknown frequency (by calculation) = nx = ..... Hz iv. Unknown frequency (by graph) = nx = ......Hz Precautions: i. Strike the tuning fork gently on rubber pad. ii. Hold the vibrating tuning fork just above the mouth of the resonance tube. iii. Do not bring ear close to the the tube. iv. Hold the resonance tube exactly vertical. Space for calculation: Scale On x-axis 1 cm = .... On y-axis 1 cm = .... x1L (x1, y1) (x2, y2) nx 1L(cm 1) (0, 0) n Hz X Y