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Indian Medicinal Plants - iauamol.ac.ir

GuidingFactors Firstofall,letmeacknowledgewithgratitudethecontributionofthefollowing referenceworkswhichsynchronisedthesynonymsandmedicinalpropertiesof


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Indian Medicinal Khare (Ed.)Indian Medicinal PlantsAn Illustrated DictionaryWith Pictures of Crude KhareB- / , Janak PuriNew Delhi- of Congress Control Number: ISBN: - - - - Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg Springer Science+Business Media, rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without thewritten permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC., Spring Street,New York, NY , USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarlyanalysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adap-tation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafterdeveloped is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks,and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression ofopinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary on acid-free paper SPIN: Dedicated tothe distinguished revived the glory ofIndian medicinal and aromatic plantsin the Rashtrapati FactorsFirst of all, let me acknowledge with gratitude the contribution of the followingreference works which synchronised the synonyms and medicinal properties ofIndian medicinal plants: A Catalogue of Indian Synonyms of the Medicinal Plants of Indiaby MoodeenSheriff ( ). (The first exhaustive compilation of synonyms of Indian medic-inal plants in regional languages, besides Latin and English). Indian Medicinal Plantsby Lt. Col. Kirtikar and Major Basu ( ). Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plantsby Col. Sir Ram Nath Chopra et al. (CSIR, ). Useful Plants of India(CSIR, ;basedonThe Wealth of Indiaseries, Vol. I , ). Dictionary of Indian Medicinal Plantsby Akhtar Husain et al. (CIMAP, ).Based on this legacy,Indian Medicinal Plants. An Illustrated Dictionaryis aimedat bringing out an updated Active Study Dictionary of plant sources of Indianmedicine, as a companion volume of my earlier bookEncyclopedia of IndianMedicinal Plants/Indian Herbal Remedies, published by synonyms have been selected from the following sources: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India(Vol. I to IV). Standard Nomenclature of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants(CCRAS, ). Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda(Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth/ NationalAcademy of Ayurveda, ). Plants of Sharangadhara Samhitaby Prof. Chunekar and Dr. K. Pondel(National Academy of Ayurveda, ).VIIIGuiding Factors Plants of Bhava Prakashby Prof. Chunekar and Dr. Hota (NationalAcademy of Ayurveda, ). Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS). Publishedliterature. Dravyagun Vigyaan, Vol. II (Hindi) by Dr. Priyavrata Sharma ( ).Unani synonyms have been selected from the following sources: The National Formulary of Unani Medicine. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM). Published litera-ture. Unani Dravyagunaadarsh(Hindi) by Daljit Singh (Ayurvedic and Tibbi Acade-my, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, ).Siddha/Tamil synonyms have been selected from the following sources: Formulary of Siddha Medicine. (Indian Medical Practitioners CooperativePharmacy and Store Ltd.,IMPCOPS, Chennai). The Wealth of India(Vol. II to XI). Dictionary of Indian Medicinal Plants(CIMAP). The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India(Vol. I to IV). Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS). medicinal plants shortlisted by the National Academy of Ayurveda andthe department of Indian Systems of Medicine (AYUSH) have been included inthe applications of medicinal plants are based on the following sources: German Commission Emonographs. ESCOPmonographs. WHOmonographs. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India(Vol. I to IV) for traditionally FactorsIX The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The British Herbal Compendium. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, .For further study, all major findings and leads, including references to re-search documents and journals, can be reached through the following books (insequence): The Wealth of IndiaFirst Supplement Series (Vol. I to V). The Wealth of Indiaoriginal series (Vol. II to XI and revised Vol. to ). Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants(Vol. I to V, CDRI). Potter s New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations( edn). Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, . PDR for Herbal Medicines, . The Treatise on Indian Medicinal Plants(Vol. I to VI). Additional sources, as cited at appropriate of crude herbs is based on the recommendations ofThe AyurvedicPharmacopoeia of India(Vol. I to IV) andStandard Nomenclature of AyurvedicMedicinal Plants(CCRAS).Roman spellings of Ayurvedic synonyms, introduced for the first time byRashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth (National Academy of Ayurveda), New Delhi- , have been followed. Asiatic Society s markings are now obsolete. Thetext has been formatted following the style-manual ofThe Wealth of references of research journals are beyond the purview of this text is based on authentic treatises which are the outcome of scientificscreening and critical evaluation by eminent scholars. As I have already indicated,readers, if they so desire, can always refer back to a particular research papercited in the original source. I did not follow the trend of enumerating researchpapers which were not actually consulted by me. Researchers should consult theDatabase on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurvedaseries (CCRAS)andReviews onIndian Medicinal Plantsseries (ICMR) for detailed Indian common names have been spelled according to their actual pro-nunciation. The way was shown by the National Academy of Ayurveda byintroducing aa in the spellings. InThe Review of Natural Products(Facts andComparisons) edition., Khat, Chaat, Chat, qaad, jaad and Miraa have beenXGuiding Factorsincluded among the common names of Catha edulis, while the common nameof Gymnema sylvestre is spelled as Gurmar instead of Gurmaar. Perhaps theactual pronunciation was not known to the editors. In India, O is pronouncedin a specific ascent, as in Om, that is the reason uu is used instead of oo. Simi-larly, Sanskrit synonyms end with a, that is why aa is used for facilitating properpronunciation. These changes have been included so that Indian names arepronounced few words of (MedicinalChemistry),whowas the senior editor (chemistry and pharmacology) ofThe Wealth of Indiaseriesfor years, reviewed the entire text. He remained closely associated with all myprojects and deserves much more than a few formal words of thanks. Sarita Joshi,my research associate, bore the brunt of the workload throughout the difficultphases of the project. For this she also deserves a special , I would like to add that a concerted effort has been made in the bookto rationalise the therapeutic coverage of Indian medicinal plants as part of mycommitment to scientific KhareSociety for New Age HerbalsB- / , Janak Puri, New Delhi- AAbelmoschus esculentus(Linn.) Hibiscus Native to tropical Africa;cultivated throughout India, up to , Gumbo, Lady Finger, Bhaandi, Bhindaka, Bhindi, Immature pods (decoc-tion) emollient, demulcent anddiuretic (in catarrhal affections,ardor urine, dysuria, dysentery).Seeds fraction of the fresh watery ex-tract of the seeds causes destructionof cancerous cell growthin are reported to exhibit antitu-mour activity. An ethanolic extractof pods was effective against Gram-positive ripe fruits contain quercetin,hyperin (hyperoside), hydrolysate ofprecipitated mucilage, proanthocyani-dins,D-glucose,D-glucuroni candgalacturonic flowers contain flavonol gly-cosides and A. webbianaLindl. Kashmir, HimachalPradesh, Tehri-Garhwal and otherareas of northern India, at altitudesof , , Pindrow-Fir, Silver-Fir, TheWest-Himalayan Low-Level Taalisha (related sp.).Folk Badar, Morinda, Raisalla, Uses similar to those , flavonoids, glycosidesand steroids of the leaf were foundto have mast cell stabilizing action inrats. Terpenoids and flavonoids of-fered bronchoprotection against his-tamine challenge in guinea pigs. Theulcer protective action of petroleumether, benzene and chloroform frac-tion has been attributed to steroidalcontents. Terephthalic acid demethylester (TADE), isolated from the leaf,exhibited protection against inflamma-tion and bronchospasm in guinea extract of leaves showed sig-nificant anxiolytic effects on all theparadigms of anxiety, barbiturate hyp-nosis , a lanostane-basedtriterpene lactone, isolated from theA2Abies , showed mild activity againstGram-positive bacteria but exhibit-ed potent antibacterial activity againstGram-negative bacteriaE. A. spectabilis(D. Don) The Himalayas fromKashmir to Assam at altitudes of , , Indian Silver Fir, TheWest-Himalayan High-Level Fir,The East-Himalayan Taalisa, Taalisapatra,Taalisha, Patraadhya, Dhaatriparni, Badar, Chilrow, Morinda,Raisalla, Taalispatra. (Tallispatra,Taalispatri and Talespattre arealso equated with the leaves ofCinnamomum tamalaNees.)Action Expectorant, bronchial seda-tive, decongestant, anticatarrhal,antiseptic, application Fir (Abies albaMiller) needle oil in catarrhal ill-ness of upper and lower respiratorytract (internally and externally);externally in rheumatic and neu-ralgic pains. Contraindicated inbronchial asthma and whoopingcough. (German Commission E.)A biflavonoid, abiesin,n-triaconta-nol, beta-sitosterol and betuloside arepresent in the essential oil from leaves con-tains alpha-pinene,l-limonene, delta-carene, dipentene,l-bornyl acetate andl-cardinene as major Needles g powder.(APIVol. IV.)Abroma Ambroma augustaLinn. Throughout the hotter andmoister parts of India, from Punjaband Uttar Pradesh, eastwardsto Arunachal Pradesh, Assam,Meghalaya and Tripura, ascendingto , m, southwards in Perennial Indian Hemp,Devil s Pishaacha Kaarpaasa, Kumal, Rootbark emmena-gogue (used for dysmenorrhoea,amenorrhoea), abortifacient, root contains abromine (be-taine), friedelin, abromasterol, abro-masterol A, choline, beta-sitosterol,stigmasterol and octacosanol. Leaves,reported tobe useful in treating uterineAAbutilon indicumLinn. , contain taraxerol, its acetateand Leaf juice g. (CCRAS.)Abrus precatorius Papilionaceae; Throughout the country,ascending to an altitude of about , m in the outer Indian Wild Liquorice,Jequirity, Crab s Eye, Gunjaa, Gunjaka,Chirihintikaa, Raktikaa, Chirmi-ti, Kakanti, Kabjaka, Tiktikaa,Kaakananti, Kaakchinchi. (Not tobe used as a substitute for liquorice.)Unani Ghunghchi, Chirmiti, Uterine stimulant, abortifa-cient, toxic. Seeds teratogenic. Apaste of seeds is applied on with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiahas indicated the use of seedsin contain abrin, a toxalbumin,indole derivatives, anthocyanins, ste-rols, terpenes. Abrin causes aggluti-nation of erythrocytes, haemolysis andenlargement of lymph glands. A non-toxic dose of abrin ( . mcg/kg bodyweight), isolated from the seeds of redvar., exhibited a noticeable increase inantibody-forming cells, bone marrowcellularity and alpha-esterase-positivebone marrow administration of agglutinins,isolated from the seeds, is useful in thetreatment of hepatitis and seed extract exhibited antischis-tosomal activity in male methanolic extract of seeds in-hibited the motility of human roots contain precol, abrol, gly-cyrrhizin ( . %) and alkaloids abra-sine and precasine. The roots also con-tain triterpenoids abruslactone A,methyl abrusgenate and present in the rootsare also present in leaves and fruticulosusWall. Ex Wight andArn. synonymA. pulchellusWall., May. (Shveta Gunjaa) isalso used for the same medicinal pur-poses asA. Detoxified seed g.(APIVols. I, II.)Abutilon indicumLinn. A. indicumG. Throughout the hotterparts of India. Found as a weed inthe sub-Himalayan tract and otherhills up to , Country Mallow, FloweringMaples, Chinese Atibalaa, Kankatikaa, arabicaWilld. Kanghi, Musht-ul-Ghaul, Kanghi, Kakahi, Dried, whole plant febrifuge, anthelmintic, demulcent,diuretic, anti-inflammatory (inurinary and uterine discharges,piles, lumbago). Juice of the plant emollient. Seeds demulcent(used in cough, chronic cystitis),laxative. Leaves cooked andeaten for bleeding piles. Flowers antibacterial, astringent, diuretic. Root nervine tonic, given in paralysis;also prescribed in with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of the root ingout, polyuria and haemorrhagic plant contains mucilage, tan-nins, asparagines, gallic acid and ses-quiterpenes. Presence of alkaloids,leucoanthocyanins, flavonoids, sterols,triterpenoids, saponins and cardiacglycosides is also is diuretic. Gallic acidis analgesic. Mucilages act by reflex,loosen cough as well as bronchial ten-sion. Essential oil antibacterial, drug exhibits immunologicalactivity. It augments antibody inanimals. EtOH ( %) extract , syn-onymA. asiaticum(Linn.) Sweet, ex-hibits anticancer include:Abutilon avicen-naeGaertn., synonymA. theophrastiiMedic.;A. fruticosumGuill. et al.;A. hirtum(Lam.) Sweet, and Arn.;A. muticumSweet, synonymA. glaucumSweet; andA. polyandrumWight and Arn., syn-onymA. persicum(Burm. f.) Mer-rill (known as Naani-khapaat, Jhinaki-khapaat, Kanghi, Makhamali-khapaatand Khaajavani-khapaat, respectively,in folk medicine).Dosage Root g powder. (APIVol I.)Acacia arabicaWilld. A. nilotica(Linn.) (Benth.) Throughout the drier partsof Babul, Black Babul, IndianGum arabic Babbuula, Babbuuri,Baavari, Aabhaa, Shuulikaa,Shitaka, Kinkiraata, Yugmakantaka,Sukshmapatra, Aqaaqia, Babuul, Kikar,Mughilaan, Karu-velamaram,Karuvelei. Velampisin (gum).Action Stembark astringent,spasmolytic, demulcent (soothing agentfor inflammatory conditions of therespiratory, digestive and urinarytracts). Pods used in urogenitaldisorders. Seeds hypoglycaemicin normal rats; no such effect inAAcacia catechu(Linn. f.) rats. Seed oil , pods and gum resin usedin diarrhoea and with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of stembarkin acute diarrhoea and contents of the bark variesconsiderably ( %). Several poly-phenolic compounds have been re-ported in the bark, also in the whole pod contains % tan-nins and % after the removal seeds ofA. benthamii,A. , probably same as , are considered seed components stimulate in-sulin secretion by beta gum contains galactose;l-ara-binose,l-rhamnose and aldobiouronicacids, also flowers contain flavonoids kaempferol- -glucoside, iso-quercitrinand Stembark g fordecoction. (APIVol. I.)Acacia Bihar and South Aadaari (related sp.)Folk Ari, SeeA. catechu(Linn. f.) Drier regions of India,particularly Punjab, MadhyaPradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,Andhra Pradesh, Orissa Cutch tree, Khadira, Kadara,Somavalka, Gaayatri, Dantdhaavan,Kantaki, Raktasaara (heartwoodextract).Unani Khair, Kaat, Katthaa(heartwood extract).Siddha/Tamil Karunkaali(bark), Kalippakku, , Kaasukkatti(heartwood extract).Action Cutch from wood powerful astringent (in urinary andvaginal discharge), antidiarrhoeal,haemostatic; used for treatingexcessive mucous discharges,haemorrhages, relaxed conditionsof gums, throat and mouth,stomatitis, irritable bowel; also usedas an antileprotic with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicatestheuseofdriedpiecesof heartwood in inflammations, skindiseases and urinary disorders, recom-mendsitsuseasabloodpurifier,indise ases caused by lipid (the concentrated extract)contains tannins %, catechin %, phlobatannins including cate-chutannic acid %; flavonoids in-cluding quercetin, quercitrin, fisetin;gums, resins, pigments. The gum fromA. catechuis a good substitute for extract hypoglycaemic tonormal albino rats, but not effectivein diabetic rats. The saline extract ofseeds shows leuco-agglutinating activ-ity against leukaemic cells. It agglu-tinates white cells from patients withdifferent types of leukaemia. The acti-vity is inhibited by simple sugars. Rootextract shows antibacterial and fungi-cidal heartwood contains a hepato-protective principle and antibacterial prop-erties of catechu result from its hightannin in pale catechu shows hy-potensive (+)-catechin in black and pale catechumay protect against liver damage; (+)-catechin is also thought to protectagainst experimentally induced ulcersin animals; (+)-catechin (cianidanol) isassociated with fatal anaemia. Methyl-catechin, one of the major metabolitesof (+)-catechin, inhibits the bindingof monocytes to vascular endothelialcells; thus, the catechin found in cate-chu may reduce atherosclerosis. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)Dosage Heartwood g fordecoction. (APIVol. I.)Acacia A. Rajasthan, Gujarat,Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu andAndhra Pradesh on dry and Red Khadira (related sp.).Siddha/Tamil Katthakkaambu(heartwood extract).Folk Laal Uses similar to those bark and leaves are used for ul-cerated abscesses and toothache; woodfor ( %) extract spermicidaland concinna(Willd.) Asinuata(Lour.) Merrill;A. rugata(Lamk.) Tropical jungles throughoutIndia, especially in the Saptalaa, Shitalaa,Saatalaa, Shrivalli, Shikaakaai, Kharunb Seekai, Febrifuge, expectorant,emetic, spasmolytic, diuretic,antidiarrhoeal. Leaves an infusionis given in malarial fever. Pods andseeds decoction is used to removedandruff (known as Shikaakaai),extensively used as a detergent. Anointment is used for skin extract is used in bark yields a saponin which,on hydrolysis, yields lupeol, alpha-spinasterol and acacic acid also yield saponins ( . %). Sug-ars identified are glucose, arabinoseand leaves contain alkaloids, nico-tine and colycotomine, a triterpenoidsaponin and oxalic, tartaric, citric, suc-cinic and ascorbic bark saponins are spermicidal,also haemolytic and spasmolytic. A de-coction of pods relieves biliousness andacts as a farnesiana(L.) Native to West Indies; nowoccurring throughout Cassie Flower, CassieAbsolute, Sweet Arimeda, Vilaayati Kikar, Gandbabuul,Guyaa Babuul, Durgandh Kastuurivel, Bark astringent, demul-cent, anthelmintic, antidysenteric,anti-inflammatory (used in stom-atitis, ulcers, swollen gums, dentalcaries, bronchitis, skin diseases).Ripe pods contain tannins and sev-eral polyphenolic compounds. Essen-tial oil from pods direct muscle relax-ant, cardiac depressant and plant parts are used in in-sanity, epilepsy, delirium and ethanolic extract of unripe podsyields a glycosidal fraction ( . %)which exhibits anti-inflammatory ac-tivity. It also shows significant antibac-terial curing sores, gums and loose flowers are the source of main constituents of the flowersare benzyl, anisic, decylic and cuminicaldehydes, as well as traces of geraniol,farnesol and A. Dry regions of the country,especially in Punjab, Rajasthan andMadhya White Arimeda, Arimedaka,Arimanja, Irimeda, Vitakhadir,Godhaa-skandha, Kath Safed, Vilaayati Babuul,Guyaa Valval, Safed Babuul, Safed Kikar, Bark bitter, demulcent andcooling; used in biliousness andbronchitis. Seeds haemaggluti-nating activity has been antisyphilitic and antibac-terial. Gum ( %) extract of aerial parts hypotensive and central nervous sys-tem pennata(L.) rootbark contains leucophleol,leucophleoxol and pennata(L.) Throughout India; ascend-ing to , m in the Lataakhadira, Aadaari, Indan, Indu. IyakKoluntu (tender leaves).Folk Bark antibilious, antiasth-matic. Leaf stomachic, styptic(for bleeding gum), antiseptic (forscalding of urine). A decoction ofyoung leaves is taken for body pain,headache and bark contains tannin %, lupe-ol and alpha-spinasterol. Stem A. verekGuillem Native to Sudan. Cultivatedin dry parts of western Gum arabic Shveta The tree yields the true Gumarabic of commerce. Mucilaginous,demulcent, emulsifying agent. Usedas an ingredient in compounds fortreatment of diarrhoea, , antihaemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory. Stembark anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic. Root used for dysentery and gum consists mainly of is the salt of an organic acid, ara-bic acid, with metals such as calcium,magnesium and stembark gives octacosanol,beta-amyrin, uvaol, beta-stosterol andits glucoside and erthrodiol. An al-kaloid, dimethyltryptamine has beenisolated from the A. WestBengal,Bihar, Shveta Khadira, Kadara, Khor, Safed Cutch is prepared from theheartwood. SeeA. ferrugineaDC. is also equat-ed with Shveta torta(Roxb.) A. caesiaWright and Arn. Throughout India in the dryand intermediate zones; ascendingto an altitude of about , m inthe Aadaari, Lataa Khadira(related sp., pennata).Siddha/Tamil Kariyundu, Araar, Chilar (Punjab), Aila(Maharashtra).Action Flower anti-inflammatory, antisep-tic (in skin diseases). Bark contains % tannins, triterpene alcohol,saponins of acacic acid, lupeol anda steroid, acaciol. An alkaloid,tryptamine, is present in the rootand stem plant parts are used incough, bronchitis, measles, tubercularfistula and in the treatment of men-strual disorders. The bark is used forwashing the Common in plains,as a weed in gardens; also inwastelands, especially in Bangaloreand Kuppi (smaller var.).Folk Daadari (Gujarat).Action SeeA. Orissa, Tamil Nadu,Karnataka and Birch-leaved Leaves stomachic, al-terative; prescribed in digestivedisorders, dyspepsia, colic, Occurs throughout theplains of India, ascending the hillsin Orissa up to Indian Kuppi, Muktavarchaa,HaritamanjariSiddha/Tamil Khokli,Kuppi, Antibacterial (leaf used inscabies). Plant emetic, expecto-rant (used in bronchitis, asthma,pneumonia). Tincture of freshplant is used in homoeopathyfor incipient phthisis with bloodyexpectorations, emaciation andarterial plant contains kaempferol;leaves and twigs contain acalyphamideand other amides, quinone, sterols,cyanogenic herb causes intestinal Compositae; Native to Brazil; found asa weed throughout the greater partof Trikantaka. (Differentfrom Gokshura; also equated withMartynia diandra,Martineacea,known as Kaakanaasaa.)Action Used in essential oil (yield . %) showedantibacterial and antifungal Common in tidal forestsalong the East and West coasts; alsodistributed in Meghalaya and Sea Krishna Saraiyaka.(Blue-flowered Katasaraiyaa.)Siddha/Tamil Decoction antacid (usedin dyspepsia with acid eructations),also diuretic (used in dropsy andbilious swellings). Aerial parts showeffect on nictitating root is a cordial attenuant andis used in debility associated withasthma, paralysis, air-dried plant contains an al-kaloid, acanthicifoline, and a A. Compositae; The western Himalayasfrom Kashmir to Milfoil, Yarrow, of Unani Medicinealso equatesLeonurus cardicaLinn. (Labiatae)with Gandana, Anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic (used in cold, flatulentcolic, heartburn), emmenagogue,cicatrizant, antidysenteric, anti-haemorrhagic, antipyretic, diapho-retic, diuretic, urinary application In dyspepticailments, such as mild, spasticdiscomforts of the gastrointestinaltract. As astringent, antispasmodic,choleretic, antibacterial. (GermanCommission E.) As diaphoretic. (TheBritish Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) In-ternally for feverish conditions,common cold and digestive com-plaints; topically for slow-healingwounds and skin inflammations.(The British Herbal Compendium.)The plant contains flavonoids, al-kaloids (achilleine), polyacetylenes,triterpenes, coumarins, tannins, sal-icylic acid, a volatile oil containinglinalool, camphor, sabinene, chamazu-lene and other Achilleine helps arrest internaland external bleeding. Flavonoids con-tribute to the antispasmodic flavonoid apigenin is anti-in-flammatory, antiplatelet and spasmo-lytic. Alkaloids and bases are anti-inflammatory. Alkaloid betoncine isAAchyranthes Salicylic acid is anti-inflammatory. Chamazulene is anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic. (Nat-ural Medicines Comprehensive Data-base, .)Anextractoftheplantwasfoundto be rich in luteolin or luteolin -glucoside and can be used for thetreat-ment of hyperpigmentation of Manilkara zapota(Linn.)P. van RoyanManilkara achras(Mill.) FosbergSapota Native to Central chiefly in Maharashtra,Tamil Nadu and West Sapota, Sapodilla Plum, Sapotaa, Shimai Fruit antibilious. Seed diuretic. Fruit and bark bark contains latex ( %of which consists of gutta-percha-likesubstance); also contains tannin( . %). The seeds contain gum consists of approxi-mately % chicle, plus sugar, cornsyrup and Throughout the tropicaland subtropical regions, up to analtitude of , m, in the southernAndaman Prickly Chaff Apaamaarga, Chirchitaa,Shikhari, Shaikharika, Adahshalya,Mayura, Mayuraka, Kharamanjari,Kharapushpaa, Pratyakpushpaa,Aaghaat, Vashira, Chirchitta, Chichidaa, Astringent, pectoral (ashesof the plant used in asthma andcough), diuretic, hepatoprotective,emmenagogue. Benzene extract ofthe plant exhibited abortifacientactivity. The flowers, ground andmixed with sugar, are given formenorrhagia. Roots astringent,haemostatic. Seeds emetic; usedfor biliousness. Essential oil application As astringent,emetic. (Indian Herbal Pharma-copoeia.)Along with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of the wholeplant in lipid disorders and obesity, theroot for its blood-purifying plant juice and ash are usedfor treating bleeding piles. An alka-line powder of the plant is used inpreparing Kshaarasutra of Ayurvedicmedicine, which is recommended fortreating whole plant contains the alka-loids achyranthine and betaine. Achy-ranthine, a water-soluble alkaloid, isA12Achyranthes bidentataBlumereported to dilate blood vessels, low-er blood pressure, decrease heart rateand increase the rate and amplitude ofrespiration. It also shows spasmodiceffects on the rectus muscle of frog, di-uretic and purgative action in presence of ecdysterone andoleanolic acid is also reported in ashes of the plant yield largequantities of potash. The seeds yieldsaponins and oleanolic acid and its presence of tannins and Whole plant g fordecoction. Root g. (APIVols. II, III.) Ash mg to g.(CCRAS.)Achyranthes bidentataBlumeFamily The temperate and sub-tropical Himalayas from Kishtwarto Sikkim at , , m, Shveta Apaamaarga.(Rakta Apaamaarga is equatedwithAchyranthes rubra-fuscaHook. f. andA. verschaffeltiiLam.,synonymIresine herbstiiHook. f.)Siddha/Tamil Astringent, diuretic,spasmolytic. Plant is givenin whooping cough, roots water-soluble oligosaccharide,composed of six glucose units andthree mannose units, has been isolatedfrom the roots. It enhanced immuneresponse and prolonged survival timeof mice bearing Ehrlich roots contain free oleanolic acid( . %) and its saponins ( . %). Analcoholic extract of the root showedpresence of amino acids, steroids, tri-terpenoids, alkaloids and seeds afforded of the plant atrox(Bruchl) Aconitum The sub-alpine and alpineHimalayas between , and , Vatsanaabha (relatedsp.).Folk Poisonous, highly roots contain . % totalalkaloids of which pseudoaconitine is . %. Pseudoaconitine is biological-ly . times as active as aconitine. ( a poisonous species and is oneof the common constituents ofAconi-tum feroxof commerce.)Aconitum chasmanthumStapf ex The western Himalayasfrom Hazara to Kashmir andAAconitum in Himachal Pradesh,between altitudes of , m and , Indian Visha, Shringika-Visha,Vatsanaabha (related sp.).Folk Mohri, Meethaa Sedative, antirheumatic,analgesic, antitussive, Formulary ofIndia, Part I and Part II, equatedA. chasmanthumwith Vatsanaabha.(SeeA. ferox.) It has the same usesasA. ferox. The alkaloid contentof the root ranges from . to . %; includes chasmaconitine , equated withAconitumnapellusLinn., is indigenous to Cen-tral Europe (named after the Black seaport Aconis and known as Wolfsbane,Monkshood). Aconitum of homoeo-pathic medicine is an alkaloid obtainedfrom the roots and stems ofA. as an analgesic and sedative. Itcontains terpenoids up to . %, includ-ing aconitine and constituents ofA. napellusare aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconi-tine, -acetylacoitine, lappaconitine(diterpenoid-ester alkaloids), benza-conine, , mesaconitine and hyp-aconitine exert widespread effects oncardiac, neural and muscle tissue byactivitating sodium channels. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)Aconitine is absorbed through mu-cus membranes and the skin. (Fran-cis Brinker.) It is a cardiotoxin andinteracts with antiarrhythmics, anti-hypertensives, Digoxin/cardiac glyco-sides. (Sharon M. Herr.)Dosage Root mg powder.(CCRAS.)Aconitum Alpine regions of Chat-tadhar and Bhalesh ranges ofBhadarwah district in Jammu Vatsanaabha (relatedsp.).Folk Bashahr-Mohra, DudhiyaaBish, Safed Roots and leaves are used inrheumatism, rheumatic fever andacute roots contain . % total alka-loids, of which . % is The sub-alpine and alpinezones of the Garhwal Vatsanaabha (relatedsp.).Folk Bikh, Bis, Meethaa Sedative, carminative,anti-inflammatory (used for thetreatment of nervous system,digestive system; rheumatism,fever).A14Aconitum feroxWall. ex root alkaloids contain bishati-sine, bishaconitine, falconitine andmithaconitine. Treatment with cow smilk reduces cardiotoxic effect of feroxWall. ex The alpine Himalayas fromSikkim to Garhwal and Indian Aconite, Wolfsbane, Vatsanaabha, Visha,Amrita, Vajraanga, Sthaavaravisha,Vatsanaagaka, Shrangikavisha, Bish, Vasanaavi, Bacchanaag, Bish, MithaaZahar, Telia Narcotic, sedative, antilepro-tic, anti-inflammatory. Extremelypoisonous. (Roots possess depres-sant activity, but after mitigation incow s milk for days, they exhibitstimulant activity.)Key application In neuralgia.(Aconitum napellusL. has beenlisted byGerman Commission Eamong unapproved herbs.)The root contains diterpenoid alka-loids, which act as a powerful poisonthat affects the heart and central ner-vous system. Aconitine has a short-lived cardiotonic action followed bycardiac depression. Topically, aconi-tine has analgesic, anti-inflammatoryand anaesthetic heterophyllumWall. ex Cultivated at Manali andRahla in Himachal Pradesh. Alsofound in northwestern Himalayasat altitudes ranging from , to , Atis Root, Ativishaa, Arunaa,Vishaa, Shuklakandaa, Bhanguraa,Ghunapriyaa, Ghunavallabhaa,Kaashmiraa, Shishubhaishajyaa(indicating its use in paediatrics), Often regarded as non-poisosnous, antiperiodic, anti-inflammatory, astringent (usedin cough, diarrhoea, dyspepsia),tonic (used after fevers), febrifuge,antispasmodic (used in irritabil-ity of stomach and abdominalpains).Along with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of the dried,tuberous root in emesis and roots yield . % of total alka-loids, of which atisin is . %. Atisineis much less toxic than aconitine andAAconitum violaceumJacq. ex (The inert characterof the plant is well known to the hillpeople, who often use it as a vegetable.)The plant possesses potent immuno-stimulant Root . . g. (APIVol. I.)Aconitum laciniatum(Bruhl) The sub-alpine and alpineHimalayas of Sikkim betweenaltitudes of , m and , Vatsanaabha (relatedsp.).Folk Kaalo Poisonous. (Found mixedwith the roots ofA. feroxandA. spicatumof commerce.)Aconitum luridumHook. f. and The Himalayas fromeasternNepal to Chumbi at altitudes of , to , Vatsanaabha (relatedsp.).Action As potent asAconitum palmatumD. A. bisma( ) The alpine Himalayas ofSikkim, Nepal, the adjoining partsof southern Tibet, between altitudesof , m and , Prativishaa, Shyaamkan-daa, Root antiemetic, antidiar-rhoeal, antirheumatic, root contains diterpenoid alka-loids and a nitrogenous non-alkaloidcompound, benzamide. Alkaloids in-clude vakognavine, palmatisine, vaka-tisine, vakatisinine and root is intensely bitter, like qui-nine, is used withPiper longumfor di-arrhoea and vomiting; used externallyas an application for The alpine zone of theHimalayas of Sikkim and source of Bikh or Bish ofKolkata Nepal Vatsanaabha (relatedsp.).Action Antipyretic, roots yield . % of alkaloidswhich contain mainly pseudoaconitineand violaceumJacq. ex The alpine zone of theHimalayas from Gilgit to Vatsanaabha (relatedsp.).Folk Tilia Kachnaag, Nervine roots of the plant are re-ported to contain % Wild and cultivatedthroughout India in damp marshyplaces from to , m; commonin Manipur and Naga Sweet Flag, Vachaa, Ugragandhaa,Ugraa, Golomi, Shadgranthaa,Shataparvaa, Tikshnagandhaa,Kshudra-patra, Maangalyaa, Waj-e-Turki, Rhizome nervine tonic,hypotensive, tranquilizer, sedative(with neuroleptic and antianxietyproperties), analgesic, spasmolytic,anticonvulsant; used for bronchialcatarrh, chronic diarrhoea with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of the driedrhizomesasabraintonicinweakmem-ory, psychoneurosis and types of Calamus are usedin herbal medicine: type I AcoruscalamusL. ,adiploidAmerican var.; type II ( ), a European triploid;type III and type IV and , is carcinogenic in ani-mals. Volatile oil of types II, III andIV major constituent is usually beta-asarone (isoasarone), up to %. In-dian calamus oil contains asarone upto % and its beta-isomer. In type I,beta-asarone and other phenylpropa-noids are absent. It is superior in spas-molytic activity to the other practitioners mostly Shveta Vachaa(Haimavati, equated withAcorus gra-mineusScoland. Ex Ait., a diploid, isused internally. Unani physicians useParis polyphyllaSim. as essential oil-free alcoholic ex-tract ofA. calamuspossesses sedativeand analgesic potentiates pento-barbital, accounts for some, but not all,neurodepressive activity. Beta-asaroneis reportedly hallucinogenic. (FrancisBrinker.)The ethanolic extract of rhizomesshow significant antisecretory and an-tiulcerogenic activity; also, protectiveeffect against cytodestructive agents, Rhizome mgpowder. (APIVol. II.)Acorus gramineusSoland. ex Native to Japan, occasion-allymetwithinSikkimatanaltitude of , m, in Khasi Hills up to , Haimavati (white var. ofVachaa).Action Antispasmodic (used inabdominal colic). SeeA. A. acuminataWall. exRoyleFamily Native to Europe; grows intemperate Himalayas from Hazarato Baneberry Visha-phale (Kannada).Action Root antirheumatic,anti-inflammatory, nerve sedative,emetic, purgative; used in thetreatment of rheumatic fever,lumbago, scrofula, nervous disor-ders, plant is reported to containtrans-aconitic acid, which shows astrong cytostatic action. Its Me etheris active against Ehrlich s ascites folk medicine, roots are used incases of ovarian neuralgia, uterine ten-derness and sub-involution. They areadulterant of the roots ofHelleborusniger. Berries are poisonous; used top-ically for skin diseases. The toxic con-stituent is protoanemonin (lactone). Itis irritant to mucous A. australis(L. f.) radiata(Sw.) Throughout India, espe-cially common in Kumaon Hillsand the Nilgiris, below an altitudeof , Peacock s Mayurshikhaa, Madhu-chhadaa, Sahastrahi, Styptic, antibacterial, stems and leaves contain rutin,a styptic active principle. Anthelminticactivity, attributed to the fern, was notobserved in experiments on Root g powder.(CCRAS.)Actinodaphne A. The western Ghats, Orissaand Sikkim up to , Thali, Pisaa (Maharashtra).Action Infusion of leaves urinarytract disinfectant, antidiabetic, leaves contain a very smallamount of an amorphous also contain beta-sitosterol, hen-triacontanone, hentriacontanol andA18Adansonia -rhamnoside and bark gives an alkaloid, Native to tropical Africa;common along the west coast Baobab, Monkey Breadtree, African Sheet-phala, Ravanaam-likaa, Gorakshi, Gorakh Gorakh Imli; Cooling, refrigerant (allaysburning sensation). Leaves diaphoretic (used as a prophylacticagainst fevers). Fruit antidysen-teric, antiseptic, fruit pulp is a source of vita-min C ( . . mg/ g); driedpulp contains calcium and vitamin B .Furfural ( . %) is obtained after dis-tillation of the fruit. In Africa, driedleaves provide much of the dietary cal-cium. Aqueous extract of the bark isused for treating sickle cell infusion of the leaves and flow-ers is given in respiratory disorders.(Powdered leaves prevented crisis inasthma induced by histamine in guineapigs.) Dried fruit pulp also gives reliefin bronchial asthma, allergic dermati-tis and roots contain a flavanone Leguminosae; The western Ghats, theAndamans and sub-Himalayantract; also Coral Wood, Red Rakta Kanchana, Ghumchi (bigger var.).Action Astringent and styptic(used in diarrhoea, haemorrhagefrom the stomach, haematuria),anti-inflammatory (in rheumat-ic affections, gout). Seeds anticephalgic; also used for thetreatment of paralysis. A decoctionis given in pulmonary seed contains an anti-inflam-matory active principle, O-acetyletha-nolamine. The leaves contain octa-cosanol, dulcitol, glucosides of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The barkcontains sitgmasterol vasica A. Throughout India, up to analtitude of , Malabar Nut, Vaasaa, Vaasaka,Vaasikaa, Simhaasya, Simhaparni,Simhavadanaa, Vaajidanta, Vrisha, Expectorant (used inbronchial, asthmatic and pulmo-nary affections), antispasmodic, application As bronchodilatory,expectorant. (Indian HerbalPharmacopoeia.)The AyurvedicPharmacopoeia of Indiaindicates itsuse in chief quinazoline alkaloid vas-icine is reported in all parts of theplant, the highest being in inflores-cence. It is a bitter bronchodilator, res-piratory stimulant, hypotensive, car-diac depressant, uterotonic and aborti-facient. An aqueous solution of va-sicinone hydrochloride, when studiedin mice and dogs, was found to po-tentiate the bronchodilatory activityof aminophylline, also that of isopre-naline. Vasicinone exhibited smooth-muscle-relaxant properties of present in the plantshowed significant protection againstallergin-induced bronchial obstruc-tion in guinea leaves are found to activate thedigestive enzyme extract of the leaves showedsignificant antifungal activity Clarke,found in Kerala, is considered to bemore powerful and active thanA. and menorrhagia, also as an tinctoriaHenl. is equatedwith the red-flowered var. of Leaf ml leaves g for g powder. (APIVols. I,IV.)Adiantum A. North Kanara and theNilgiri and Palni hills at Hansapadi (related sp.).Action Rhizomes decoctionabortifacient. Astringent andemetic. Emollient in coughs anddiseases of the chest; All along the Himalayasfrom Kashmir to Sikkim betweenaltitudes of , and , American MaidenhairFern,VenusHair, Hansaraaja, Hansapadi(related sp.).Unani Astringent, demulcent,expectorant, antitussive, stimulant,emmenagogue. Fonds used inchronic catarrh (as an ingredientof cough and bronchial medicines);also in cold imposthumes of uterus,hard swellings and hard tumours ofspleen, liver and other fern contains flavonoid gluco-sides, including rutin, isoquercetin, as-tragalin, kaempferol; hydroxycinnam-ic acid esters; terpenoids, A. The plains and the lowerslopes of the hills in Punjab,Rajasthan, West Bengal, TamilNadu and Nilakantha-shikhaa,Mayurshikhaa, Used in hemicrania,cough, fever; externally in skindiseases; used as a substitute forA. fern yields adiantone, isoadian-tone, fernene, hentriacontane, hentri-acontanone- , A. Throughout the greaterpart of India, up to an altitude of , Walking Maidenhair Maidenhair (A. is also known as Hansaraaja.)Ayurvedic Hansapadi, Hansapaadi,Raktapaadi, Kitamaataa, Tri-paadikaa, Hansaraaja; a substitutefor Raajhans, Febrifugal, antidysenteric,soothing agent in erysipelas. Therhizome is also prescribed forstrangury, atrophy, emaciation orcachexy, muscular pain; emetic inlarge with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of the driedwhole plant in psychosis-related fear.(It is one of the ingredients of theclassical drugMaanasamitra Vataka,prescribed for mental disorders.)The chemical constituents are chlo-rophyll-degradation products andhigher Whole plant - g (APIVol. III.)Adina cordifoliaHook. f. ex BrandisFamily Indigenous in deciduousforests all over Yellow Teak, Saffron Haridru, Haraduaa-kadamba, Gaur-kadamba,Girikadamba, Dhaaraakadam-ba, Pitadaaru, javanica(Burm. f.) Juss. ex Haladu, Kheta Antibacterial, antiseptic,antidysenteric, antibilious (usedin biliary colic), febrifuge. Root heartwood contains indole al-kaloids; bark . . % tannin. Theleaves contain ursolic acid and marmelos(L.) Correa ex The plains and sub-mountain regions of India, ascend-ingtoanaltitudeof , minthewestern Himalayas; cultivated allover Bael tree, Bengal Bilva, Shriphala,Shaandilya, Shailuusha, Shalya,Sadaaphala, Mahaakapitha (Kapithais equated withFeronia limonia),Maaluura, Rudrajataa, Rudranir-maalya, Vilvam, Stomachic, antimicrobial(specific for diarrhoea, colitis,dysentery and enteric infections),digestive, astringent, spasmolytic, application As antidiarrhoeal.(Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)Along with other therapeuticapplications,The Ayurvedic Phar-macopoeia of Indiaindicates theuse of root in dysuria; stembark indiabetes and lipid (includ-ing xanthotoxol and alloimperatorinmethyl ether), flavonoids (includingrutin and marmesin), alkaloids (in-cluding alpha-fagarine), sterols andessential oils have been isolated fromplant parts. Pectin is an importantconstituent of the aegeline, present in theleaves, is efficacious in asthma. Theactive principle in aqueous extract ofleaf shows hypoglycaemic activity sim-ilar to insulin. Leaves are also givenin jaundice. Alcoholic extract of seedsshows antiallergic , a coumarin isolated fromthe roots, shows anti-inflammatory ef-fects experimentally. Marmin also in-hibited gastric haemorrhagic lesionsin rats and exhibited antiulcer oil showed beneficial effects inregeneration of tumour is found to be the mostpotentinhibitorofheartrate. Rootbarkis used for palpitation of the Pulp of unripe or halfripe fruit g powder. Root gpowder. (APIVols. I, III.)Aerva javanica(Burm. f.) Juss. ex A. persica( )MerillA. Punjab, Central andPeninsular lanata(L.) Juss. ex Javanese Wool Dholphuli, Khul. Paashaanab-heda (southern India).Action Anti-inflammatory, diuretic,anticalculus, insecticidal. Woolyseeds are used against plant extract contains ascor-bic acid, kaempferol, beta-amyrin andbeta-sitosterol. The leaves also containsitosterol and its lanata(L.) Juss. ex The warmer parts of India,ascending to , , Aadaanpaaki, Paashaanabheda (southernIndia), Anticalculus (used inlithiasis), diuretic, demulcent,anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal,anticholerin, bechic; leaf usedin hepatitis, root in decoction of the plant is used incatarrh of bladder. The flowers androots are used for application As diuretic andlithontriptic. (The British HerbalPharmacopoeia.)The plant contains palmitic acid,beta-sitosterol and scandensWall., , is also known asPaashaanabheda in the :Bergenia ligulata(north),Aerva lanata(south),Coleus amboinicus(east) andBryophyllum pinnatum(west).Dosage ml decoction.(CCRAS.)Aesculus Hippocastanaceae; Endemic to the mountainsof Balkan Peninsula and westernAsia. Introduced into India; occa-sionally grown as an Horse Chestnut Baloot. (Quercus incanaandQ. infectoriahave also been equatedwith Baloot inNational Formularyin Unani Medicine.)Folk Anti-inflammatory, va-sodilator, astringent (used forrheumatism, venous congestion,haemorrhoids), febrifuge. Leaf used in whooping application In chronic venousinsufficiency, varicosis, nocturnalsystremma (cramps in the calves)and swelling of the legs. (Non-invasive treatment measures shouldalso be followed.) (GermanCommission E,ESCOP,The BritishHerbal Pharmacopoeia.)AAframomum melegueta(Rosc.) K. Chestnut contains triterpe-noid saponins (especially aescin, acomplex mixture composed of acylat-ed glycosides of protoaesigenin andbarringtogenol-C, including hippo-caesculin), coumarins and has been shown to eliminateoedema and reduce exudation. It an-tagonizes the effect of bradykinin, al-though it is not a direct bradykininantagonist. It causes an increase inplasma levels of ACTH, corticosteroneand glucose in rats. Hippocaescu-lin and barringtogenol-C- -angelateshow antitumour activityin hydroxycoumarin aesculinleads to increased bleeding time.(Roasting seems to destroy the tox-ins.) A few fruits can cause severetoxic symptoms. (Francis Brinker.) Insome countries, an intravenous mix-ture containing aescin is used aftersurgery. (Natural Medicines Compre-hensive Database, .)Aesculus Sapindaceae; The Himalayas fromKashmir to western Nepal, Kuluand Chamba in Himachal Pradesh,Tehri-Garhwal and Kumaon inUttar Pradesh at , Indian Horse Chestnut,Himalayan Antirheumatic, galacto-genic, leaves contain aescin, quercetinand beta-sitosterol. Stems also con-tain rutin, astragalin, aesculin. Seedscontain aescin, aesculuside A and B, al-so aliphatic esters. Seeds possess anti-inflammatory extract of seeds is consideredto be active against P- lymphocy-tic leukaemia and human epidermoidcarcinoma of melegueta(Rosc.) K. Amomum Native to tropical Africa;cultivated in Indian Grains of Paradise, Alligatorpepper, Meleguetta Heel Roots possess cardamom-liketasteandaregivenasadecoctio nfor constipation; also as a vermifugefor tapeworms. Juice of youngleaves styptic. The seeds containan alkaloid, piperine; also gingerol,paradol, shogaol and and shogaol suppress gas-tric contractions; also have sedativeand analgesic actions. Pungency of thegrains is due to decoction of the whole plant istaken internally as a oxalic acid content in the fruitmay cause reduced function of korarimaK. Schum.,native to tropical Africa, known asA24Aganosma dichotoma(Roth) K. cardamom, is also equated withHeel dichotoma(Roth) K. A. caryophyllataG. DonFamily Assam, West Bengal, Bihar,Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and TamilNadu; Antiseptic; anodyne (aningredient in massage oils forparaplegia, neuralgia, sciatica); alsoanthelmintic and leaves contain quercetin, kaem-pferol and phenolic acids. Shoot tipsand flower buds contain calycinaA. DC. is alsoequated with Punjab, Asia Purging Gharaiqoon; also equatedwithFomes officinalis(Vill. ex Fr.) Diuretic, laxative, deob-structant, expectorant; purgativeand emetic in large doses; used inthe treatment of night sweats inphthisis, and as a supporting drugfor principle is agaric acid (aga-ricin), present to the extent of %.Agaricus Psalliota campestris(Linn.) The fungi is distributed inmany parts of India, particularlyon the hills and plains of northernand eastern India. Grows duringthe rainy weather on dead organicmatter, rotting leaves Field mushroom, Chhatraka, A protein ( . %) supple-ment and an excellent source ofvitamins of B complex. Vitamins K,C and D are also present. Thoughall the amino acids are reportedto be present, the concentration oftryptophane is particularly ofA. campestriscontain ty-rosinase; lowered blood pressure of hy-pertensive animals when administeredintravenously (exhibited no effect onnormal animals).Fungal enzyme preparations havebeen used in digestive mushroom contains amylase,maltase, glycogenase, protease, cata-lase, tyrosinase, phosphomonoesteras-AAglaia roxburghianaMiq. Hiern25es, polyphosphatases, polyphenoloxi-dase and ostreatus(Jacq.) FriesFamily Artocarpus interifolia,indigenous to the western Oyster Mushroom (growsonArtocarpus integrifolia).Action Prevents given internally in dysentery,diarrhoea, stomatitis; as a paste togums in Native to America; grownin gardens for Century Plant, Kaantala (related sp.).Siddha/Tamil Leaf juice used forwarts, cancerous ulcers and putridtumours. Leaves are also used asa resolvant in syphilis and leaves contain ten steroidal sa-ponins (six of these are spirostanolicand four furostanolic), also hecogenin( . %) and piscidic acid. The seedscontain steroid sapogenins includinghecogenin. The plant exhibits signifi-cant antibacterial Asteraceae, Throughout India, up to analtitude of , Goat Weed, White Dochunty, Uchunti,Sahadevi (related sp.).Action Anti-inflammatory, antibac-terial, antifungal, leaf is reported to contain stig-masterol ( . %) and beta-sitosterol( . %) as major component of sterolfaction. The dried flowering plant con-tains the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycop-samine and aqueous extract of leaves is re-ported to show haemostatic plant extract exhibited muscle re-laxant activity experimentally. Theethanolic extract ( %) of roots pos-sesses anti-inflammatory and aqueous extract of leaves ex-hibits antifungal and crude plant ex-tract antibacterial roxburghianaMiq. HiernSynonym A. elaegnoidea(A. Juss.) roxburghiana(Miq.) Wightand Western Ghats, tropicalforests in the hills of AndhraPradesh, Karnataka, Kerala andAndaman and Nicobar Priyangu (var.)A26Agrimonia eupatoriaauct non Gnaazhal. (Driedflowers ofMyristica malabaricaLam. are also used as Priyangu.)Action Fruit cooling (in febrilecomplaints), antipyretic, astringent,antidiarrhoeal, antidysenteric,anti-inflammatory (seeds used forpainful micturition). Fruits arealso used for treating obstinate skindiseases and alkaloids of the leaves ex-hibit anticancer activity (by inhibitingthe growth of vinblastine-resistant KBcells).Agrimonia eupatoriaauct non A. pilosaLedeb. ( ) NakaiFamily The Himalayas fromKashmir to West Bengal at , m, and in Arunachal Pradesh,Nagaland and Agrimony, Stickle Astringent, anti-inflammatory, hepatic, cholagogue,diuretic, mild haemostatic, an-tibacterial. Used for irritations andinfections of the intestinal tract,gallbladder diseases, hyperacidity,colic, urinary disorders (bed-wetting, incontinence), sluggishliver, mucus membrane inflam-mations; externally for ulceratedand discharging skin, psoriasis andseborrhoic application In mild, non-specific, acute diarrhoea andin inflammation of oral andpharyngeal mucosa; as astringent.(German Commission E,The BritishHerbal Pharmacopoeia.)The herb contains condensed tan-nins up to %, coumarins, flavonoids(glucosides of luteolin, apigenin andquercetin), polysaccharides, volatileoil. Luteolin -glucoside shows a chole-gogic action. Aqueous extracts inhibi-tedMycobacterium tuberculosis,alsostrains resistant to streptomycin andp-aminosalicylate. Essential oil is an-tibacterial, active againstBacillus ethanolic extracts of the herbare used for their antiviral proper-ties. (Natural Medicines Comprehen-sive Database, .)Coumarins interact with anticoagu-lants, and drugs that increase the riskof bleeding Furanocoumarin contentincrease photosensitivity. (Sharon )Agropyron Triticum Gramineae; The western Himalayas andKashmir at altitudes between , and , Couch grass, dog grass,wheat Demulcent (used incystitis, nephritis), aperient,AAilanthus and urinary antiseptic, application In irrigationtherapy for inflammatory diseasesof the urinary tract and for theprevention of kidney gravel.(German Commission E,The BritishHerbal Pharmacopoeia.) It iscontraindicated in oedema due tocardiac or renal juice of rhizomes is used for cys-titis, nephritis, scirrhous liver; decoc-tion for tonsils and as an adjuvant forcancer; also used for gout and rheuma-tism, and chronic skin rhizome contains triticin, a car-bohydrate allied to starch, a fruc-tosan polysaccharide, inositol, manni-tol; volatile oil up to about . %, con-sisting mainly of agropyrene; vanillinglucoside; mucilage, gum, large quan-tities of silica; iron, minerals, vita-mins, K salt. Agropyrene is reportedtohave broad antibiotic properties. Ex-tracts show uric acid solvent proper-ties. Agropyrene is Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,Gujarat, Orissa and southern Tree of Heaven, Aralu, Katvanga,Dirghavranta, Puutivrksha, Bhallu-ka. (Mahaanimba is a synonym ofMelia azedarach Linn.)Siddha Perru, Perumaruttu, Bark bitter, astringent,febrifuge, anthelminitic, antispas-modic, expectorant (used in asthma,bronchitis). Also used for dysenteryas a substitute for usedastonicinde-bility, especially after used as adulterant for Ad-hatoda zeylanica with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of stembarkin high fevers and bark contains several quassi-noids including ailanthone exhibit antitumour activityagainst P- lymphocytic leukaemiaand are cytotoxic against KB test Stembark g (APIVol. III.) Decoction ml.(CCRAS.)Ailanthus A. altissima(Mill.)SwingleFamily Native of China and in the hills of northern Indiaup to an altitude of , Tree of Heaven, Aralu (related sp.).Action Bark astringent, anti-spasmodic, parasiticidal, narcotic,cardiac depressant (exercises power-ful depressing influence on nervoussystem similar to that of tobacco).A28Ailanthus produce dermatitis; their ac-cumulation in well-water produceschronic quassinoids and ailanthonederivatives are vermifuge and amoe-bicidal. Constituents of the bark andstem, particularly ailanthone, have an-timalarial activity in vitro againstPlas-modium falciparumandinmiceagainstP. berghei.(Alkaloids do not appear tohave these properties.) Some quassi-noids are antineoplastic, and are re-ported to have antileukaemic rootbark is used in traditionalChinese medicine for dysentery andleucorrhoea. In Africa, rootbark isused in A. triphysa(Dennst.) The evergreen forestsof western Ghats from Guggul-dhuupa. (Maharash-tra.)Action Bark febrifuge, carmina-tive (given in typhoid, dyspepsiaand constipation). Oleo resin used for dysentery and bark and roots give a numberof beta-carboline alkaloids. The resin-uous exudates from trunk give sever-al triterpenoids, including malabaricoland Compositae; The Himalayas fromKashmir to Bhutan at altitudes of , m, extending to Khasi hills KaruiBuuti(Garhwal).Action Powdered roots used forquick relief from acute stomachache; related sp.,A. latifoliaSch-Bip., isused as an adulterant bracteosaWall. ex Labiatae The sub-Himalayan tract,plains of Punjab and the upperGangetic Ratapaati (Kumaon), Khur-banti (Punjab).Action Astringent, febrifugal (givenin intermittent fever), stimulant,aperient, diuretic. Used for thetreatment of gout and rheumatism;also for amenorrhoea. Juice ofthe leaves blood purifier. Thepowder is used for burns and leaves are used in fever asa substitute for aqueous extract of the leavesshowed diuretic activity. An alkaloidalfraction showed stimulant action onthe perfused frog heart. The plantexhibited anticancer amara(Roxb.) Boivin29Alangium begoniaefolium(Roxb.) A. chinense(Lour.) The plains and foothills, upto an altitude of , Ankola (related sp.).Folk Bark and roots sedative, triterpenoid was responsible forthe sedative effect on motor activity ofrat extract of the drug,which was devoid of anabasine, ex-hibited prominent sedative effect inrat. It significantly decreased concen-tration of norepinephrine in cortex,of dopamine and serotonin ( -HT) inbrain stem, but increased concentra-tion of -HT in A. salviifolium(Linn. f.) The drier parts of India,in plains and foothills of Ankola, Ankota,Taamraphala, Guptasneha, Rootbark astringent,spasmolytic, hypotensive, also dia-phoretic and antipyretic. Leaves hypoglycaemic. Fruits acidic,astringent, laxative and in haemorrhages, stranguryand consumption. The bark isused as a substitute alkaloids structurally related toipecac alkaloids (emetin).The bark contains the alkaloid alan-gine which shows a selective action ofthe parasympathetic mechanism, theaction being more marked on gastro-intestinal tract. The root extract showshypotensive action. Flowers containdeoxytubulosine, a potent antiplateletaggregation component, which plant extract possesses antineo-plastic Rootbark g powder.(CCRAS.)Albizia amara(Roxb.) BoivinFamily Throughout southern Indiain dry forests, up to m, and insome parts of Madhya Shirish (bark grey orgreenish).Siddha/Tamil Leaf and flower anti-inflammatory, used for boils andulcers. Leaf used for astringent, antidiarrhoeal, seed extract showed DNA bind-ing activity, which has been found toA30Albizia lebbeck(Linn.) due to pithecolibine alkaloids, bud-munchiamines. Budmunchiaminesare antibacterial, and they inhibit pla-telet aggregation and human lympho-cyte transformation. They also showanti-inflammatory and cytotoxic leaves contain prodelphinidins,myricitrin, hyperin, quercitrin,trans-p-coumaric acid,cis-p-coumaric acidandtrans-ferulic seeds contain echinocystic acidand taxifolin- -O-beta-D oil from the seeds is said to cureleprosy and lebbeck(Linn.) All over India, from theplains up to m in the Himalayas;also in the Siris tree, East Shirisha, Bhandi,Bhandila, Shitapushpa, Mridu-pushpa, Kapitana (bark dustyblack).Unani Antiseptic, antibacteri-al, antiallergic, antidermatosis,antidysenteric. Bark used in bron-chitis; bark and seeds in piles; rootin hemicrania; flowers in cough,bronchitis, tropical pulmonaryeosinophilia, and asthma. Pod with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of stembarkin rhinitis, sinusitis and of the plant revealed thepresence of flavonoids, triterpenoidsand triterpenoid saponins; oleano-lic acid, albigenic acid, albigenin andacacic acid. The bark contains %condensed tannin; alsod-catechin extract of the bark de-creased histamine-induced broncho-spasm in guinea extract of stembark con-tains cardenolide glycosides of digitox-in nature. It showed antidermatophyt-ic activity. Anthraquinone glycosidesand its aglycone exhibited antibacteri-al saponin from seeds exhibitedspermicidal activity in animals. EtOH( %) extract of pods was found tobe spermicidal against rat and humanspermatozoa at % , Pink Siris, found inthe outer Himalayas from the Induseastwards to Sikkim, are the same asthose ofA. Stembark g powder. g for decoction. (APIVol. III.)Albizia All over Shveta Shirisha (bark white or greenish-white).AAlhagi pseudalhagi(Bieb.) Bark a decoction is givenin rheumatism and bark contains beta-sitosteroland yields % oleanolic acid saponin, procericacid saponin mixture from seeds androot saponin exhibit spermicidal moluccana(Linn.) A. trilobaJ. R. and Native to China; nowmostlygrownontheteaestatesofKangra Valley in Himachal Pradesh,and also in Assam and Bengal toprovide shade for tea Candlenut Akshota, Oil from seeds purgative;employed externally in rheumatism;ulcers; also as a hair tonic. Leaves applied in acute carminative and expecto-rant. Bark and flowers used fordiiHemsl., Tung Oiltree, native to China, is also equatedwith Jangali tree was introduced on the teaestates of Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Coorgand pseudalhagi(Bieb.) A. camelorumFisch. Papilionaceae; The drierparts of Rajasthan,Gujarat, Punjab and Uttar Camel Thorn, PersianManna Yavaasaka, Yavaasa,Yaasa, Duhsparshaa, Duraalab-haa, Kunaashak. Substitute forDhanvayaasa. Yaasa-sharkaraa(Alhagi-manna).Unani Jawaansaa. Turanjabeen(Alhagi-manna).Siddha/Tamil Punaikanjuri, Laxative, antibilious,diuretic, diaphoretic, used for fever, headache,rheumatism. Flowers bloodcoagulant, used for piles. Alhagi-manna expectorant, antiemetic, with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of dried aerial parts contain flavonoids,tannins, sterols, triterpenes, saponinsand proanthocyanidins derivedfrom the plant possess hypolipidemicand antiatherosclerotic properties. Thecompounds prevented an increase inrat serum cholesterol and triglycerides,A32Alkanna tinctoria(L.) they decreased the manifestationof polymeric proanthocyanidin, ex-tracted from the plant, improved ener-gy metabolism and increased the workcapacity in extract of the aerial partsproduced positive inotropic effect onrabbit Whole plant gfor decoction. (APIVol. II.)Decoction ml. (CCRAS.)Alkanna tinctoria(L.) Cultivated in Central andsouthern Alkanet, Dyers or Formularyof Unani Medicineequated RatanjotwithOnosma echioidesLinn., foundin Kashmir and Ratthapaalai, Surul-pattai, Astringent, antimicrobial(used for indolent ulcers, wounds,erysipelas).The root contains up to % alkan-nins, which are lipophilic isohexenyl-naphthazarin red pigments; tanninsand wax. A pyrrolizidine (hepatotox-ic) alkaloid has also been isolated fromthe herb. The alkannins have antimi-crobial and wound-healing propertiesand are non-toxic in mice. They havebeen used clinically for indolent Native to Central Americaand Brazil. Grown in Golden Zahari Sontakkaa. (Maha-rashtra).Action Leaves cathartic (inmoderate doses; emetic in largedoses). Bark hydragogue, purgative property of the aque-ous extract of leaves was confirmedpharmacologically in rats. The extractalso showed antifungal activity againstringworm causing fungi. Flower ex-tract inhibits fungal extract of roots showed in-vivo activity against P- leukaemiain mouse and in vitro against humancarcinoma cells of nasopharynx (KB).The root contains antileukaemic iri-doidlactone, allamandinandtwootheriridoids, allamandicin and stems and leaves contain beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol and ursolicacid. Petals gave flavonoids kaem-pferol and Liliaceae; Native to Palestine;cultivated in Gandanaa, Ek-daanaaLehsun, Ek-potia Lehsum. (Alsoequated withAsphodelus tenuifoliusCav.)Action Anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, aqueous extract of the bulbscontains mainly fructose ( %), be-sides glucose, arabinose, galactose,mannose, rhamnose, glucosamine anduronic acid. It also contains lysine, glu-tamic acid and aspartic acid. It showssignificant activity against P- lym-phocytic leukaemia in experiments on rabbits, the alco-holic extracts of the bulb showed sig-nificant anticoagulant, fibrinolytic andhypocholesterolaemic Liliaceae; Cultivated as an annualall over the country. The mostimportant onion-growing states areMaharashtra, Tamil Nadu, AndhraPradesh., Karnataka and Palaandu, Antibiotic, antibacteri-al, antisclerotic, anticoagulant,anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic,expectorant, carminative, anti-spasmodic, diuretic, hypotensive, application For the preven-tion of atherosclerosis (GermanCommission E) and age-dependentchanges in the blood vessels, andloss of appetite (WHO).The official onion bulb of thePhar-macopoeia of the People s Republic ofChinais a different species,AlliummacrostemonBge., than that of theGerman Commission Emonographs,A. cepa. Chinese onion is used forcough, dyspnoea, angina pectoris or Spring Onion of Chi-nese medicine are equated bulbs contain a volatile oilwith sulphurous constituents, includ-ing allylpropyldisulphide; sulphur-containing compounds, including al-licin, alliin; flavonoids; phenolic acidsand activity of the onionis attributed to the allylpropyldisul-phide and allicin. Diphenylamine, iso-lated from mature bulbs, also exhibitspotent antihyperglycaemic and allicin have an inhibito-ry effect on platelet aggregation. An-tibiotic activity is due mainly to use of onion ( g/day) re-duces insulin requirement of a diabeticpatientfrom to , isolated from on-ion juice, exhibited antiasthmatic acti-vityin Juice of bulb ml.(CCRAS.)A34Allium Liliaceae, Native to Afghanistan.(A bulbous plant related to onion.)English Oriental Royal Baadshaahi Anabolic and gastrointesti-nal A. ameloprasumHook. f. non Liliaceae, Native to the Mediterraneanregion; cultivated in Vilaayati Piyaaz. Praan(Kashmir). Seemevangayam (TamilNadu).Action Expectorant; used asa substitute for is poor in volatile oil content incomparison with garlic, but it containssufficient amounts of non-toxic sapo-nins, which perhaps give it bulbs contain several thiosul-phinates, and also potentially anticar-cinogenic flavonoids, quercetin Liliaceae, Native to Central all over Lashuna, Rasona,Yavaneshta, Ugragandha, Ma-haushadh, Seer, Ullippoondu, Antibiotic, bacteriostatic,fungicide, anthelmintic, antithrom-bic, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic,hypocholesterolaemic. Also usedfor upper respiratory tract infectionsand catarrhal application As a supportive todietary measures for elevated levelsof lipids in blood; as a preventivemeasure for age-dependent vascularchanges. (German Commission E,ESCOP,WHO,The British HerbalPharmacopoeia.) Also as anantimicrobial. (The British HerbalPharmacopoeia). Garlic has beenshown to be effective in respiratoryinfections and catarrhal conditions.(The British Herbal Compendium.)The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diaindicates the use of the bulb asa brain tonic in epilepsy and consumption of garlic pri-or to surgery led to increased clottingtime or reduced platelet aggregation(in human case reports). Garlic tabletsatadoseof mgtwicedailyfor weeks reduced platelet aggregation % compared with placebo in pa-tients (in human clinical study). (Fran-cis Brinker.)Garlic cloves are high in sulphur-containing amino acids known as al-liin (no taste, no smell, no medicinalAAlocasia indica(Lour.) ). With crushing or chewing alli-in comes into contact with the enzymealliinase. Alliinase, in less than s,transforms alliin into allicin (strong-ly medicinal), which breaks down intoa number of sulphur compounds in-cluding ajoene, vinyldithin and diallyldisulfide, and trisulfide. The antibioticeffect is attributed to allicin; hypogly-caemic effect to allicin and allylpro-phyldisulphide (also to S-allyl cysteinesulfoxide); anticarcinogenic activity todiallyl monosulfide; platelet aggrega-tion inhibitory effect to diallyl-di- andtri-sulphides. Ajoene inactivated hu-man gastric lipase, which is involvedin digestion and absorption of , penta-, hexa- and hep-tasulphides are potential leptophyllumWall. isequatedwith Vana Lashuna, Jangali Bulb g (APIVol. III.)Allium Liliaceae, Native to temperatenorthern Europe and the ;distributedinthewesternHimalayasfrom Kashmir to Kumaon ataltitudes of , , Used in place of alcoholic extract of the bulbsexhibited hypotensive and cardiac de-pressant aerial parts (chives) gave alliins(alkylcysteine sulfoxides), particularlymethyl alliin and tuberosumRottl. ex Spreng,found in eastern India and westernHimalayas, is equated with ChineseChives. It is available in indica(Lour.) A. macrorrhiza(Linn.)G. DonFamily AgenusoftopicalAsia,Malayasia and the Pacific. Foundwild and cultivated all over Giant Maanaka, Maana,Maankanda, Kasaalu, Merukan Rootstock mild laxative,diuretic (in anasarca); used ininflammations and diseases ofabdomen and spleen. Leaf astrin-gent,styptic, rubefacient. Tubers used asvegetable after eliminating parts of the plant, except tu-bers, contain cyanogenic principle,a mixture of triglochinin and iso-triglochinin. The tubers contain sterolsand high concentration of soluble oxa-lates (prolonged use may lead to cal-cium deficiency and oxaluria.) Thetubers contain a trypsin/chymotrypsininhibitor. The plant contains HCN( . %). It is found to be mitogenicA36Aloe human peripheral blood Tuber g powder.(CCRAS.)Aloe A. veraTourn. ex indicaRoyleA. littoralisKoeningFamily Liliaceae; Cultivated throughoutIndia, wildoncoastsofMaharashtra,Gujarat and South Curacao Aloe, BarbadosAloe, Indian Aloe, Jaffarabad Kanyaasaara, Eleyaka(dried juice of the leaves). Kumaari,Kumaarikaa, Kanyaa, Grihkanyaa,Ghritkumaarika (plant).Unani Gheekwaar, Sotru Kattraazhai,Kumaari. Moosaambaram (driedjuice).Folk Elwaa, Musabbar (dried juiceof leaves).Action Purgative (causes griping),emmenagogue. Gel topicallyemollient, anti-inflammatory,antimicrobial (used for woundhealing, sunburn).Key application In occasionalconstipation; contraindicatedin intestinal obstruction andacutely inflamed intestinal diseases,ulcerative colitis, appendicitis.(German Commission E,ESCOP,WHO.)The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiarecommends the use of driedjuice of leaves in dysmenorrhoeaand diseases of the vera improved the hypogly-caemic effect of glyburide (gliben-clamide) when one tablespoonful aloejuice was given orally in the morningand at bedtime to diabetic patientsfor days. The juice (same dose)showed antihyperglycaemic activity(independently). (Francis Brinker.)Anthraquinone glycosides, knownas aloin, in small doses act as a tonicto the digestive system, and at high-er doses become a strong purgative, aswell as increase colonic secretions andperistaltic contractions. Resin fractionis also as important as aloin in cathar-ticaction. InA. barbadensisthehighestpercentage of aloin is . %.Aloeproducespelviccongestionandis used for uterine disorders, generallywith Fe and carminatives. The pulp isused in menstrual molecule in the Aloe vera gel, ace-mannan, stimulates macrophages andreleases immune system potentiators;enhances function of T cells and in-terferon production. Animal studieshave shown promising results in carboxypeptidase and salicylatecomponents of Aloe gel can inhibitbradykinin, a pain-producing agent;C-glycosyl chromone appears to re-duce topical inflammation. Aloe gelalso slows or inhibits the synthesisof thromboxane, which may accel-erate the healing of burns. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)AAlpinia officinarumHance37Dosage Leaf pulp juice ml.(CCRAS.) Dried leaf pulp juice mg powder. (APIVol. I.)Alpinia The Himalayas andsouthern region of western Greater Kulanjana, Sthuula-granthi, Sugandhaa, Ugragandhaa,Malaya Vachaa, Mahaabhari-Vachaa. Substitute for Raasnaa(Pluchea lanceolata).Unani Rhizome carminative (indyspepsia), stomachic, circulatorystimulant, diaphoretic, southern India, the rhi-zome ofAlpinia galangais used asRaasnaa for rheumatism, intermittentfever, dyspepsia and respiratory ail-ments. (In the north,Vanda tessellataorPluchea lanceolatais used as Raas-naa.)EtOHextractoftheplantshowsanti -inflammatoryactivity. Theethano-lic extract also showed significant anti-ulcer activity in rats, which has beenattributed to the antisecretory and cy-toprotective properties of the constituents of the essentialoil are methyl cinnamate, cineole andd-pinene. In moderate doses, the oilexhibits antispasmodic physicians useA. galangaasa sex tonic. In mice, the drug causeda significant gain in the weight of sexualorgans and increased sperm motilityand sperm used as Raasnaa in Indianmedicine:Alpinia galangaWilld. (Zin-giberaceae)insouthernIndia;Plucheal anceolataC. B. Clarke (Compositae;Asteraceae)inUttarPradesh;Va n-da roxburghiiR. Br. (Orchidaceae)ineastern Uttar Pradesh and West Ben-gal;Blepharispermum subsessileDC.(Compositae;Asteraceae)inMa dhyaPradesh; andDodonaea viscosa(Linn.)Jacq. (Sapindaceae) Rhizome g ml. (CCRAS.)Alpinia Eastern Himalayas, Assam,Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, up to , m, and western Ghats Saliyeridumpa (Tamil).Action Rhizome employed tocure sores. Fruits emetic (usedwith salt).The rhizomes yield essential oil con-sisting of methyl cinnamate as officinarumHanceFamily Native to China; cultivatedin northern Lesser Galangal, Alpinia,Catarrh Root, Chinese speciosa(Wendl.) Kulanjan (var.).Unani Khulanjaan (smaller var.).Siddha/Tamil Rhizome a circulatorystimulant and application As a carminative.(The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)Aqueous and methanolic extracts ofthe rhizome, on oral administration,exhibited significant decrease in gastricsecretioninrabbitsandshowedan-tic holinergic effect in from rhizomes are strong-ly antifungal against a wide varietyof pathogenic fungi, responsible formajor skin diseases in eastern were also found to be activeagainst a number of Gram-positive andGram-negative gingerols and diaryheptanoidsconstituents of the rhizome are potentinhibitors of PG synthetase (prosta-glandin biosynthesizing enzyme); theycan also be active against -lipoxyge-nase, an enzyme involved in leuko-triene biosynthesis. (Natural MedicinesComprehensive Database, .)Alpinia speciosa(Wendl.) A. ZerumbetBurtt SmithFamily Native to East in the eastern Himalayasfrom West Bengal Light Rhizomes are used asa substitute forA. galangaandeven for ginger; antiulcerative, leaves and rhizomes yield anessential oil which contains alpha-andbeta-pinene, borneol, campene and ci-neole as major scholarisR. Throughout moist regionsof India, especially in West Bengaland west-coast forests of Devil s tree, Dita Bark Saptaparna, Sapta-chhada, Saptaparni, Saptaahvaa,Vishaaltvak, Shaarada, Chhaatim, Kaasim (KaasimRoomi, Anjudaan Roomi is equatedwithMyrrhis odorataScope.)Siddha/Tamil Ezhilamippalai, Chhitavan, Bark febrifuge, antiperi-odic, spasmolytic, antidysenteric,uterine stimulant, hypotensive; usedfor internal with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of stembarkin phosphaturia and recommends it asa blood sessilis(Linn.) R. Br. ex sp. is known as Fever constrictais native to Australia;A. scholaristo Australia and South-east Asia. The bark of both the speciescontains indole constric-tacontains reserpine (a hyptotensiveagent).A. scholariscontains echita-mine, which has also demonstratedhypotensive effects. ThoughA. schol-arisproduces fall in the temperatureof human patients with fever, thereare conflicting reports about the activ-ity of echitamine Stembark g fordecoction. (APIVol. I.)Alstonia venenataR. Peninsular Pazh-munipala (Tamil),Addasarpa(Kannada), Palamunpala(Malyalam).Action Stembark and fruit plant is a rich source of indolealkaloids. Major alkaloids in the stem-bark are alstovenine, venenatine, -dehydroalstovenine, reserpine ( . . %), venoxidine and , in lower doses, exhibitsmonoamine oxidase inhibitor activity;in higher doses, shows marked centralstimulant effect (reversal of reserpineeffects). Venenatineexhibitsreserpine-like profile of activity (sedation, ptosis,reduction in motor activity).The fruit contains vincadifforminetype of alkaloids. Echitovenidine, themajor alkaloid, shows monoamineoxidase-inhibitory activity bothin vit-roandin sessilis(Linn.) R. Br. ex A. denticulataR. repensGmel. Throughout the hotterparts of India, especially aroundtanks and Matsyaakshi, Matsyaak-shika(amultimeaningname,also indicating Braahmi, Ain-dri), Matsyagandhaa, Matsyaa-dini, Minaakshi, Bahli, Gandali,Gartkalambukaa, Ponnonkanni Gudari Febrifuge, galactagogue, with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of dried wholeplant in diseases due to vitiated bloodand obstinate skin shoots contain protein %and iron . mg/ g. Leaves alsocontain a good amount of alpha- plant gave stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, a saturated aliphatic hydro-carbon and aliphatic Whole plant gpowder. (APIVol. II.)A40Althaea Native to eastern Europe;found in Kashmir and Marshmallow, Khatmi, Gul-Khairu (alsoequated withAlthaea roseaLinn.).Siddha/Tamil Demulcent, emollient,antitussive (used for cough,bronchitis, gastritis, enteritis andcystitis), antilithic, application (leaf and root)Inirritation of the oral and pharyngealmucosa and associated dry cough;in mild inflammation of the gastricmucosa. (German Commission E,ESCOP.) As demulcent. (TheBritish Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)In gastroenteritis, peptic andduodenal ulceration, commonand ulcerative colitis. (The BritishHerbal Compendium.) Topicallyfor varicose veins, skin ulcers,abscesses, cuts, rosea(L.) Cav., synonymAl-cea roseaL., Hollyhock flower, is usedas mucilage for prophylaxis and ther-apy of diseases and discomforts of therespiratory and gastrointestinal tractand for urinary complaints. (It is in-cluded among unapproved herbs byGerman Commission E.)The root contains starch, mucilage,pectin, flavonoids, phenolic acids, su-crose, tannins and asparagines. Muci-lage ( %) consists of a number ofpolysaccharides. Flavonoids includekaempferol, quercetin and diosmetinglucosides. Polyphenolic acids includesyringic, caffeic, salcyclic, vanillic andp-coumaric mucilages have proven biologi-cal activity including stimulation ofphagocytosisin root counters excess stomachacid, peptic ulceration and excelsaNoronhaFamily Assam and Storax, Oriental Shilaarasa, Turushka,Silhaka (substitute forLiquidamberorientalis,Hamamelidaceae) .Siddha/Tamil Resin carminative, stom-achic, antiscorbutic expectorant,antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, hepatoprotective. Externallyused in scabies and ethyl acetate extract of the rootofA. excelsawas studied for antistresseffect in a variety of biological modelsof stress; also in stress-induced ulcersand CCl -induced hepatotoxicity. An-tistress was the most significant phar-macological property of the Agaricaceae; Fly Agaric (mushroom),Aga, Identified as Soma ofRigveda (controversial). (Sushrutadescribed varieties of Soma and other drugs as its substitutes.)Intensely poisonous; used fungus has been used in Russiafor preparing an intoxicating principles arecholine, mus-carine and mycetoatropine (muscari-dine). Muscarine stimulates postgan-glionic, cholinergic and neuroeffectorjunctions. The isoxazole constituentsare psychoactive. FlyAgaric(morethan gfresh)are toxic; (more than g fresh) arelethal. (Francis Brinker.)A. pantherinais used in Japan are a misinterpretation of sen-sory stimuli due to isoxazole, ibotenicacid, muscimol, muscazone and tracesof muscarine. (Natural MedicinesComprehensive Database, .)Amaranthus blitumLinn. Throughout Trailing Amaranth, Aarumathathandu, Cooling, stomachic,emollient. Used in biliousness,haemorrhagic Grown as vegetable innorthern Love-Lies-Bleeding, Raam-daanaa (grain).Siddha/Tamil Pungikeerai, Blood-purifier, diuretic;used in piles, strangury, dropsyand anasarca; tea has been usedfor relieving pulmonary conditions;also given in scrofula and appliedto scrofulous sores. Antimicrobialpeptides have been isolated Western herbal medicine, Love-Lies-Bleeding is equated withAmaran-thus hypochondriacus,andisusedforulcers, diarrhoea, as well as inflamma-tion of the mouth and evidence suggests thatAmaranthseedcanreducetotalcholes-ter ol and LDL, while increasing HDL,but Amaranth muffins failed to re-duce cholesterol levels in hypercholes-terolemic adults beyond the reduc-tion achieved by low-fat diet. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)Amaranthus Cultivated fields, wasteplaces and along Spiny Amaranth, ThornyAmaranth, Spiny Tanduliya, Tandulaka,Meghnaad, Megharava, Vishaghn, Galactogenic, laxative,emollient, spasmolytic, extract used for allergicasthma and allergic rhinitis. Root used in contains sterols. Leaves andstems contain alpha-spinasterol andhentriacontane. Leaves also containamino acids with high content of Whole plant mljuice; mg powder.(CCRAS.)Amaranthus A. polygamusLinn. Hook. f. in Cultivated Chinese Spinach, GardenAmaranth, Fountain Maarisha-rakta (redvar.).Siddha/Tamil Arai-keerai, Siru-keerai, Thandu-keerai, Mulakkerai(Tamil).Folk Laal Shaak, Laal Astringent (in menorrhagia,leucorrhoea, dysentery, diarrhoea,haemorrhagic colitis); also used incough, bronchitis and consumption;externally plant contains amarantin, isoa-marantin, betaine, aminoacids, Leaf, seed, root mljuice. (APIVol. III.) Powder g.(CCRAS.)Amberboa divaricataKuntzeSynonym Volutarella divaricataBenth. and Hook. Compositae; Distributed in the Mediter-ranean region, extending to CentralAsia and Brahmadandi (Tri-cholepis glaberrimaDC. of thesame family is also equated withBrahmadandi.)Unani Deobstruent, aperient,febrifuge, nervine (used in debility),antiseptic (used in leucoderma).Ammannia Marshy areas throughoutIndia, as a Blistering visnaga(Linn.) Lam43Folk Daadmaari. (Also known asPaashaanabheda.)Action Stomachic, laxative,antirheumatic, febrifuge. Leaves used externally for ringworm,herpic eruptions and other skindiseases; contain lawsone. Plant ex-tract antibacterial. Extracts of stem,leaf and inflorescence are more effec-tiveascomparedwith Umbelliferae; Cultivated in Jammu andHimachal Biship s Weed-Amee,Greater Itarilaal, Source of xanthotoxin,a drug employed in the treatment ofleucoderma. Dried fruit powder orextractoftheplantisusedtopicallyin fruits contain ammoidin (xan-thotoxin), ammidin (imperatorin) andmajudin (bergapten). All the threecompounds are used in xanthotoxin content ( %) isfound in green fruits from -MOP, methoxypsoralen con-stituent of the weed is one of the firstagents used along with UVA radiationto treat psoriasis. (Natural MedicinesComprehensive Database, .)Ammi visnaga(Linn.) LamSynonym Daucus Umbelliferae; Cultivated as a gardenornamental; runs wild at manyplaces in Jammu Paashaanabhedi(controversial;Bergenia ligulatahas been equatedwith the classical Paashaanabheda).Action Antispasmodic in renalcolic, bronchial asthma, whoopingcough (used by Unani physicians),vasodilator (in angina pectoris).Key application GermanCommission Eapproved theherb on March , but due toinformation on potential risks, itsstatus was changed to unapprovedon April .Khella contains khellin ( %), vis-nagin, khellol glycoside, flavonoids,sterols, volatile oil ( . %). Khellin andvisnagin exert a powerful antispas-modic effect on the smaller bronchialmuscles, the coronary arteries and onthe urinary tubules. Khellin providesrelief to asthmatic patients. The drugalso relieves painful spasm of stone inkidney and bladder (no more used forexpelling kidney stones).Khella does not reduce blood pres-sure in spite of being a is toxic at mg. (FrancisBrinker.)Khella is used topically for vitili-go and psoriasis. The Khellin con-stituent is similartothe psoralen nucle-A44Amomum and might be useful as a photosensi-tizer in patients with psoriasis. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)(Several modern drugs includingamiodarone, nifedipine and cromolynhave been developed from Khella.)Amomum North Bengal and Bengal Cardamom, Sthula-elaa (var.)Siddha/Tamil Similar to that ofA. seeds yield on essential oil ( . . %) containing cineole as the princi-pal practitioners avoid the useof cardamom in conditions marked bysymptoms of excessive Cultivated in swampyplaces in Bengal, Sikkim, Assamand Tamil Greater or Nepal Sthula-elaa, Bhadraa,Bhadrailaa, Bahulaa, Prithivikaa,Triputaa, Heel Kalaan, Peria Elam, KattuElam, Stomachic, antiemetic, an-tibilious, astringent, alexipharmic;used for the treatment of indi-gestion, biliousness, abdominalpains, vomiting, in congestion ofliver. Pericarp in headache seeds contain a chalcone (carda-monin), a flavonoid (alpinetin), petu-nidin- , -diglucoside and leucocyani-din glucocide; also a aurone glycosidesubulin. The essential oil ( . %) con-tains Seed g powder.(CCRAS.)Amoora Coastal forests of WestBengal and Andaman Amur, Latmi, Natmi (Bengal).Action Leaf Temperate Himalaya fromKashmir to Kumaon at Kaur (Kashmir).Action Plant febrifuge; used asa substitute forSwertia iridoid glycoside named amph-icoside is reported from the campanulatus(Roxb.) Blume ex Native to tropical Asia;cultivated throughout Elephant-foot Suurana, Kanduula,Arshoghna, Kand-ayak, Zamin-qand, (wild var.)Action Corm is prescribed inbronchitis, asthma, abdominal pain,emesis, dysentery, enlargement ofspleen, piles, elephantiasis, diseasesdue to vitiated blood, with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of corm inprostatic hyperplasia.(Thecormisirritantduetothepr es-ence of calcium oxalate. It can be con-sumedafteritiswashedwellandboiledin tamarind water or butter milk.)The corm contains an active di-astatic enzyme amylase, betulinic acid,tricontane, lupeol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol and its palmitate and glucose,galactose, rhamnose and of . - . g of konjac (Amor-phophallus konjactuber) mannan for days reduced the dose of insulin orhypoglycaemic drugs (in human clini-cal study). (Francis Brinker.)Amorphophallus sylvatiusKunth. isequated with the wild var. of Suu-rana, used especially in the treatmentof Dried corm gpowder. (APIVol. III.) gpowder. (CCRAS.)Amygdalus Prunus (sweetalmond).A. (bitteralmond).Family Native to Asia Minor andPersia; cultivated in India in coolerparts of Punjab and AlmondAyurvedic Vaataama, Badaam, Sweet almonds nutrient,nervine tonic, demulcent. Oil externally for skin. Bitter almonds not used from starch and used in foods fordiabetics and for patients with pepticulcers. Chief protein in kernels is Prunus Native to China; cultivatedin Himalayan regions; grows intropical and semi-tropical regionsand temperate Peach Aaaduu, Leaves and bark expec-torant (used in cough, whoopingcough, and chronic bronchitis),sedative, stomachic, demulcent,antiscorbutic, diuretic. Freshleaves anthelmintic. Powder ofleaves styptic (externally). Fruit stomachic, Native to tropical America,from Mexico to Peru and largely in Malabar,Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Naduand Andhra Pradesh, and to someextent in Maharashtra, Goa, Orissaand West Cashew Leaves and bark fungi-cidal, vermicidal, protozoicidal,antimicrobial (used for toothache,sore gums). Karnel eaten forits high protein content. Cashewapple antiscorbutic. Resinousjuice contained in the seeds usedin cases of mental derangement,memory disturbances, palpitationof heart, rheumatic pericarditis,sexual nut contains % fat and %protein. Leaves contain flavonoids,mainly glycosides of quercetin andkaempferol, and hydroxybenzoic bark contains a balsam-containinganacardic acid, anacardol, cardol andginkgol. The caustic liquid in theshell contains about % anacardicacid, a mixture of alkyl salicylic acidderivatives. The leaves are acid is bactericidal, fungici-dal, vermicidal and protozoicidal. Theleaves and bark exhibited hypotensiveactivity in phenolics of the cashew-nutshell oil have inhibited the enzymicactivity of alpha-glucosidase, invertaseand aldose reductase (anacardic acidsbeing the most potent). Cardols havealso shown antifilarial activity in acids, cardols and methylcardols have been found to exhibitmoderate cytotoxic A. officinarumHayneFamily Compositae; Native to the Mediterraneanregion; cultivated in Spanish, Pellitory,Pyrethrum Aakaarakarabha,Aakallaka, Aakulakrit, cocculus(Linn.) Wight and Stimulant, cordial, gargle of infusion is pre-scribed for relaxed vulva. Root used for toothache, rheumatic andneuralgic affections and , along with the root ofWitha-nia somniferaandVitis vinifera,areused in with other therapeutic ap-plications,Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of the rootin sciatica, paralysis, hemiplegia root contains anacycline, isobu-tylamide, inulin and a trace of local anaesthetic activity of thealcoholic ( %) extract of the root wasfound to be comparable to that of xy-locaine hydrochloride ( %) in of the drug in patients withinsulin-dependent diabetes mellitusreduces the dose of insulin. It de-creased the plasma glucose and serumcholesterol levels after oral adminis-tration for weeks. (The plant ismixed withHelleborus nigarin a ra-tio of : .) The plant extract inhibitedtobacco-induced mutagenesis by . %at a concentration of Root mg to gpowder. (CCRAS.)Anagallis Northwestern Himalayasfrom Kashmir eastwards to Nepal,hills of West Bengal; Central andsouthern Bird s Eye, Bird s Tongue,Blue Pimpernel, Scarlet Jonkmaari (Maharashtra),Dhabbar (Punjab), Jighanaa, Plant anti-inflammatory,astringent, deobstructant, an-tifungal, nematocidal; toxic plant yields anagalligenone presence of quaternary alkaloids,gluco-fructoside and tannin have beenreported. The root yields glycosidicsaponins, including cyclamin. Anacetyl saponin, isolated from the plant,was found to possess marked taenici-dal activity but had no effect on methanolic extract of the aerialparts showed activity against herpessimplex I, adenovirus type II and po-lio type II. Triterepene saponins haveoestrogenic cocculus(Linn.) Wight and A. The Khasi Hills, Orissa andpeninsular Fish Berry, Levant Berry,Poison Berry, Crow Kaakaadani, Insecticide, antifungal;highly valued in skin diseases; usedA48Ananas comosus(Linn.) Merrillexternally to kill lice and leaves and fruit contain picro-toxin (up to %) and alkaloids. Pi-crotoxin (sesquiterpene glycoside) isa powerful poison and nerve is rarely taken internally. Coccu-lus (a tincture prepared from the pow-dered seeds ofCocculus indicus)isusedinternally as a homoeopathic medicinefor convulsions, neurological disordersand psychosis-related at mg is toxic, andtwo to three berries are lethal. (FrancisBrinker.)Ananas comosus(Linn.) MerrillFamily Native to South America;cultivated mostly in Tamil Nadu,coastal Andhra Pradesh, Assam,Kerala, Karnataka, West Bengal,Tripura and Anaanaasa, Annanshippazham, Anti-inflammatory (freshjuice used as a gargle for sorethroat). A proteolytic enzyme,bromelain, is derived from thestem anti-inflammatory, smoothmuscle relaxant, digester, inhibitorof blood platelet aggregation. (It isused for cellulitis, post-operativeoedema, sinusitis and for promotingdigestion of proteins.)Key application Bromelain, theproteolytic enzyme, is used in acutepostoperative and post-traumaticconditions of swellings, especiallyof the nasal and paranasal sinuses.(German Commission E.)InEurope,a patented tape that containsbromelain is used for debridingescharotic skin. (Internally,bromelain s bioavailability has beenquestioned.)Anaphalis Compositae; The Nilgiri Hills at , , Kaatplaaster (Nilgiri hills).Action Antiseptic. Fresh leaves arebruised and applied to wounds andcuts as acyl flavonoid glycoside, ana-phaloside, along with isoquercitrin andastragalin, has been isolated from theflowers of a related con-torta, used as an antibacterial and hierochuntica Arabia,Palestine, Jericho Kafemariyam, Used in difficult panicultataWall. ex Nees49Anchusa A. Indian gardens, and Cow s Tongue Gojihvikaa (consideredas a vegetable, equated withLaunaeaasplenifoliaHook. f.,Compositae,Asteraceae.) Unani Gaozabaan isa different Gaozabaan. (Now equatedwith species ofBoraginaceae,particularlyBorago Unani drug Gaozabaanconsists of the leaves and nutlets ofAnchusa strigosaLabill andEchiumamoenumFisch. and Mey.)Action Stimulant, tonic, demulcent;used in bilious complaints, fever,cough, asthma; as diuretic inbladder and kidney stones. Oil arich source of vitamin E ( . %),more than that of wheat-germ oil( . %). The nutlets show positivetests for alkaloids and tannins. Theflowers yield anthocyanins and theleafy stems yield echioidesNeesFamily Warmer parts of Ranchimani (Maharashtra).Action Febrifuge, plant contains a flavone, echio-dinin, and its glucoside, ( %) extract of the plant exhib-ited diuretic activity in animal panicultataWall. ex NeesFamily Throughout India, fromHimachal Pradesh to Assam andMizoram, and all over Kaalmegha, Bhuunimba,Bhuuminimbaka, Vishwambharaa,Yavtikta, Kalpanaatha, Kiraata-tikta(var.).Unani Hepatoprotective, cholin-ergic, antispasmodic, stomachic,anthelmintic, alterative, bloodpurifier, febrifuge. It acts well onthe liver, promoting secretion ofbile. Used in jaundice and torpidliver, flatulence and diarrhoea ofchildren, colic, strangulation ofintestines and splenomegaly; alsofor cold and upper respiratory application As bitter tonic,febrifuge and hepatoprotective.(Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)Kaalmegha, officinal in IP, consistsof dried leaves and tender shoots,which yield not less than % andro-grapholide on dry-weight from the leaf and rhizome,including andrographolide, deoxyan-drographolide and other exhibited strongcholeretic action when rats. It induces increase in bileA50Andropogon together with change in physi-cal properties of bile secretion. It wasfound to be more potent than was found to bealmost devoid of antihepatitis-B virussurface antigen-like activity (whencompared with picroliv.)The leaf and stem extracts of Kaal-megha/andrographolide did not change blood sugar levelof normal or diabetic extract of the plant ex-hibited antidiarrhoeal activity againstE. colienterotoxins in animal evidence of effectiveness ofandrographis in humans is limited tothe common cold. Preliminary evi-dence suggests that it might increaseantibody activity and phagocytosis bymacrophages, and might have mastcell-stabilizing and antiallergy activi-ty. (Natural Medicines ComprehensiveDatabase, .)The herbis contraindicated in bleed-ing disorders, hypotension, as well asmale and female sterility (exhibited in-fertility in laboratory animals).Dosage Whole plant mljuice; ml decotion; gpowder. (CCRAS.)Andropogon Vetiveria zizanioides(Linn.) All over Vetiver, Roots refrigerant,febrifuge, diaphoretic, stimu-lant, stomachic and emmenagogue;used in strangury, colic, flatulence,obstinate vomiting; paste used asa cooling application in constituents of the essentialoilarevetiselinenolandkhusimol. Sev-eral sesquiterpenoids, including vetid-iol, are also present. The two types ofoils, laevorotatory and dextrorotatory,from northern India and southern In-dia, respectively, are biochemically sp.: see obtusilobaD. DonSynonym A. Native to Europe; thrivesin dry grassland in central andnorthern parts of the Wind-Flower, WoodAnemone, Pasque Flower, Gul-laalaa, Nervine and sedative(used for anxiety neurosis, nervousexhaustion, tension, headache,migraine, insomnia), antispasmodic(in catarrh); used for amenorrhoea,inflammation of ovaries, painfulmenstruation and genito-urinaryinfections. The rootstock is givenwith milk for concussions. TheAAngelica archangelicaLinn. ( )KrishnaandBadhwar51seeds cause vomiting and seed oil is used in contains ranunculin,which hydrolyzes to a toxic, unsta-ble compound protoanemonin, whichreadily dimerizes to non-toxic and protoanemonin ex-hibit sedative and antipyretic is also antimicrobial.(Topically, Pulsatilla is used for infec-tious diseases of the skin.)Anethum sowaRoxb. ex A. graveolensLinn. Umbelliferae; Cultivated all over Indian Dill, Shataahvaa. Shata-pushpaa (also accepted asFoenicu-lum vulgareMill., equated withMishreya, Mishi, Madhurikaa).Unani Shibt, Carminative, stomachic, application In dyspepsia.(German Commission E.)The fresh and dried leaf is used forprevention and treatment of diseasesand disorders of the gastrointestinaltract, kidney and urinary tract, forspasms and sleep disorders. (Includedamong unapproved herbs byGermanCommission E.)An aqueous dill extract, adminis-tered intravenously, lowers blood pres-sure, dilates blood vessels, stimulatesrespiration and slows heart rate in an-imals. (Natural Medicines Comprehen-sive Database, .)Dill seeds contain up to % volatileoil (about half of which is carvone),flavonoids, coumarins, xanthones andtriterpenes. The yield of the oil fromIndian A. sowa varies from . to . %.Carvone is the major constituent ( . . %).Theoilfromseedsisusedforflatulence in children and enters intothe preparations of gripe water. The oilis also antimicrobial and apiol is considered undesir-able and toxic. Vizag fruit var. fromAndhra Pradesh is dill-apiol-free andwith %, carvone content havingsame flavonoid pattern as A. Dried fruit g powder.(APIVol. III.) Fruit, leaf gpowder. (CCRAS.)Angelica archangelicaLinn. ( )Krishnaand BadhwarFamily Umbelliferae; Native to Syria; now grownin Kashmir at , , Chandaa, Chandaam-shuka, Expectorant, carminative,digestant, cholagogue, antispas-modic, diaphoretic, diuretic,anti-inflammatory, smooth musclerelaxant, antifungal, application In flatulence andpeptic discomforts. The rootis a component in numerousgastrointestinal, cholagogue andbiliary remedies in Germany.(Angelica root is an approved herb,whereas the seed and above-groundparts have been included amongunapproved herbs byGermanCommission E.)Chinese angelica root, Dong Quai,is equated with Angelica sinensis. Itis prescribed internally for menstrualirregularity, lack of menstruation andpainful roots from Kashmir yield furo-coumarins, phenol compounds exhibited antihista-mintic and antinicotinic activities onguinea-pig ileum. The dry extract hasbeen shown to have root is reported to inhibit bac-terial and fungal , especially psoralenand -methoxypsoralen, are used inthe photochemotherapy of psoriasisand vitiligo. The biological activi-ty is due to covalent linkage formedwith DNA by irradiation with long-wavelength UV of the coumarins have shownsignificant calcium antagonistic activi-ty in , a resin, is stimulating tothe lungs and skin. contraindicated inbleeding disorders, peptic ulcers andpregnancy. (Sharon M. Herr.)Dosage Root g powder.(CCRAS.)Angelica Umbelliferae; Kashmir and Chamba inHimachal Pradesh, between , , Choraka, Chorakaa,Kopanaa, Chorakaakhya,Nishaachara, Dhanhar, Taskara, Root cordial and stimu-lant, carminative (used in constipa-tion), expectorant, root contains furocoumarins,also dimeric, lingusticum Root g powder.(CCRAS.)Anisochilus Labiatae; The western Himalayas,Central and southern Karpuravalli (southernregion).Action Stimulant, expectorant anddiaphoretic. Juice of fresh leaves isused in urticaria and other allergicconditions; a domestic remedy forcoughs and cold. Alcoholic extractof the whole plant oil oil exhibits antihistaminic prop-erty in vitro on smooth muscles of theuterus and the intestines. It also pos-sesses muscle-relaxant action; bacteri-cidal and fungicidal properties. TheAAnnona contain glucosides of luteolinand malabarica(Linn.) R. Br. ex SimsFamily Labiatae; The western Ghats fromMaharashtra to Karnataka; AndhraPradesh, Kerala and Tamil Malabar Antispasmodic (usedin dyspepsia, colic), antipyretic,diaphoretic, antiperiodic, emme-nagogue, antirheumatic. The oil isused externally as an embrocationin rheumatic plant contains beta-sitosterol,letulinic acid, ovatodiolide and ani-somelic acid. The essential oil fromtops and flowers yield a terpene hydro-carbon, citral and geranic Native to the West in Bengal, Assam, KhasiHills and southern Bullock s Heart, CommonCustard Leaves insecticide, an-thelmintic, styptic, externally usedas suppurant. Unripe and driedfruit antidysenteric. Bark powerful astringent, used asantidysenteric and ,leavesandstemsgaveiso-quinoline alkaloids. Two acetogenins,annoreticuin and isoannoreticuin, iso-lated from the leaves, were found to beselectively cytotoxic to certain leaves and stems also gave al-kaloids dopamine, salsolinol and reticulata,Annona muri-cata,Annona squamosaandAnnonacherimolaare known as Raampha-la, Lakshman-phala, Sitaa-phala andHanumaan-phala, A native to South Americaand the West Indies; now cultivatedthroughout Custard Apple, SugarApple, Gandagaatra, Sitaaphala (also equated with Curcurbitamaxima).Unani Sitaaphalam, Leaves insecticide (seedpowder, mixed with leaf juice isused for removing lice from scalp).Seeds abortifacient. Root purgative, used in blood latifoliaWall. ex invigorating, sedative toheart, antibilious, antiemetic,expectorant. Dried, powderedunripe fruits used for treatingulcers. Ripe fruit made into pastewithbetelleavesisappliedtotumour to hasten , bark, unripe fruit stronglyastringent; used for diarrhoea fraction of total alkaloid fromroots exhibits antihypertensive, anti-spasmodic, antihistaminic and bron-chodilatory properties. Leaves con-tain a cardiotonic alkaloid, and bullatacinone were se-lectively cytotoxic to human breast Cuban medicine, leaves are takento reduce uric acid latifoliaWall. ex Central and southern Axle-wood, Button tree,Ghatti Dhava, Dhurand-hara, Shakataahya. Indravrksha(A. acuminataWall. ex Bedd. isa related sp. of Dhava).Unani Ghatti (Gum).Action Astringent, cooling, usedin diarrhoea, dysentery, ulcers,piles, urinary disorders and used as a tonic after leaves, bark and heartwoodyield quinic and shikmik acids; leavescontain gallotannin ( % of thetannins). The young leaves and shootscontain % tannins (dry basis). Thebark contains % tannins. Heart-wood contains gallic acid, ellagic acid,itsderivatives, a complex, high molecular weightpolysaccharic acid (ghattic acid). Thegum is a substitute for Gum Chamaemelum nobile(L.) The temperate regions ofthe Himalayas. Wild at Roman Chamomile, Shimai Mild sedative, anticon-vulsant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, mild analgesic;used externally for skin disorders,poultice of flowers in sprains application Used mainlyin France for mild spasmodicgastrointestinal disturbances andsluggishness of bowels, also fornervousness. (PDR.) (GermanChamomile has been includedbyGerman Commission Eamongapproved herbs, whereas RomanAAntiaris remains unapproveddue to lack of clinical evidence.)The British Herbal Pharmacopoeiarecognizes antispasmodic activityofAnthemis flower heads contain volatileoil (including azulenes and bisabolol);sesquiterpene lactone (nobilin); flavo-noids, cyanogenic glycoside, bitter glu-coside (anthemic acid); acetylenic sali-cylic derivatives, coumarins (includingscopolin), valerianic acid; and bisabolol are anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic, re-ducing histamine-induced reactions,including hay fever and asthma. Flavo-noids, especially anthemidin, are alsoantispasmodic. Valerianic acid andcyanogenic glycosides are A. indicusA. chinensis(Lam.) A. Rich. Assam, Bengal, southwardsto Andhra Pradesh and Kadamba, Priyaka,Vrtta-pushpa, Nipa, is equated with Venkadambu, Stembark febrifugal,antidiuretic, anthelmintic, hypo-glycaemic. Fruit cooling; anti-catarrhal, blood purifier, and root astringent. A decoction isused for gargling in stomatitis with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of dried stem-bark in disorders of female genital tractand bleeding dried bark contains alkaloids,steroids, reducing sugars and also tan-nins ( . %). The ether-soluble alka-loid of the bark shows antibacterial Stembark . . gpowder. (APIVol. II.)Antiaris Western Ghats fromKonkan southwards to Trivandrum,up to Sacking tree, Upas Valkala Aranthelli, Mara-uri, Jangali Lakuch, Jasund, Seed febrifuge, antidysen-teric (in minute doses). Latex circulatory stimulant (in minutedoses.)The latex contains a series of poi-sonous cardenolides, of which alpha-and/orbeta-antiarinarethemaincom-p onents. The total amount of crys-talline cardiac glycosides in the latexA56Aphanamixis polystachya(Wall.) from . to . %; alpha-antiarinfrom . to . % and beta-antiarinfrom . to . %. Antiarins are saidto act on the heart more powerfullythan digitalin. Beta-antiarin is morepotent than , in small quantities, is a mildcardiac and circulatory stimulant,whereas in large quantities it acts asa myocardial poison. It stimulates in-testinal and uterine many as Kedde-positive sub-stances were reported in the seed sam-plefromIndonesia. Thelatexsam-ple showed the presence of Kedde-positive polystachya(Wall.) Amoora rohitukaW. The sub-Himalayas tracts,Sikkim, Assam, Bengal, westernGhats and the Rohitaka, Daadima-chhada, Daadima-pushpaka, ,Bignoniaceae, is also equatedwith Bark strongly astringent,used in the diseases of the liver andspleen, and for tumours, enlargedglands. Seed oil used in muscularpains and rheumatism. All partsof the plant exhibit pesticidalactivity. Seed extract antibacterial, aqueous extract of the bark,when injected in normal guineapigs, showed reduction in absolutelymphocyte count and an increase inspleen weight. The bark appears to bean effective immunosuppressive drugsimilar to stembark contains a limonoid,ammorinin and a saponin, poriferas-terol- Umbelliferae; Native to Europe; cultivatedin northwestern Himalayas and inhills of Uttar Pradesh, HimachalPradesh and southern Ajmodaa, Ajmoda,Ajmodikaa, Anti-inflammatory (used inrheumatic disorders, inflammationof the urinary tract), diuretic,carminative, nervine, sedative,antiemetic, antispasmodic, antisep-tic (used in bronchitis, asthma, aswell as liver and spleen diseases),emmenagogue. Essential oil fromseeds tranquilizer, anticonvulsant,antifungal. Seeds are used in thetreatment of chronic skin disordersincluding application As diuretic. (TheBritish Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)AAquilaria yields an essential oil ( %),major constituent beingd-limonene( %) and phathalides and beta-seli-nene; coumarins, furanocoumarins(bergapten); flavonoids (apiin and api-genin). Alkaloid fraction of seedsshowed tranquilizing activity in ani-mals. The phthalides are sedative inmice and exhibit antiepileptic activityin rats and mice. The aqueous ex-tract of the celery has been shown toreduce adjuvant-induced arthritis inrats, and to be hypotensive in patientsas well as animals. The tincture of theplant exhibits drop in blood leptophyllum(Pers.) F. Muell. ex Native to America; culti-vated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh, Ajmodaa, Ajmod, SeeApium essential oil contains Meethersof thymol, carvacrol and thymoquinol;used as a carminative. The oil showsstrong antifungal activity againstCan-dida albicans,andmoderateactivi-ty against Gram-positive and Gram-negative Dried fruit g powder.(APIVol. II.)Aquilaria A. The hills of Assam,Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur Aloewood, Eaglewood, Aguru, Krimij, Krish-naaguru, Jongaka, Maaliyaka, Loha,Kaalaloha, Ood-ul Hindi, Ood Akil kattai, Heartwood astringent,carminative, antiasthmatic, anti-diarrhoeal, antidysenteric; used ingout, rheumatism and paralysis; asa stimulant in sexual debility; asa liniment in skin agarwood or eaglewood of com-merce is derived from the fungus-infected tree through wounds causedby the species ofAspergillus,Fusarium,Penicillium,and also by some ofFungiImperfecti. Agarwood on distillationyields an essential oil, known as essential oil yields a numberof agarofurans, sesquiterpene alcoholsand spirosesquiterpene stemwood yields sesquiterpe-noids gmelofuran and agarol; alsoa coumarinolignan aquillochin.(Agar is a different drug extract ofa seaweed,Gelidium Amansii,usedasa mild laxative.)Dosage Heartwood g powder.(APIVol. IV.)A58Arachis Papilionaceae;FabaceaeHabitat Native to Brazil, but widelygrown for its pods in southernIndia, Maharashtra and Groundnut, Peanut, Mandapi, Tailamudga, Nelakadalai, Kernels contain pro-tease inhibitors. Peanut skin is a haemostatic principle inthe peanut flour, which is said to im-prove the condition of protease inhibitor acts on the fib-rinolytic system, primarily as an an-tiplasmin. It is reported to form com-plexes not only with the enzymes, butalsowith peanut (red) skin contains bio-flavonoids, which possess vitamin P activity; tannins; a lipoxidase andaproteaseinhibitor. Capricacid,ob-tained from the (red) skin, showedantifungal activity binnatifida(Seem.) A. Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan,Khasi Taapamaari (Maharashtra).Action Stimulant, aphrodisiac,antipyretic, dyspeptic, Compositae; Native to northern Europe;now found in western Himalayas,Kashmir and Common or Great Phaggarmuul (Kashmir).Action Hypoglycaemic (plantextract caused reduction of bloodsugarwithanincreaseincarbohy-drate tolerance). Roots inhibitoryof tumour growth, cardiac stimu-lant, diuretic, spasmolytic. Leavesand seeds anticutaneous (used inpsoriasis, seborrhoic eczema).Key application As dermatolog-ical agent. (The British HerbalPharmacopoeia.)Important constituents of Burdockroots are fatty acids, organic acids, phe-nolic acids, lignans, sesquiterpenes,tannin, inulin and of the fruit are reported tohave hypoglycaemic activity in (lignan) is a weak inhibitorof experimental tumour growth. Theantimicrobial properties are due topolyacetylenes (of the root). The rootexhibits antibiotic activity againstStaphylococcus, and is used for fungaland bacterial infections. A flavonoid,arctiin, shows smooth muscle Native to North America,Europe and Inbud-dub, Angur-e-khiras,Reechh Astringent, dirutic; used forurinary tract infections, dysuria,cystitis, urethritis, leaves gave . % of a flavanolglucoside, isoquercitin, arbutin andmethyl arbutin. Total arbutin contentvaries from . to . %; tannins to %. Arbutin hydrolyses to hydro-quinone, a urinary is antimicrobial, but thecrude extract of uva-ursi is more effec-tive than isolated arbutin. In rats, uva-ursi showed anti-inflammatory activi-ty against experimentally induced in-flammation. (Natural Medicines com-prehensive Database, .)Areca Palmae; Native to Malaysia; nowgrownalongthecoastsofKarnataka,Kerala , Tamil Nadu, West Bengal,Assam and Arecanut, Betel Puuga, Puugi, Kramuka,Ghontaa, Guwaak, Fufal, Chhaalia, Kottai Paakku, Taeniacide (confined toveterinary medicine), astringent, with other therapeutic appli-cation,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of dried ripeseed in leucorrhoea and vaginal contains several alkaloidsbelonging to pyridine group, the mostimportant being arecoline ( . . %).Arecaidine, guvacine and isoguvacineare also present. Arecoline is an-thelmintic (in animals, not in hu-mans). Arecaidine has no parasympa-thomimetic effects, but only stimulat-ing properties; sedative in higher dos-es. Isoguvacine produces in asthma due tobronchoconstrictive effects of the al-kaloid arecoline (human case reports).(Francis Brinker.)Arecanut tannins ( . . %) arepredominantly catechol tannins whichclosely resemble Mimosa bark tan-nins. Powdered nuts are prescribed indiarrhoea and urinary disorders. Incombination with other astringent andstypticherbs,arecanutisusedasama-jor constituent in confections of Indianmedicine for gynaecological extract of the nut exhibitsdirect vasoconstriction and adrenalinepotentiation in rats. Antimicrobialactivity is due to polyphenolic frac-tion. Tannins potentiated the action ofacetylcholine in ileum and uterus of ratand noradrenaline on seminal vesicleat low to increased incidence of oralcancer associated with betel chewing,the use of arecanut as a masticatory isbeing g, fluidextractat . ml; and arecoline hydrobromideat . . mg. (Francis Brinker.)Dosage Dried ripe fruit gpowder. (APIVol. I.)Argemone Native to America;naturalized throughout Prickly Poppy, Katuparni, Svarnkshiri,Kaanchan-kshiri, , Himaavati, Hemavati.(Not to be equated with Brah-madandi Tricholepis glaberrima.)Unani Piramathandu, Seed responsible forepidemic dropsy. Causes diarrhoeaand induces toxicity. Oil, leafjuice and root used externally forindolent ulcers and skin herb contains isoquinoline alka-loids. The fresh latex contains protein-dissolving constituents and is used ex-ternally to treat warts, tumours andcancer. Latex contains alkaloid berber-ine( . %), protopine( . %)andfreeamino acids. Sanguinarine is the toxicfactor in A. nervosa(Burm. f.) Found all over India,ascending to Elephant Vriddhadaaruka,Vriddhadaaru, Vriddhadaaraka,Bastaantri, Sthavira, Sthaviradaaru,Atarunadaaru, Samudrashosha.(Seeds of Salvia plebeia R. Br. arealso known as Samudrashosha.)Unani Samunder Ambgar, Samuddira-pacchaiFolk Root aphrodisiac (con-sidered as a rejuvenator), nervine(used in diseases of nervous sys-tem, sexual disorders), diuretic(used in strangury), hypotensive, used externally in skindiseases (ringworm, eczema, boils,swellings); rubefacient, seeds contain hallucinogenicergoline alkaloids, the main ones be-ing ergine and isoergine. EtOH ( %)extract of seeds exhibits hypotensiveactivity. (Seeds of all species ofAr-gyreiacontain ergoline alkaloids andare hypotensive.) Leaves ofArgyreiasp. contain sitosterol and are Indian medicine,A. speciosaisnot used as a single drug for sexualdisorders in men, but as a support-ingdrugforexertingitsantiphlogis tic,spasmolytic and hypotensive actionson the central nervous system. TheAAristolochia , in itself, did not show anabolic-cum-androgen-like or spermogeneticactivity petaloideaChois andIpo-moea bilobaForsk of theConvolvulacaefamily are also used as Western herbal medicine, Hawai-ian Baby Woodrose is equated withArgyreia nervosa(synonymArgyreiaspeciosa; grows in Florida, Californiaand Hawaii). The seed is used for painrelief and as a seeds contain hallucinogens in-cluding ergonovine, isoergine (isoly-sergic acid amide) and ergine (lyser-gic acid amide). Four to eight seedsare equivalent to mcg of LSD,a potent serotonin- A ( -HT A) ago-nist. The effects last h. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)Dosage Root g powder.(CCRAS.)Aristolochia A. Uttar Pradesh, Bengal,Madhya Pradesh and westernpeninsular Bracteated Kitamaari, Dhumrapa-traa, Aadutheendaappaalai, Oxytocic, abortifacient, and fruit contain ceryl alco-hol, aristolochic acid and beta-sitos-terol. Aristolochic acid is insecticidal,poisonous, nephrotoxic. Leaf juice vermifuge. Seeds strong containing aristolochic acidare banned in the , Canada, GreatBritain, European countries seed compounds, aristolochicacid and magnoflorine, induce con-tractions in the isolated uterus of preg-nant rat and stimulate the isolatedileum of guinea pig. They also acti-vate the muscarinic and serotoner-gic receptors in a variety of decreases arterial bloodpressure in rabbits, and induces hypo-thermia in alsoA. Throughout the country,mainly in the plains and lower The Indian Ishvari, Gandhnaakuli,Naagadamani, Isarmuula, Oxytocic, abortifacient, contain aristolochicacids and European Zaraawand Oxytocic, abortifacient, acid and its Me es-ter strongly abortifacient, showeddamage to liver and kidney. Roots anti-oestrogenic. A cytotoxic lignan,savinin, has been isolated from acid also has an effectagainst adenosarcoma and HeLa cellsin culture; however, it is suspected tobe extracts show a pro-nouncedenhancement ofphagocytosisby leucocytes, granulocytes and peri-toneal macrophages, due to the pres-ence of aristolochic tablets, which con-tain . mg of aristolochic acid, in-crease phagocytosis in healthy acid also exhibits re-duction of some of the toxic effectsof prednisolone, chloramphenicol andtetracycline in experiments in vitro,and a reduction in the rate of recur-rent herpes lesionsin A. rusticanaGaertn et Cruciferae; Native to Europe; grownin gardens in northern India and inhill stations of southern Circulatory stimulant,diaphoretic, diuretic, for both urinary and respira-tory tract infections. Root liver,spleen and pancreatic stimulant;an alternative to Cayenne pepper;urinary antiseptic; diuretic; usedin the treatment of gout, increasesexcretion of uric acid; also forproteinura and vaginal infusion is used for application In catarrhs of therespiratory tract and as a supportivetherapy for infections of the urinarytract; externally for catarrhs of therespiratory tract and hyperaemictreatment of minor muscle aches.(German Commission E.)Itiscontraindicated in stomach andintestinal ulcers and kidneydisorders; not to be administered tochildren under root contains glucosinolates,mainly sinigrin, which releases allylisothiocyanate on contact with the en-zyme myrosin during crushing. Theoil exhibits broad-spectrum antibiot-ic activity due to allyl isothiocyanatesand allied compounds; used internal-ly as stimulant, sudorific and activity is stronger againstGram-positive bacteria than againstGram-negative bacteria. The oil alsoexhibits cytotoxic root produces an inhibitory ef-fect on the growth of Gram-negativebacteria of the typhoid-paratyphoid-entertitis , a component of Horse-radish, inhibits thyroid peroxidase,which is involved in the biosynthe-AArtemisia of thyroid hormone. (Sharon )Arnebia benthamii(Wall. ex G. Don) Macrotomia The alpine Himalayas fromKashmir to Kumaon, at altitude of , , m, and in Kashmiri Gaozabaan, Kash-miri Stimulant, cardiac tonic,expectorant, diuretic (syrup andjam, used in diseases of the mouthand throat, also in the treatmentof fevers and debility.) The rootspossess antiseptic and hexapetalus(Linn. f.) A. odoratissimusR. Southern India, Panasagandhi, (Harit) Haraa champaa (north),Kathari champaa; Hirvaa champaa(Maharashtra).Action Cardiacstimulant,uterinestimulant, muscle extract of the pericarp showeda positive ionotropic and chronotropiceffect on all types of experimental an-imals. The cardiac stimulant and uter-ine stimulant activity is attributed tothe glycosides, whereas the relaxant ac-tion on plain muscles and hypotensiveeffect, which could be partly choliner-gic and partly resulting from vasodila-tory action, are probably due to thepresence of the volatile leaves are found to contain anantifertility principle. The root con-tains an antimalarial Absinthium Compositae; Kashmir at altitudes of Wormwood, Afsanteen, Vilaayati Mastiyaaraa (Punjab), Titween(Kashmir).Action Choleretic (bile and gastricjuice stimulant), anthelmintic,stomachic, carminative, antispas-modic, anti-inflammatory, emme-nagogue, mild antidepressant; usedin chronic application In loss of appetite,dyspepsia, biliary dyskinesia. (Ger-man Commission E.)Inanorexia,for example, after illness, andA64Artemisia complaints. (ESCOP.)It is contraindicated in gastricand duodenal ulcers. Excessivedoses may cause vomiting, severediarrhoea, retention of urine ordazed feeling and central nervoussystem disturbances. (ESCOP.)The herb contains a volatile oil ofvariable composition, with alpha- andbeta-thujone as the major compo-nent, up to about %; sesquiterpenelactones (artabasin, absinthin, anab-sinthin); azulenes; flavonoids; pheno-licacids; is a toxic constituent whichshows hallucinogenic and addictive ac-tivity found in Indian hemp. It stim-ulates the brain; safe in small doses,toxic in excess. The azulenes are anti-inflammatory. The sesquiterpene lac-tones exhibit an antitumour effect andare insecticidal and oil from leaves antibac-terial, antifungal. The oil is toxic at Compositae; The western Himalayasfrom Kashmir to Wormseed, Chauhaara, KirmaaniYavaani, Chuhaari Ajawaayin; notrelated to Dirmanah, Kirmaalaa,Afsanteen-ul-bahar. (DirmanahTurki is equated withA. stechmani-anaBesser.)Folk Kirmaani Ajawaayin,Kirmaani-owaa, Deobstructant, stomachic,anthelmintic (effective againstroundworms), decoction of the fresh plant is giv-en in cases of intermittent and remit-tent is a santonin-yielding var.; (Willd.) a non-santonin flowerheads and leavescontain santonin. Roots, stems andtwigs are devoid of santonin. San-tonin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is usedfor the treatment of ascaris and oxyurisinfections. Large doses ( . g is adultsand . in children) are is less anthelmintic inaction than santonin; pseudosantoninis devoid of anthelmintic is albino mice revealed thatsantonin had no androgenic, estro-genic, antiestrogenic, progestationaland antiprogestational is toxic at mg in chil-dren; mg in adults. (FrancisBrinker.)Dosage Whole plant gpowder. (CCRAS.)Artemisia vestitaWall. ex Compositae, Western Himalayas at , , Gangaa Kundiyaa, integrifoliaLinn. Leaf haemostatic. Essen-tial oil antibacterial, antifungal (in : dilution).The major components of the essen-tial oil from leaves and flowering topsarealpha-terpinene, thujylalcohol, ter-penyl acetate, nerol, phellandrene, ci-neol,neral,thujylacetate,beta-thujone and sp., known as Gangaa Tu-lasi, areArtemisia lacrorumLedeb. andA. vulgarisLinn. A. nilagirica(Clarke) Compositae; The hilly regions of India,also in Mount Abu in Rajasthan, inwestern Ghats, and from Konkansouthward to Indian Wormwood,Fleabane, Dungwort, Mugwort,Wild Damanaka, Pushpachaa-mara, Gandhotkata. (Related sp.:A. siversianaEhrh. ex Willd.)Unani Afsanteen-e-Hindi. (Na-tional Formularly of Unani Medicineclubbed it with Baranjaasif.)Siddha/Tamil Daunaa, Leaf emmenagogue, men-strual regulator, nervine, stomachic(in anorexia and dyspepsia), an-thelmintic, choleretic, infusion of flower tops is admin-istered in nervous and spasmodicaffections. The herb is also usedas an antilithic. Oil from leaves antibacterial, antifungal in : application As emmenagogue.(The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The plant yields about . % of anessential oil. Plants at lower altitudehad more percentage of cineol, thu-jone, thujyl and citral, whereas fromhigher altitude terpenes are in high-er percentage. The highest amount ofcineol was reported to be %.The plant is also used as an inferiorsubstitute for cinchona in integrifoliaLinn. A. Cultivated throughout thehotter parts of Jackfruit, Jack Panasa, Kantakiphala,Ativrihatphala, Katahal, Latex bacteriolytic,promotes healing of of the plant applied toglandular swellings and abscessesfor promoting suppuration. Root used for diarrhoea, asthma, skindiseases. Unripe fruit acrid,astringent. Ripe fruit cooling,laxative, difficult to digest. Seeds diuretic. Lactin extraction showedA66Artocarpus and selective stimulation ofdistinct human T and B seed extract stimulates the heartand causes a fall in arterial blood pres-sure of experimental animals pretreat-edwithphysostigmine. Theseedsshowequalinhibitoryactivityagain sttrypsinand chymotrypsin. (The activity is de-stroyed when the seeds are boiled orbaked.)The leaves and stems show presenceof sapogenins, and exhibit aqueous extract of mature leavesexhibited hypoglycaemic activity inexperimental animals. Leaves con-tain cycloartenone, cycloartenol andbeta-sitosterol. Heartwood containsflavonoids, artocarpesin and norarto-carpetin and their Fruit ml decoc-tion. (CCRAS.)Artocarpus A. Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh,Bengal, Khasi Hills and Monkey Lakuch, Kshudra Panas,Granthiphala, Ilangu, Irapala,Ottipilu (Tamil).Folk Bark when appliedexternally, draws out purulentmatter; heals boils, cracked skinand pimples. Seeds purgative,haemagglutinating. Stems stembark contains oxyresvera-trol, used for lectin, artocarpin, isolated fromseeds, precipitates several galactoman-nans. It agglutinates rat lymphocytesand mouse ascites Fruit ml juice.(CCRAS.)Arundo Gramineae; Native to Mediterraneanregion; found in Kashmir, Assamand the Nilgiris, also grown Great Reed, Spanish-Bamboo-Reed, Nala, Potgala, Shuunya-madhya, Rhizome sudorific,emollient, diuretic, antilactant,antidropsical; uterine stimulant(stimulates menstrual discharge), rhizome yields indole- -alkyl-amine bases, including bufotenidineand dehydro-bufontenine. The leavesyield sterols and possesses antiacetyl-choline properties, histamine releaseAAsclepias and is a uterine stimulant. Al-kaloids from the flowers produced cu-rarimetic effect of the Root ml decoc-tion. (CCRAS.)Asarum Indigenous to the northernparts of southern Europe, Centraland East-Central Europe; cultivatedin the United States. A relatedsp.,Asarum himalaicum, synonymA. canadense,isreportedfromtheeastern Asarbacca, Hazelwort, Asaaroon, Subul-e-Barri, Tagar Brain and nervine tonic,diuretic, deobstructant and anti-inflammatory; used in bronchialspasm and in preparations ofcephalic volatile oil ( . %) consists ofasarone up to %, asaraldehyde %,methyleugenol %, with bornylacetate, terpenes and and its beta-isomer is foundto be carcinogenic in animals. The rhi-zome,inaddition,containscaffeicacidd erivatives and related sp.,Asarum canadenseL., indigenous to North America andChina, contains a volatile oil ( . . %) with methyl eugenol (an impor-tant constituent ofA. europaeum), andalso aristolochic acid. (Aristolochicacid is carcinogenic and nephrotoxic.)Asarumsp. are not used as a substitutefor Naturalized in many partsof India as an Curassavian Swallow-Wort, West Indian Ipecacuanha, Kaakanaasikaa (substi-tute).Folk Kaakatundi (Kashmir).Action Spasmogenic, cardiotonic,cytotoxic, antihaemorrhagic,styptic, antibacterial. Variousplant parts, as also plant latex,are used against warts and used as an astringent inpiles. Leaves juice, antidysenteric,also used against juice, styptic. Alcoholicextract of the plant alcoholic extract of the Indi-an plant has been reported to containa number of cardenolides, includingcalactin, calotropin, calotropagenin,coroglaucigenin, uzarigenin, asclepin,its glucosides and uzarin. Asclepin, thechief active principle, is spasmogenicand a cardiac tonic, having longer du-ration of action than digoxin ( h incat, as opposed to the h of digoxin).Calotropin exhibits cytotoxic root of the is equat-ed withAsclepias cold, flu and bronchitis in Westernherbal principles of the herb includegalitoxin and similar resins, and glu-cofrugoside (cardenolide). Toxicity isreduced by The western Himalayas andPunjab, from Himachal Pradesh toKumaon, up to , Mushali, (white var.),Mahaashataavari. The blackvariety is equated with Taalamuuli,Chlorophytum A substitute forA. root yields asparagin. Sapoge-nins A and B, isolated from the root,were identified as stigmasterol Native to Europe and Asparagus, Sparrow Shataavari, Vari,Shatviryaa, Shatmuuli, Shatpadi,Bhiru, Naaraayani, Bahusutaa, Diuretic, laxative, car-diotonic, sedative, galactagogue;used for neuritis and rheumatism,as well as for cystitis and application In irrigationtherapy for inflammatory diseasesof the urinary tract and forprevention of kidney stones.(German Commission E.). It iscontraindicated in kidney diseasesand oedema because of root contains steroidal glyco-sides (asparagosides) and bitter glyco-sides; asparagusic acid and its deriva-tives; asparagines, arginine and ty-rosine; flavonoids, including rutin,kaempferol and quercetrin; polysac-carides and inulin. Asparagine isa strong diuretic source of folic acidand spirostanol glycoside, isolatedfrom the methanolic extract of thefruits, has shown % immobiliza-tion of human Root g powder.(CCRAS.)Asparagus Foundwildintropicalandsubtropical parts of India, includingthe Andamans and ascending in theHimalayas to , Indian Shataavari, Shatmuuli,Atirasaa, Bahusutaa, Shatpadi,Shatviryaa, Bhiru, Indivari,AAsphodelus (Substitute for Medaa,Mahaamedaa.)Unani Thanneervittankizhangu, Sataavari Used as a galactagogueand for disorders of femalegenitourinarytract;asastypticandul cer-healing agent; as an intestinaldisinfectant and astringent indiarrhoea; as a nervine tonic, and insexual debility for with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicates the use of the tuber-ous root in gout, puerperal diseases,lactic disorders, haematuria, bleedingdisorders and also recommends it plant contains saponins sha-tavarins I IV. Shatavarin IV is a gly-coside of sarsasapogenin. The saponinin doses of mcg/ml producesa special blockade of syntocinon (oxy-tocin)-induced contraction of rat, gui-nea-pig and rabbit uteri in vitro andin situ. It also blocks the uterine spon-taneous dried root yields sitosterol; , -dihydroxy- O-( hydroxyisobutyl)benzaldehyde and undecanyl cetano-ate, and contains a large amount of sac-charine matter, mucilage and miner-als Ca ( . ), Cu ( . ), Na ( . ),K ( . ), Mg ( . ), Mn ( . ),Ni ( . ) and Zn ( . ) mg/g(dryweight).The root was found to reduce gas-tric emptying time comparable to thatof metoclopramide. (JPostgradMed, , ( ), ).The root extracts exhibited antialler-gic activity in animal root, when fed orally, actedas immunomodulator against inducedsepsis and peritonitis in rats and sarmentosusLinn. hasbeen equated with related sp. areAsparagus ,A. Dried root g powder.(APIVol. IV.)Asphodelus A. Most parts of the plainsfrom West Bengal westwards toPunjab and Gujarat, as a field Piyaazi, Khunsaa, Asraash.(Asphodelus tenuifoliusCav. isequated with Shellot, Gandanaa.)Folk Seeds diuretic; appliedexternally to ulcer and contain an ester, -O- -me-thylstearylmyoinositol. The seed oilyields myristic, palmitic, oleic, linole-ic, linolenic acids, beta-amyrin andbeta-sitosterol. The oil, due to itshigh linolenic content ( . %), maybe of therapeutic value in mineral elements present in theweed are iron . , zinc . and cop-per . ppm. A triterpenoid, lupeoland quercetin are also A. roxburghianaA. Eastern Himalayas, Assam,Meghalaya, Orissa and Chuttakulaa-tigaa (Telugu).Action The extract of aerial parts Kashmir at mand extending to Dalhousie andChamba in Himachal Black Krishna Fond expectorant, pec-toral, emmenagogue. Rhizome anthelmintic. Plant bitter, diuret-ic, laxative, anti-inflammatory. Itis used for diseases of spleen andin jaundice; produces sterility fonds contain aliphatic hydro-carbons, the chief one being hentri-acontane, non-acosane and triterpe-noid hydrocarbons, mainly of ( ) , sterols and fatty acids arealso sp. include:A. (vitamin K and phthiocol havebeen isolated for the first time fromthe plant);A. adiantoides(L.) C. Chr.,synonymA. falcatumLam. (used inthe treatment of enlarged spleen, in in-contenence of urine, in calculus, jaun-dice and malaria);A. nidusLinn. syn-onymThamnopteris nidus(L.) ,known as Bird s Nest Fern (used asa depurative and sedative).Asteracantha Hygrophila Common in moist places,paddy fields, throughout India andSri Kokilaaksha, Kokilaak-shi, Ikshura, Ikshuraka, Kaakekshu,Kshurak, Taalmakhaanaa. (Wronglyequated withEuryale feroxSalisb.(Fox Nut) inNational Formulary ofUnani Medicine,PartI,firstedn., .)Siddha/Tamil Neermulli, Diuretic, used for catarrh ofthe urinary organs, also for dropsywhen accompanied by Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diarecommends the seed in lithiasis;the whole plant and root for extract of herb ash di-uretic in albino rats. EtOH ( %) spasmolytic and hypotensive. Theherb exhibits antihepatotoxic activi-ty in dogs. Essential oil from wholeplant plant gave lupeol, stigmasteroland hydrocarbons; seed gave sterols;flowers, apigenin extract decreased fastingglucose and improved glucose toler-ance in rats. (Sharon M. Herr.)Dosage Whole plant g,powder; dried seed g powder;dried root g for decoction.(APIVol. II.) Herb ash g(CCRAS.)Astragalus Fabaceae; The western Rudanti, Depurative, bechic, bloodpurifier (used in skin diseases).Root powder and decoction alsoused as an adjunct in Fruit g powder.(CCRAS.)Astragalus Fabaceae; Highlands of Asia Minor,Iran, Greece, Syria and Tragacanth Katiraa, Kataad (Gum)Action Demulcent, emollient (usedfor irritation of the internal mucosa,colitis, dry coughs), used as an application gum contains polysaccharidesand proteinaceous is water-soluble, consist-ing of an arbinogalactan and traga-canthic acid. Bassorin is an insolublemethylated fraction (gel). The polysac-charides have been shown to have im-munostimulating activity (stimulationof phagocytosis and an increase in plas-ma cell counts of tragacanth increasesweight of stool and decreases gastroin-testinal transit time, it does not ap-pear to affect cholesterol triglycerideor phospholipid levels as other solublefibres do. (Natural Medicines Compre-hensive Database, .)Tragacanth has been shown to beactive against a variety of tumours. Itappears to inhibit growth of Fabaceae; Found in the plains Tonkin bean, Melilot,King s crown, King s Naakhunaa, Ikil-ul-Malik.(It is also equated withMelilotusalbaDesv. andTrigonela uncataBoiss. inNational Formulary ofUnani Medicine.)Action Nervine tonic (used innervous and catarrhal affections),antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory,emollient, diuretic, callus of the plant containsamino acids; roots contain saponinsand sterols. The leaves yield -nitro-propionic Fabaceae; The mountainous regionsfrom Asia Minor to Iraq and Rudanti (substitute).Unani Anzaroot, Kohal Kirmaani(Gum).Action Gum antirheumatic,aperient, anthelmintic, Fabaceae; The western Himalayas at , , m, and Indian Gum Gum an Indian substitutefor tragacanth (A. gummifergum).Atalantia monophylla(L.) A. Throughout India, espe-cially in Assam, Meghalaya andAndaman Wild Kattu Narangam,Kattu Jungli Oil from leaves and berry antibacterial, antifungal. Leaves a decoction is applied to cutaneousaffections. Fruit juice, rootbark yields alkaloids, atala-phylline and its N-methyl derivativesand atalaphyllidine, which have closestructural similarities with the antitu-mour alkaloid, acronycine, and its co-geners. The rootbark also contains thelimonoid, leaf juice forms an ingredient ofa compound liniment used in hemiple-gia. The essential oil is used in paraly-sis. The oil contains higher terpene es-ters belonging to azulene group ( %).(Azulenes impart anti-inflammatoryactivity.)Atropa acuminataRoyle ex A. belladonnaauct. Kashmir and HimachalPradesh up to , Indian Belladonna, Luffaah, Luffaah-Barri,Yabaruj, Highly poisonous; seda-tive, narcotic, anodyne, nervine,antispasmodic (used in paralysis);parkinsonism; encephalitis; car-cinoma; spastic dysmenorrhoea;whooping cough, spasmodic asth-ma; colic of intestines, gall bladderor kidney, spasm of bladder andureters; contraindicated in application In spasm andcolic-like pain in the areas ofAAvena gastrointestinal tract and bileducts. (German Commission E,TheBritish Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) Itis contraindicated in tachycardiacarrhythmias, prostate adenoma,glaucoma, acute oedema of belladonnaL. (European sp. Bel-ladonna, Deadly Nightshade) is culti-vated in Kashmir and Himachal herb contains tropane (tropine)or solanaceous alkaloids (up to . %),including hyoscamine and atropine;flavonoids; coumarins; volatile bases(nicotine).Tropane alkaloids inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system, whichcontrols involuntary bodily activities;reduces saliva, gastric, intestinal andbronchial secretions, and also the ac-tivity of urinary tubules. Tropane al-kaloids also increase the heart rateand dilate the pupils. These alkaloidsare used as an additive to compoundformulations for bronchitis, asthma,whooping cough, gastrointestinal hy-permotility, dysmenorrhoea, noctur-nal enuresis and fatigue provides relief in parkin-sonism and neurovegetative root is the most poisonous, theleaves and flowers less, and the berriesthe least. (Francis Brinker.)Dosage Leaf, root mgpowder. (CCRAS.)Atylosia A. barbataBakerFamily Papilionaceae; Subtropical tract of Assam,Maharashtra and Kerala, up to Maashaparni (substi-tute).Siddha/Tamil Febrifuge, antibilious, an-tirheumatic (used in consumptionand swellings).Atylosia scarabaeoides(L.) Papilionaceae; Throughout India; up to , m in the western Jangli Tur, Antidysenteric, anticholerin,febrifuge; also used in anaemia,anasarca and hemiplegia. Seeds flavone glucoside, atyloside, hasbeen isolated from the Gramineae; A cereal and fodder crop ofEurope and America; also cultivatedin Oat, Common Yavikaa. (Indian sp. isequated withA. byzantinaC. Koch.)Unani Sult (Silt), Jao Birahnaa, Nervine tonic (usedin spermatorrhoea, palpitation,sleeplessness), cardiac tonic (used indebility), stimulant, antispasmodic,thymoleptic, antidepressant (usedin menopausal phase). Also usedin diarrhoea, dysentery, , application Oat straw externally in baths for inflammatoryand seborrhoeic skin diseases.(German Commission E.)Theeffecton blood sugar is less than that frommost of the fiber-containing herbsand foods. (Sharon M. Herr.)The seeds contain proteins and pro-lamines (avenins); C-glycosyl flavones;avenacosides (spirostanol glycosides);fixed oil, vitamin E, dioxide ( %) occurs in theleaves and in the straw in soluble formas esters of silicic acid with polyphenolsand monosaccharides and straw contains a high content ofiron( mg/kgdryweight), manganese( . mg) and zinc ( . mg).In an experimental study, oat strawstimulated the release of luteinizinghormone from the adenohypophysis ofrats. (Expanded Commission E Mono-graphs.)An alcoholic extract of green oatswas tried on opium addicts. Six chron-ic opium addicts gave up opium com-pletely, two reduced their intake andtwoshowednochangefollowingregu-laruse of ml three times daily (humanclinical study). A significant diminish-ment of the number of cigarettes usedby habitual tobacco smokers resultedfrom using ml (four times daily) offresh Avena alcoholic extract of matureplants; however, a few studies gave dis-appointing results. (Francis Brinker.)Oat polyphenol composition pre-vented the increase of cholesterol andbeta-lipoprotein of blood serum offasting rabbits. Antioxidant proper-ty of the oat flour remains unaffect-ed by heat. Homoeopathic from the oats stimulatedimmune exhibit strong anti-fungal activity in Oxalidaceae; Native to Malaysia;cultivated throughout the Bilimbi, Tree Karmaranga (var.).Unani Belambu (a variety ofKamrakh).Siddha/Tamil Pilimbi, Asyrupmadefromthefruits is used in febrile excitement,haemorrhages and internal haem-orrhoids; also in diarrhoea, biliouscolic and hepatitis. The fruit is usedfor scurvy. An infusion of flowers isgiven for Oxalidaceae; Native to Malaysia;cultivated throughout the warmerparts of India, especially in indicaA. Carambola, Star Fruit,Chinese Khamraq, Root antidote in poi-soning. Leaf and shoot appliedexternally in ringworm, scabies,chickenpox. Flower laxative, antidysenteric,antiphlogistic, febrifuge, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic (usedin hepatic colic, bleeding piles).Seeds galactogenic; in large dosesact as an emmenagogue and fruits are a fairly good sourceof iron but deficient in calcium. Theyalso contain oxalic acid and potassi-um oxalate. The presence of fluorineis also reported. A wide variation ofvitamin-C content ( . . mg/ g)is recorded from different places in In-dia. Sugar ( . %) consists mainly ofglucose ( . %).Avicennia A. albaBlumeFamily Verbenaceae; A tree occurring in saltmarshes and tidal White Tivaria (Gujarat), Upattam(Tamil Nadu).Action Stem/bark of unripe fruit used forhealing skin lesions of smallpox;fruits and immature seeds, used ascicatrizant of abscesses and bark contains % tannin, tri-acontanol and triterpenoids. Kernelscontain lapachol, which possesses an-titumour activity. Aerial parts yieldbeta-sitosterol, friedelin, lupenone, lu-peol, betulinic and ursolic indicaA. Melia Native to Burma; found allover Neem tree, Margosa Nimba, Nimbaka,Arishta, Arishtaphala, Pichumarda,Pichumanda, Pichumandaka,Tiktaka, Sutiktak, Vemmu, Veppu,Veppan, Leaf, bark antimicrobial,antifungal, anthelmintic, insecti-cidal, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-malarial, antiperiodic, mosquitolarvicidal, anti-inflammatory,antifertility, spermicidal, hypogly-caemic; used in inflammation ofgums, gingivitis, periodonitis, sores,boils, enlargement of spleen, malar-ial fever, fever during childbirth,measles, smallpox, head scald andcutaneous affections. Oil usedA76Azima a contraceptive for intravaginaluse, for the treatment of vaginalinfections, and as a tetranortriterpenoids havebeen examined extensively fortheiran-tibiotic, antitumour, insecticidal, an-tibacterial and antifungal methanolic extract of the barkshows antimalarial activity againstPlasmodium aqueous extract of leaves exhib-ited antiulcer and water-soluble portion of alco-holic extract of leaves reduces bloodsugar in glucose-fed and adrenaline-induced hyperglycaemic rats (but notin normal and streptozotocin-induceddiabetic rats).A volatile fraction of the Neem oilis reported to be responsible for sper-micidal activity at a dose of mg/mlfor human sperm. The oil has beenfound to retard the growth of humanimmunodeficiency oil has caused mitochondri-al injury in mice; poisonous in highdoses. (Sharon M. Herr.)Dosage Dried leaf g powder; g for decoction; stembark g powder decoction for externaluse. (APIVol. II.) Leaf juice ml; oil drops; barkdecoction ml. (CCRAS.)Azima Peninsular India, Orissa,West Mistletoe Root diuretic (used inSiddha medicine for dropsy andrheumatism). Leaves stimulant(used in rheumatism); expectorant,antispasmodic (used in cough andasthma); given to women afterconfinement. Bark antiperiodic,astringent, leaves contain the alkaloids az-imine, azcarpine and carpine. EtOH( %) extract of aerial parts exhibitedspasmogenic monnieri(Linn.) Herpestis monnieria(Linn.) Throughout the plains ofIndia in damp marshy Thyme-leaved Braahmi, Aindri, Nir-braahmi, Kapotavankaa, Bhaarati,Darduradalaa, Matsyaakshaka,Shaaluraparni, Mandukaparni (alsoequated withCentella asiaticaLinn.,synonymHydrocotyle , Apiaceae).Unani Piramivazhukkai, Jalaneem, Adaptogenic, astringent,diuretic, sedative, potent nervinetonic, anti-anxiety agent (improvesmental functions, used in insanity,epilepsy), antispasmodic (used inbronchitis, asthma and diarrhoea).Key application Inpsychicdisordersand as a brain tonic. (The AyurvedicPharmacopoeia of India; IndianHerbal Pharmacopoeia.)B. monnierihas been shown to causeprolonged elevated level of cerebralglutamic acid and a transient increasein GABA level. It is assumed that en-dogenous increase in brain glutaminemay be helpful in the process of herb contains the alkaloidsbrahmine, herpestine, and a mixtureof three bases. Brahmine is highly tox-ic; in therapeutic doses it resemblesstrychnine. The herb also containsthe saponins, monnierin, hersaponin,bacosides A and B. Bacosides A andB possess haemolytic activity. Her-saponin is reported to possess car-diotonic and sedative properties. Itwasfound,asincaseofreserpene,to deplete nor-adrenaline and alcoholic extract of the plant inadoseof mg/kgproducedtranquil-izing effect on albino rats and dogs,but the action was weaker than thatproduced by Whole plant gpowder. (APIVol. II.)Balanites aegyptiaca(Linn.) Delile,Synonym B. Simaroubaceae; Drier parts of India,particularly in Rajasthan, Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh and Desert involucrataHook. Ingudi, Angaar Vrksha,Taapasadrum, Taapasa vrksha, Hingan, Hingol, Hingota, Seed expectorant, antibacterial, used in whooping cough;also in leucoderma and other skindiseases. Bark plant is reported to be a po-tential source of diosgenin (used inoral contraceptives). The fruit pulpcontains steroidal saponins. The dios-genin content of the fruit varies from . to . %. Aqueous extract of fruitsshowed spermicidal activity withoutlocal vaginal irritation in human up to %; sperms became sluggish on con-tact with the plant extract and thenbecame immobile within s; the ef-fect was administration of thefruit pulp extract produced hypergly-caemia-induced testicular dysfunctionin dogs. An aqueous extract of meso-carp exhibited antidiabetic activity instreptozotocin-induced diabetes seed contains balanitins, whichexhibit cytostatic Leaf, seed, bark, fruit ml decoction. (CCRAS.)Balanophora involucrataHook. The Himalayas fromKashmir to Sikkim and Darjeelingat altitudes of , , mAyurvedic Chavya (tentativesynonym).Action Astringent. Used in piles,also in ,B. polyandraGriff.,found in Nagaland, Manipur, WestBengal, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pra-desh at , m, gave a phenolic gly-coside, coniferin. The plant is used asan montanum(Willd.) B. The Himalayas, Assam,Khasi Hills, Bengal, MadhyaPradesh, Bihar and PeninsularIndia, ascending to , Danti, Nikumbha,Udumbarparni, Erandphalaa,Shighraa, Pratyak-shreni, calycinumMuell-Arg. is considered as Neeradimuthu, Jangli Seed purgative. Leaves purgative (also used in dropsy),antiasthmatic (decoction is given inasthma). Latex used for body acheand pain of joints. Root and seedoil cathartic, with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicated the use of driedroot in jaundice, abdominal lump presence of steroids, terpenoidsand flavonoids is reported in the root contains phorbol extract of roots showedin vivoactivity in P- lymphocytic Root g powder. (APIVol. III.)Balsamodendron mukulHook. ex StocksSynonym Commiphora mukul(Hook. ex Stocks) wightii(Arn.) Rajasthan, MadhyaPradesh, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Indian Bdellium, Guggul, Devadhoop,Kaushika, Pur, Mahishaaksha,Palankash, Kumbha, Muqallal yahood, Muql,Bu-e-JahudaanSiddha/Tamil Oleo-gum-resin used forreducing obesity and in rheumatoidarthritis, osteoarthritis, application In the treatmentof hyperlipidemia, hypercholestero-laemia and obesity. (WHO.)Guggulipid is resin contains steroids gug-glsterones Z and E, guggulsterols I V, diterpenoids; volatile oil, includingother constituents, contains a terpenehydrocarbon cembrene A. E- and Z-guggulsterones are characteristic con-stituents, which distinguishC. mukulfrom resin increases catechola-mine biosynthesis and activity in cho-lesterol-fed rabbits, inhibits platelet ag-gregation, exhibits anti-inflammatoryactivity and appears to activate thethyroidglandinratsandchicken. Z-guggulsterone may increase uptake ofiodine by thyroid gland and increaseoxygen uptake in liver and bicep tis-sues. (Planta Med , , .)The gum is also used in hemiplegiaand atherosclerotic disorders; as a gar-gle in pyrrhoea aveolaris, chronic ton-silitis and pharyngitis. Fumes are rec-ommended in hay fever, chronic bron-chitis and nasal resin ofBalsamodendroncaudatumis also equated with Guggulin Siddha Oleo-gum-resin g(APIVol. I.) mg to g (CCRAS.)Balsamodendron Commiphora abyssinica(Berg.) Arabia, Bola, Hiraabola, Surasa,Barbara, Murmakki, Oleo-gum-resin em-menagogue (used for irregularmenstruation and painful periods),anti-inflammatory (on pharyngitisand gingivitis), antiseptic, bac-teriostatic, antiviral, astringent,stimulant, expectorant, stomachic,carminative (in dyspepsia), a leuco-cytogenic agent (increases numberof white cells in the blood). Usedexternally for treating acne, boilsand pressure sores, internally asa blood application In topical treatmentof mild inflammations of the oraland pharyngeal mucosa. (GermanCommission E.)Asagargleormouth rinse for the treatmentof aphthous ulcers, tonsillitis,common cold and gingivitis. (TheBritish Herbal Pharmacopoeia,ESCOP.)The gum ( %) contains acidicpolysaccharides, volatile oil ( %)including other constituents, heer-abolene, eugenol, furanosequiterpenesand is taken as a powder or a tinc-ture, rather than as an infusion; usedgenerally externally or as a suspension of the gumresin decreased ethanol-induced andindomethacin-induced ulcer in rats.(JEthnopharmacol, , Jan ( ), .)Dosage Gum-resin g(CCRAS.) Commiphora opobalsa-mum(L.) Found in countries onboth sides of Red Balsam tree, Balsam ofMecca, Balsam of Balsaan, Roghan-e-Balsaan(oil), Hab-e-Balsaan (fruit). Ood-e-Balsaan (wood).Action Used in diseases of theurinary tract. Balsams are diureticand stimulate mucous tissues insmall doses (nauseatic and purgativein large doses).In Unani medicine, the fruit is usedas an expectorant and emmenagogue,also for neurological affections. Thewood is also used as an ingredientin compounds for epilepsy and othernervine disorders. The oil is used ex-ternally for its anti-inflammatory andrevitalizing bambos(L.) B. arundinaceae(Retz.) Gramineae; Wild throughout India,especially in the hill forests ofWestern and Southern Spiny or Thorny Vansha, Venu, Kichaka,Trinadhwaj, Shatparvaa, , Vansharochanaa,Shubhaa, tugaa, Tugaakshiri, Tvak-kshiri (Bamboo-manna). StarchofCurcuma angustifoliaRoxb.,Zingiberaceae,was recommendeda substitute for Vanshalochana(Ayurvedic Formularly of India,PartI, First edn).Unani Qasab, Tabaashir (Bamboo-manna).Siddha/Tamil Moongil; Moongilup-pu, (Bambo-manna.)Action Leaf bud and youngshoots used in dysmenorrhoea;externally in ulcerations. Leaf em-menagogue, antileprotic, febrifuge,bechic; used in haemoptysis. Stemand leaf blood purifier (usedin leucoderma and inflammatoryconditions). Root root is applied to ringworm,bleeding gums, painful used for eruptions. Leafand Bamboo-manna emmena-gogue. Bamboo-manna pectoral,expectorant, carminative, cooling,aphrodisiac, tonic (used in debili-tating diseases, urinary infections,chest diseases, cough, asthma).The plant gave cyanogenic glu-coside taxiphyllin. Bamboo-mannacontains silicious crystalline starch obtained fromMaran-ta arundinaceaLinn.,Marantaceae,isalso used as Bamboo-manna (knownas Koovai Kizhangu, Kookaineer andAraroottu Kizangu in Siddha medi-cine).Dosage Manna g (CCRAS.)Barbarea vulgarisR. Brassicaceae, Subalpine and temperateHimalayas, at altitudes of , , Bitter Cress, HedgeMustard, Yellow Rocket, Diuretic, anthelmintic,stomachic, antiscorbutic, (leaves arerich in vitamin C mg/ g).Pulverised herb is used as an agentfor stimulating roots contain sinigrin; seedscontain a glucoside, glucobarbarin,and protein and phosphorus con-tents of the plant decrease with thematurity, whereas the calcium con-tents increase (tender stems are eatenas a salad). The leaves and buds area rich source of provitamin A (beta-carotene).Barleria Peninsular India fromMaharashtra southwards up to analtitude of , m. An ornamentalhedge plant in Sahachara (purple, blue,rose or white-flowered var.)Folk Roots and leaves are usedin cough, bronchitis, inflammations(applied to swellings).Barleria Subtropical Himalaya,Sikkim, Khasi Hills, Central andSouthern India at , Sahachara, Shveta-Rakta-pushpa Saireyaka (white-and red-flowered var.).Siddha/Tamil Katsaraiyaa. Extract of the plant sasmogenic and extract given in leaves are chewed in and leaves are applied toswellings. An infusion is given roots contain anthraquinones;flowers gave apigenin, naringenin,quercetin and Throughout the hotterparts of India. Also, commonlygrown as a hedge plant in Common Yellow Nail Sahachara, Baana,Kurantaka, Kuranta, Koranda,Korandaka, Shairiya, Pita-saireyaka(yellow-flowered var.). Also equatedwith Piyaabaasaa, Jhinti, Leaf juicegiveninstomachdisorders, urinary affections; mixedwith honey and given to childrenwith fever and catarrh; leaf juiceis applied to lacerated soles of feetin the rainy season, mixed withcoconut oil for pimples. Leavesand flowering tops diaphoretic and paste is applied over boilsand glandular swellings. Plant(Vajradanti) antidontalgic, usedfor bleeding gums in Indianmedicine. Ash, obtained from thewhole plant, mixed with honey, isgiven in bronchial Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diarecommends oil extract of the plantfor arresting greying of leaves and flowering tops arediuretic, rich in potassiumsalts. Leavesand stems showed presence of iridoidglucosides, barlerin and gave the flavonoid glycoside,scutellarein- -neohesperidoside. Thepresence of beta-sitosterol is reportedin the the south, Nila Sahachara isequatedwithEcbolium linneanunKurz.(known as Nilaambari), and Shveta Sa-hachara withJustica linneanunplant is used forgout and dysuria; the root is prescribedfor albaLinn. Whole plant g fordecoction. (APIVol. III.)Barleria The Himalayas from UttarPradesh to West Bengal, up to analtitude of , Sahachara (blue-flowered var.).Siddha/Tamil Mild antiseptic, expectorant(given in spasmodic cough); alsoused as an plant gave beta-and acutangula(Linn.) Eugenia Lecythidaceae; Sub-Himalayan tracts fromthe Ganges eastwards to Assam andMadhya Indian Oak. (Oak isequated withQuercus roburL.)Ayurvedic Nichula, Hijjala, Ijjala,Vidula, Ambuj. (Central Council forResearch in Ayurveda & Siddhahaswrongly equated Hijjala, NichulaandVidulawithArgyreianervosa,Elep hant Creeper.)Unani Samandarphal. (Saman-darphal is also equated withRhus parvifloraRoxb. inNationalFormulary of Unani Medicine.)Siddha/Tamil Kadappai, Leaf juice given indiarrhoea. Fruit bitter, acrid,anthelmintic, haemolytic, vulner-ary; prescribed in gingivitis as anexpectorant. Powdered seeds emetic and expectorant. Bark astringent, used in diarrhoea andblennorrhoea. Febrifuge. Wood haemostatic (in metrorrhagia).Along with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicated the use of the fruit ingoitre; also in psychological bark contains tannins ( %), al-so ellagic fruits contain triterpenoid sa-pogenins. Saponins possess haemolyt-ic related racemosa(L.) Roxb.,found in Assam, eastern and west-ern coasts of India and the AndamanIslands, is also equated with Samu-draphala and Oak (Quercus robur)con-tains % tannins, consisting ofphlobatannin, ellagitannins and gallicacid. Thebarkisusedasastringent,antiseptic and Fruit g (APIVol. III.)Basella albaLinn. B. Grown as a pot herb inalmost every part of India, Indian Upodikaa, Potaki,Maalvaa, Demulcent, diuretic,laxative (a good substitute forspinach and purslane). Used asa cooling medicine in digestivedisorders. Leaf juice is used inbalanitis and catarrhal applied in urticaria,burns, scalds. Root decoction isgiven to stop bilious vomiting andin intestinal complaints. Used aspoultice to reduce local swellings;sap is used in for checking malnutrition essential amino acids are argi-nine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, threo-nine and tryptophan. The plant con-tains several vitamins and minerals, isrich in calcium and iron compoundsand contains a low percentage of sol-uble oxalates. The leaves also containcarotenoids, organic acids and water-soluble polysaccharides, bioflavonoidsand vitamin Whole plant mljuice. (CCRAS.)Bassia Madhuca longifolia(Linn.) South India; common inthe monsoon forests of Mowra Butter tree, SouthIndian Illupei, Elupa, Naatu,Iluppei, Flowers laxative, bechic(used in coughs, colds and bron-chitis), stimulant and nervinetonic. Seed oil galactogenic,anticephalalgic, laxative in casesof habitual constipation and piles;used externally in rheumatism andskin affections. Bark, seed oil andgum herb contains % tannins andis used for bleeding and spongy gums,tonsillitis, ulcers, rheumatism and di-abetes mellitus. Roots are applied kernel gave protobassic acid (asapogenol) and two major saponins Mi-saponins A and B. Mi-saponins(bisdesmosides of protobassic acid)exhibit anti-inflammatory activity carollas are a rich source of sug-ars and contain an appreciable amountof vitamins and calcium (total sugars . %, calcium mg/ g). Sug-arsareidentifiedassucrose,maltose,gl ucose, fructose, arabinose and rham-nose. Flowers are largely used in thepreparation of distilled liquors. Theyconstitute the most important raw ma-terial for fermentative production racemosaLamk85Bauhinia Central Dwarf White Kaanchnaara, Kovidaara(white-flowered var.)Unani Bark and leaves adecoction is given in biliousness,stone in bladder, venereal diseases,leprosy and asthma. Root boiledwith oil is applied to South India, Assam Malabar Mountain Ashmantaka var.,Kaanchanaara var. (in the South).Siddha/Tamil Aapataa (Maharashtra), Amli, plant contains flavonoid gly-cosides quercitroside, iso-quercitro-side, rutoside, taxifoline rhamnoside,kaempferol glycosides and CaesalpiniaceaeHabitat The Himalayas, anddistributed in Northern India,Assam, Khasi Hills. Also cultivatedin Camel s Foot tree, PinkBauhinia, Butterfly tree, Geramiumtree, Orchid Kovidaara, Sivappu Koilaara, Khairwaal, Kaliaar,Rakta Bark astringent, antidiar-rhoeal. Flower buds and flowers,fried in purified butter, are given topatients suffering from of stems are used inter-nally and externally for fracturedbones. Plant is used in goitre. Itexhibited antithyroid-like activityin experimental flowers contain astragalin, iso-quercitrin and quercetin, also antho-cyanins. Seeds contain chalcone racemosaLamkFamily Sub-Himalayan tractsfrom Ravi eastwards, ascendingto , m. in the Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal and Central and Ashmantaka, Kokku Aapataa (Maharashtra), Bark highly astrin-gent, anti-inflammatory (usedin glandular inflammations, skindiseases, ulcers), anthelmintic; with onionfor diarrhoea. Flowers used inhaemorrhages, piles; also in , beta-amyrin and beta-sitosterol have been isolated from thebark. EtOH ( %) extract of seeds ex-hibited anticancer B. Northwestern Himalayasup to m, also in Orissa, MadhyaPradesh and Andhra Nirpa (Telugu).Folk Semalaa, Kathmahuli. Gum ThaurAction Gum emmenagogue,diuretic. (Gum resembles Gum ara-bic; used as an external applicationfor sores). Protein isolated fromseeds hypoglycaemic, hypoc-holesterolaemic in young, normalas well as alloxan-induced diabeticalbino bark contains quercetin- -O-beta-D-glucoside and Southern India, Assamand Yellow Bauhinia, tree, Bell Pita Kovidaara (yellow-flowered var.), Pita Kokkumandarai,Tiruvaatti, Antidysenteric. Fruit diuretic. Bark astringent. Rootbark vermifuge. A decoction ofthe root bark is prescribed for liverdiseases. Seed used for yield a fatty oil called ebonyoil, a water soluble mucilage and sapo-nins. Flowers gave isoquercitrin ( %),rutin ( . %) and quercetin (smallamounts).Bauhinia B. Punjab, Western Peninsulaand Assam. Also cultivated Mountain Ebony, Kaanchanaara, Kaan-chanaaraka, Kanchanak, Kaan-chana, Gandhaari, Sonapushpaka, Buds a decoction is givenin piles (also used against tumours),haematuria, menorrhagia. DriedBBelamcanda chinensis(L.) are used in diarrhoea,dysentery, worm infestation,piles and tumours. Root carminative, used in dyspepsiaand flatulence (a decoction isreported to prevent obesity).Bark astringent, anthelmintic;used externally in scrofula and skindiseases. Seeds possess humanblood agglutinating activity. Leaf with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicated the use of the stembark in lymphadenitis and goitre. (Ka-anchnaar Gugguluis prescribed forglandular swellings and goitre.)Water-soluble portion of alcoholicextract of the plant showed preventiveeffect against goitre in gave flavonoids, kaempfe-rol- -galactoside and kaempferol- -rhamnoglucoside. The stem barkyields hentriacontane, octacosanol andstigmasterol. Stem contains beta-sitos-terol, lupeol and a flavanone Stem bark g fordecoction. (APIVol. I.)Begonia laciniataRoxb. Tropical and sub-tropicalregions, especially in in Sikkim, ArunachalPradesh, Assam, Meghalaya,Nagaland and Manipur, ascendingto an altitude to , Beefsteak Geraniums,Elephant s Hooirjo (West Bengal), Teisu(Nagaland).Action A decoction of the root isgiven for liver diseases and extract from succulent stalks isused for venereal diseases in folkmedicine. Fresh shoots are chewedfor tooth troubles. Aqueous extractsof the leaves and flowers ofBegoniasp. are active against Gram-positiveand Gram-negative and Teisu are also equatedwithB. palmataD. Don , found in northeastern regions chinensis(L.) Introduced from China;cultivated all over India, up to analtitude of , Surajkaanti (Assam), Dasbaha,Dasbichandi (Bengal).Action Rhizomes expectorant,deobstruent, resolvent, used intonsillitis, chest and liver complaints(antiviral against pneumonia).Presence of alkaloids is reportedfrom the plant, glucoside, belamcan-din from the roots. The leaves andflowers contain a glycoflavone. Theseeds tested positive for hispida(Thunb.) hispida(Thunb.) B. Cultivated largely in UttarPradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan Ash Gourd, White Gourd,Wax Gourd, White Kuushmaanda, Kuush-maandaka, Pethaa, Mahdabaa, Ven-poosani, Leaves cooling, juicerubbed on bruises. Fruit decoc-tion laxative, diuretic, nutritious,styptic (given for internal haem-orrhages and diseases of therespiratory tract.) Juice of fruit used for treating epilepsy, insanityand other nervous diseases. The ashof fruit rind applied on painfulswellings. Seeds fruits contain lupeol, beta-sitos-terol, their acetates and several aminoacids. The fruit juice produces tran-quilizing activity and mild CNS de-pressant effect in roots of mature plant containa pentacyclic triterpene, which ex-hibits antiallergic activity against bothhomologous passive cutaneous ana-phylaxis and delayed hypersensitivityin mice. The fruit beverage containspyrazine acetate, a penta-cyclic triterpene, has been isolated asthe major constituent of wax coatingof Dried pieces of the fruit g (APIVol. IV.) Fruit juice m (CCRAS.)Berberis sp. B. asiaticaRoxb. ex B. lyciumRoyle & Northwestern Himalayas,Nilgiris, Kulu and Indian Daaruharidraa, Daaru,Daarvi, Daarunishaa, Daarura-jani, Vrahitaphala, Valliphala,Sthirphala. Pushpaphala, Somakaa,Parjanyaa, Parjani, Kantkateri,Taarthya, Pachampachaa. Kaaliyakais now equated with Pita Chandana(Coscinium fenestratum(Gaertn.)Colebr.,Menispermace ae). Ex-tract Daarhald. Rasaut (extract).Zarishk (fruit).Siddha/Tamil Rasaut, Rasasranjana(extract) bitter, cholagogue,antidiarrhoeal, stomachic, lax-ative, diaphoretic, antipyretic,antiseptic. Used externally inopthalmia,conjunctivitis, ulcers,sores, swollen gums. Root bark anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemicBBerberis , antiamoebic, anti-coagulant, antibacterial. Bark used in liver complaints, diarrhoea,dysentery, cholera, gastric disor-ders, enlargement of spleen and forregulating metabolism. Berries antiscorbutic, hydrochloride and sul-phate help in the diagnosis of latentmalaria by releasing the parasites intothe blood berberine possesses an-tibacterial and anti-inflammatory ac-tivities. It is used as an intestinal an-tiseptic and bitter stomachic. It alsoexhibits antineoplastic properties. (Itssynthetic derivative dihydroberberineis used in brain tumour.)Berberine has been found to inhibitthe activity of enzymes trypsin ( %)and chymotrypsin ( %)in Dc. is found inthe Himalaya at , m, Assamand Extract g (CCRAS.);dried stem ml decoction.(APIVol. II.)Berberis B. aristata The Himalayas fromKashmir to Nepal, at altitudes of , , Daaruharidraa (var.).Folk Totaro, Kintodaa (Garhwal).Action Same as that root and stem bark contain al-kaloids ( and . % respectively, calcu-lated as berberine.)Thealcoholicextractoftheroots wasfound to be better antimicrobial agentthan the aqueous extract. The alka-loid palmitine hydroxide possesses an-tispermatogenic aristataandB. ulicinaHook, known asKhicharmaa in Tibet, is also equatedwith Distributed in Northwest-ern Common Barberry, Daruharidraa (var.).Folk Chatrod, Root and bark usedfor ailments of gastrointestinaltract, liver, gallbladder, kidney andurinary tract, respiratory tract, alsoas a febrifuge and blood application Listed byGermanCommission Eamong extract with % berberine andadditional alkaloids stimulated the bilesecretion of rats by %. (PDR.)Ascholagogue. (The British Herbal Phar-macopoeia.)The main alkaloid is berberine (welltolerated up to . g). Berries are ligulata(Wall.) in small doses stimulatesthe respiratory system; poisoningshave been observed from from the total herb havenot been reported. (German Commis-sion E.)Berberine is bactericidal, amoebici-dal and trypanocidal. Berberine is an-tidiarrhoeal,asitentersintothecytosol or binds to the cell membrane and in-hibits the catalytic unit of andenylatecyclase. It is activein vitroand in ani-mals against stimulates bile secretionand shows sedative, hypotensive, anti-convulsant and uterine stimulant activ-ity in animals. Alkaloid bermarine isalso strongly antibacterial. It has beenshown to increase white blood cell andplatelet counts in animals with iatro-genic , berbamine and jatror-rhizine are hypotensive and of the alkaloids are alkaloid berbamine ( mgthree times daily for weeks) helpedreverse leukopaenia induced by ben-zene, cancer chemotherapy or radio-therapy in a clinical study. (FrancisBrinker.)Berberine, when combined withpyrimethamine, was more effectivethan combinations with other antibi-otics in treating chloroquine-resistantmalaria. (Sharon M. Herr.)Bergenia ligulata(Wall.) B. Temperate Himalayafrom Kashmir to Bhutan, betweenaltitudes of and , Paashaanabheda,Ashmaribhedikaa, Ashmaribhit,Ashmghna, Shilaabhit, Shilaabheda.(These synonyms are also equatedwithAerva lanataJuss.)Siddha/Tamil Leaf and root anti-scorbutic, astringent, spasmolytic,antidiarrhoeal. Used in dysuria,spleen enlargement, pulmonaryaffections as a cough remedy,menorrhagia, urinary tract infec-tions. Alcoholic extract of roots antilithic. Acetone extract of root-bark cardiotoxic, CNS depressantand anti-inflammatory; in milddoses diuretic but antidiuretic inhigher doses. Anti-inflammatoryactivity decreases with to its depressant action on thecentral nervous system, the drugis used against vertigo, dizzinessand headache in moderate or application In lithiasis,dysuria, polyuria. (The AyurvedicPharmacopoeia of India; IndianHerbal Pharmacopoeia.)The rhizome contains an active prin-ciple bergenin ( . %), gallic acid, glu-cose ( . %), tannins ( . . %),mucilage and wax; a C-glycoside prevented stress-inducederosions in rats and lowered utilisD. (Paashaanabheda indicates that theplant grows between rocks appearingto break them; it does not necessar-ilymeanthatitpossesseslithotrip ticproperty.)Dosage Rhizome g fordecoction. (APIVol. I)Beta vulgarisLinn. (L.) B. vulgarisauct. non Native to Mediterraneanregion; cultivated in North India,Maharashtra and South Beet Root, Garden Beet, Leaf used in burnsand bruises, also for diseases ofspleen and liver. Tuber and seed expectorant. Leaf and seed diuretic. Leaf, tuber and seed anti-inflammatory. Seed oil roots are eaten raw as salad orcooked. The leaves are nutritionallysuperior to roots and are a good sourceof vitamins and is a mild diuretic and ,usingrats,chardin-creased regeneration of beta cells inpancreas. Maximum reduction ofblood glucose was after days ofadministration. (JEthnopharmacol, , : .)Beets are used orally as a supportivetherapy in the treatment of liver dis-eases and fatty liver (possibly due tobetaine). Ingestion of large quantitiesmight worsen kidney disease. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)Betula ex D. B. The temperate andsubtropical Himalayas, Khasi Hillsand Indian Birch, Naga Bhojapatra (var.).Action Used in supportive therapyof rheumatic salicylate ( . %) has beenreported from the essential oil of thebark (of the plant growing in north-eastern region of India).Betula utilisD. B. Temperate Himalaya fromKashmir to Himalayan Silver Birch,Indian Paper Bhuurja, Bahulvalkala,Bahuputa, Lekhyapatraka, Charmi,Chitrapatra, Boorjapattram(leaves).Action Resin laxative. Leaves diuretic; used in the formof infusionin gout, rheumatism, dropsy, and asa solvent of stones in the kidneys;used in skin affections, especiallyeczema. Bark used in astringent, application (B. pendula)Inirrigation therapy for bacterialand inflammatory diseases of theurinary tract and for kidney gravel;supportive therapy for rheumaticailment. (German Commission E,ESCOP.)European Silver Birch is equatedwithBetula albaL., synonymB. pen-dulaRoth. Astringent, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, bitter, cholagogue; con-tains salicylates. Used for kidney andbladder complaints, sluggish kidneyfunctions, rheumatism and salicylate is obtained by , ,methyl salicylate ( . %)has been reported in the essential oilof the utilisis also a closerelative ofB. Bark g powder;decoction ml (CCRAS.)Bidens Compositae; Throughout India ingardens, waste places and Phutium (Gujarat), Kuri(Garhwal).Action Plant cytotoxic. Leaf applied to ulcers and swollen plant contains a numberof poly-acetylenes which are toxic to bacte-ria, fungi and human fibroblast is the major con-stituent of the leaves and pilosaLinn. (Blume)Sherff, synonymB. pilosaLinn. f. in part, gave phytos-terin-B, which like insulin, showed hy-poglycaemic activity both in normaland diabetic pilosaauct. nonLinn., synonymB. chinensisWilld., isused for leprosy, fistulae, pustules, sensitivum(Linn.) Oxalis Throughout tropical Lajjaalu (var.) VipareetLajjaalu (non-classical), Alam-bushaa (Hindi commentators haveequated it with Gorakh Mun-di,Sphaeranthus indicusLinn.,Asteraceae.)Folk Lajoni, Jhalai, Plant used in in-somnia, convulsions, cramps,chest-complaints, inflammations,tumours, chronic skin in stomachache. Leaves diuretic, astringent, is applied to burns, contusionsBBlepharis wounds. Decoction is givenin strangury, asthma and decoction is given in lithia-sis. Mature leaves are recommendedin diabetes; contain an saline extract of leaves showed hy-poglycaemic activity in Native to Central America,often cultivated in Madhya Pradeshand South Sinduri, Jabara, Plant astringent, antibil-ious, antiemetic, blood infusion is given in jaun-dice, also in dysentery. Externally,scar-preventive. Root bark febrifuge, antiperiodic. Seed pulp haemostatic, antidysenteric, diure-tic, laxative. Fruit antimicrobial constituent, mas-linic acid, alongwith gallic acid andpyrogallol, has been isolated from theleaves. Alcoholic extract of the leavescompletely inhibitedMicrococcus pyo-genes,but was inactive againstE. aqueous extract, however, showedpartial inhibition againstE. extract also showed potent in-hibitory activity towards lens aldose re-ductase, which plays an important rolein the management of diabetic com-plications. The activity is attributed toa flavonoid, , the main constituent of seedcoat, shows cytostatic effect on thegrowth of human lymphoma cells. Bix-in also has a hyperglycaemic effect andmay disturb blood glucose B. persica( ) Punjab and Utangana, Kaamavridhi,Chatushpatri, Ucchataa (equatedwithScirpusorCyperussp. duringthe classical period; with ShvetaGunjaa,Abrussp. during themedieval period.)Unani Karadu (Maharashtra).Action Roots diuretic. Usedfor urinary discharges and dys-menorrhoea. Seeds deobstruent,resolvent, diuretic (used in stran-gury and sexual debility). Powderedplant is applied locally on infectionsof the genitals and on application Seed in dysuriaand impotency. (The AyurvedicPharmacopoeia of India.)A benzoxazine glucoside, blephar-in, has been isolated from seeds, anda saponin, which on hydrolysis Dried seed g powder.(APIVol. IV.)B94Blepharis B. sindicaT. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthanand Ushtrakaandi, Utangan(var.).Folk Utangana (Sindh). Seeds, boiled in milk, aretaken as an invigorating molluginifoliaPers., usedfor urinary discharges, is also equatedwith Compositae; Madhya Pradesh, Maha-rashtra, Used as a substitute forRaasnaa in Madhya Anti-inflammatory (usedinternally and externally forrheumatic affections).Blumea B. densifloraHook. f. Compositae; Subtropical Himalayas,Nepal, Sikkim, Assam and KhasiHills at , Ngai Kukundara, Tranquilizer (used inexcitement and insomnia), expec-torant, sudorific. Given in intestinaldiseases, colic, diarrhoea. Essentialoil from leaves plant is a source of Ngai orBlumea Camphor. Camphor occurs inall parts of the plant, but is generally ex-tracted from leaves. Ngai Camphor oilconsists almost entirely ofl-borneol. Itis redistilled to obtain the refined cam-phor for use in dried leaves contain sesquiter-pene lactones. These lactones exhib-it antitumour activity against Yoshidasacoma cells in tissue activity againstE. Compositae; Sub-tropical Himalayas,Nepal, Sikkim, Assam and Ngai Kukundara (var.).Action Juice of fresh leaves insecticidal, mosquito plant yields an essential oilwhich yields part contains sesquiterpenelactones, tagitinin A, tirolundin ethylether and iso-alantolactone Compositae; Uttar Pradesh, Maha-rashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kukundara (var.).Unani Nirmudi (Maharashtra).Action Juice of the herb carminative. A warm infusionof leaves is given as a sudorific,while a cold infusion is considereddiuretic and emmenagogue. The oilpossesses significant antibacterialand antifungal properties. The oilalso shows insecticidal essential oil contains % ke-tones, thechiefconstituent ofwhich ared-carvotanacetone andl-tetrahydro-carvone and an plant contains a flavonol, cri-anthin (isolated from the flowers). Itis identical to artemetin, isolated fromArtemisia fastulosa(Roxb.) B. Compositae; Tropical Himalayas, andthroughout the plains of Assam andPenninsular Kukundara (var.).Unani Plant diuretic. Essentialoil CNS steam non-volatile fraction ofplant extract contained a mixture Compositae; Throughout the plains ofIndia, ascending to Kukundara, Kukuradru, Narakkarandai, Plant antipyretic. Leaf astringent, febrifuge, diuretic,deobstruent, anthelmintic (partic-ularly in case of thread worm).Root anticholerin. Essential oil antibacterial, leaves on steam distillation yield . % essential oil from which camphoris oil contains cineol ,d-fen-chone and citral about %. Theplant gave adiesterof coniferyl alcohol,acetylenic compounds, a thiophenederivative; aerial parts gave campes-terol, hentriacontane, hentriacontanol,alpha-amyrin and its acetate, lupeoland its acetate and alcoholic extract of the plantshowed marked anti-inflammatory ac-tivity in carrageenin and bradykinin-induced inflammation in Root g paste.(CCRAS.)B96Boerhavia B. Throughout India asa Horse-purslane, Rakta-punarnavaa,Punarnavaa, Katthilla, Shophaghni,Shothaghni. Varshaabhu (alsoequated withTrianthema portu-lacastrumLinn., which exhibitsanti-inflammatory, antipyretic andanalgesic activity).Unani Itsit, Diuretic, anti-inflammatory,antiarthritic, spasmolytic, antibac-terial (used for inflammatory renaldiseases, nephrotic syndrome, incases of ascites resulting fromearly cirrhosis of liver and chronicperitonitis, dropsy associated withchronic Bright s diseases, for serumuric acid levels). Root anticon-vulsant, analgesic, expectorant,CNS depressant, laxative, diuretic, application As diuretic,hepatoprotective. (Indian HerbalPharmacopoeia.)B. repanda,synonymB. chinensisLinn., roots exhibited antihepatotox-ic activity against carbon tetrachlo-ride galactosamine-and paracetamol-induced intoxication in rats. Powderedroot gave encouraging results in sper-matorrhoea and chloroform and methanolic ex-tracts of the roots and aerial parts ofB. diffusaalso exhibited antihepatotox-icactivityagainstcarbontet rachloride-induced intoxication in is official in IP as a di-uretic. Thediureticactionofthedrugisattributedto thepresenceofxanthone,beta-ecdysone. Flavonoid, arbinofura-noside, present in the drug, was foundto lower serum uric acid in experimen-tal animals, as also in has been reported toincrease serum protein level and re-duce urinary protein extraction in clin-ical trials in patients suffering withnephrotic syndrome. The activity isattributed to the presence of rotenoidsin various parts of the antifibrinolytic agent, punar-navoside, has been found to stopIUCD-induced bleeding in drug contains quinolizidine Whole plant g fordecoction (APIVol. I); root gpowder; ml fresh juice. (APIVol. III.)Boerhavia Throughout plains Shveta Punarnavaa,Vrshchiva, Vrshchiraka. (Vrishchirais also equated withTrianthemasp.)B. erecta,synonymB. punarnavaSaha and Krishnamurthy, is alsoequated with the white-floweredspecies of SeeB. SalmaliamalabaricaSchott& The Mediteranean region,Europe and Borage, Cow s Gaozabaan (OnosmabracteatumWall. has also beenequated with Gaozabaan).Action Fresh herb (compoundedwith water) refreshing, restora-tive and nervine tonic. Leavesand flowers diuretic, febrifuge,expectorant, demulcent, emollient;promote the activity of kidneys;alleviate pulmonary drug strengthens adrenal glandsand is given for stress, mental exhau-sion and depression; provides supportto stomach and intestines in cases ofinfection and toxicity. Used as a ton-ic to counteract the lingering effects ofsteroid therapy. Seeds relieve leaves contain lycopsamine andsupindine viridiflorate as the predom-inant unsaturated pyrrolizidine alka-loids. Due to low concentration ofthese alkaloids Borage is not drug contains potassium andcalcium, combined with mineral fresh juice affords %, the driedherb % of nitrate of potash. Thestems and leaves supply much salinemucilage. These saline qualities aremainly responsible for the wholesomeinvigorating properties of imparts pleasant flavour andcooling effect to beverages. In India,squashes and syrups, sold during sum-mer, contain Borage contains ascorbic acid( mg/ g). Flowers contain cholin,glucose, fructose, amino acids, tan-nin (about %). Seeds contain protein( . %) and an oil ( . %). The seedoil is one of the important sources ofgamma-linoleic acid and linoleic oil, combined with EveningPrimrose oil, is used in seed oil is used for rheuma-toid arthritis, atopic eczema, infantileseborrhoeic dermatitis, neurodermati-tis, also for PMS and for preventingheart disease and stroke. Only UPA(unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids)free oil is given byGerman Commission Eamong unapproved has been suggested that borage notbe used with drugs known to lower theseizure threshold such as tricyclic an-tidepressants and phenothiazines dueto GLA content (only borage seed oilcontains significant amounts of GLA).(Francis Brinker.)Borassus Palmae; Coastal areas of Bengal,Bihar and Western and Palmyra Palm, Brab articularis(Linn. f.) F. N. Taala, Taada, Trinraj,Mahonnata, Panai, Freshsap diuretic, cooling,antiphlegmatic, laxative, anti-inflammatory. Slightly fermentedjuice is given in diabetes. Palm-jaggery used as an energy foodfor convalscents. Ash of dryspadix antacid, antibilious (usedin heartburn). Young root, terminalbuds, leaf-stalks used in gastritisand and anaemic patients. Jaggery isgiven for anaemia, for diseases charac-terized by a marked loss of candy is used in coughs and pul-monary affections and as a laxative Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diarecommends dried male inflores-cence in solution may be used in hy-pertension and oedema due to heartand liver diseases, also as a food fortyphoid sap is an excellent source of bi-ologically available MeOH extract of youngshoots contains heat-stable toxin; edi-ble part of young shoot, neurotoxic torats, but not Dried male inflorescence g (APIVol. III.)Borreria articularis(Linn. f.) F. N. B. hispada(L.) K. Throughout India, asa weed in cultivated and sallowlands and Shaggy Button Ghanti-chi-bhaaji (Maha-rashtra), Gatbhanjan, Herb usedinthetreatmentof headache. Root prescribed asa mouthwash in toothache. Leaf juiceisgivenasanastringentin haemorrhoids. Seeds usedas demulcent in diarrhoea weed contains beta-sitosterol,ursolic acid and D-mannitol. It is richin calcium and phosphorus. Isorham-netin, a flavonoid, is reported in The drier parts ofPeninsular Indian Frankincense,Indian Shallaki, Susravaa,Gajabhakshyaa, Salai. Gum Kundur (gum).Siddha/Tamil Parangisambirani, Salai campestrisLinn. (L.) Gum-resin antiseptic,anti-inflammatory, antiatheroscle-rotic, emmenagogue, analgesic,sedative, hypotensive. Also usedin obesity, diarrhoea, dysentery,piles, urinary disorders, scrofulousaffections. Oil used topically inchronic ulcers, fraction of gum-resinexhibited marked sedative and anal-gesic effect in rats. It produced amarked and long-lasting hypotensionin anaesthetized derivatives of -keto-methyl-beta-boswellic ester, isolated from thegum-resin., have been prepared; a py-razoline derivative exhibited maxi-mum anti-inflammatory activity.(Gum-resin is used in osteoarthri-tis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, softtissue fibrositis and spondylitis, alsofor cough, bronchitis, asthma, mouthsores.)Essential oil from gum-resin contains triterpenes ofoleanane, ursane and euphane and fruit Gum-resin g (APIVol. IV.)Brassica alba(L.) Sinapis Cruciferae; Native of Europe and WestAsia. Cultivated in North India White Siddhaartha, ShvetaSarshapa, Khardal Safed Stimulant to gastric mucosa,increases pancreatic secretions;emetic (used in narcotic poisoning),diaphoretic, rubefacient. (Asa counter-irritant it increasesflow of blood to a specific area.)Used externally as a poultice inbronchitis, pleurisy, intercostalneuralgia, contain inB. albaand sinigrin are toxic constituents. Theoil with toxic constituents should beavoided in gastrointestinal ulcers andkidney disorders. When moistened,sinigrin in the seeds is degraded toallyl isothiocyanate, a potent irritantvolatile oil. (Francis Brinker.)Glucosinolates are goitrogenic. Ex-cessive consumption may alter absorption of thy-roid hormone in G tract. (Sharon )Brassica campestrisLinn. (L.) Cruciferae; Field Mustard, Sarshapa, juncea(Linn.) Czern. & Stimulant, diuretic, emetic,rubefacient, counter-irritant. Usedexternally for bronchitis andrheumatic pains (increases flow ofblood to a specific area). Powderedseeds are used as a tea for colds,influenza and seeds contain glycosinolates(the derivatives are responsible for tox-icity). The concentration of the majorglucosinolate,gluco-napin,variesfro m . to . % in the oil-free meal ofIndian brassicas. The glucosinolatesin rapeseed meal split upon enzymatichydrolysis to produce glucose, potassi-um, hydrogen sulphate and a sulphur-containing compound which under-goes intramolecular rearrangement togive rise to the antinutritional factors,isothiocyanates or volatile oil of mustard is giveninternally in colic; in overdoses it ishighly poisonous and produces gastro-enteric inflammations. It is employedexternally as a liniment for of mustard oil withargemone oil (Argemone mexicanaisfrequently found growing in brassicafields), by accident or by design, has ledto the widespread epidemics of drop-sy and glaucoma due to an mustard contains sinigrin,which on hydrolysis by enzyme my-rosin, produces allyisothiocynate; thewhitemustardcontainssinalbin,whichpro ducesp-hydroxybenzyl isothiocy-nate. Mucilage contains Seed mg to g paste.(APIVol. III.)Brassica juncea(Linn.) Czern. & Cruciferae; Cultivated in Punjab, WestBengal, Uttar Pradesh and Chinese Mustard, Raajikaa, Aasuri Raai, RaaiAction Raai is a substitute forMustard. Antidysenteric, stom-achic, diaphoretic, pancreatic decoction of seeds is given inindigestion, cough. Used externallyas a counter-irritant in severalcomplaints of nervous Cruciferae; Cultivated in Punjab,Bengal and Mustard, Indian Krishna-Sarshapa,Raajakshavaka, Kattaka, Katus-neha, Tantubha, Siddhaartha,Siddhaarthaka, Siddhaartha-sita,Rakshogna. (White variety ofSarshapa is also equated withSiddhaartha. Asita and Rakta seedvarieties are reddish; Gaur andSiddhaartha are whitish.)Unani Kaali Emollient, diuretic, oil gave brassino steroid brasi-nolide. Seeds gave a antithyroid com-pound, -vinyl- -oxazolidinethone;thioglucosides and seed oil is said to dissolves nigra(Linn.) Cruciferae; Cultivated in Punjab, UttarPradesh and Tamil Black Banarasi Raai, Raajika(var.).Unani Khardal Seeds are used for treatingcoryza with thin excoriating dis-charge with lacrimation, sneezingand hacking cough, nostril block-age and dry and hot feeling seeds contain glucosinolate sin-igrin, which produces allyl isothio-cyanate when mixed with warm isothiocynate acts as a counterir-ritant when diluted ( : ).Brayera Hagenia abyssinica(Bruce) Indigenous to north-eastAfrica. Imported into Cusso, Anthelmintic. Adminis-tered in the form of an infusionfor the expulsion of tapeworm(ineffective against hookworm,roundworm, whipworm). Irritantto mucous membrane; producesnausea, vomiting and colic in retusa(Dennst.) B. The tropical Himalayasand Deccan Bahuprajaa, Kaamboji(doubtful synonym).Folk KaaliKamboi(Gujarat).Action Used as a galactagogue (asa supporting drug in herbal com-pound formulations). The sub-Himalayan tractfrom Kashmir eastwards to Assam,and in Bihar, Orissa and Gondni, Asaanaa (Maharash-tra).Action Bark and Root astringent,anthelmintic. Used in the treatmentof bone retusa(Linn.) root contains . % leaves contain beta-sitosterol,its beta-D-glucoside and a triterpe-noid. Fructose, glucose and sucrosewere identified as the components ofthe retusa(Linn.) Throughout India up to analtitude of , m, except in verydry Mahaaviraa, Asana(Asana is equated withPterocarpusmarsupiumRoxb., the Indian Kinotree.)Siddha/Tamil Gondani, Gondui, Bark astringent, usedin the form of a liniment inrheumatism. Paste of the stem barkis applied to bark contains % of a triterpene ketone in thebark is reported. The bark exhibitedhypotensive properties in pharmaco-logical trials. The extract of the barksignificantly increased the mean sur-vival time of mice infected intracere-brally with vaccinia virus. Ripe fruitpulp contains beta-sitosterol and gallicand ellagic sativaNational Formulary of Unani Medicine,Part I, equated Jirjeer with Brucea sati-va Mill. or Nasturtium officinale R. officinale, found in Eu-rope, is known as watercress. Indiancress is cultivated in gardens as a creep-er. Brucea is a totally different species(Simaroubaceae). Taraamirra of Unanimedicine should be equated with Eru-ca sativa and not with Brucea Taraamiraa (Jirjeer) used in Unani medicine as a sper-matic tonic (powder of seeds isadministered with a half-fried egg),also as a blood purifier, diuretic,emmenagogue and juice used as a lotion forblotches, spots and officinale(Brassicaceae):Antiscorbutic and stimulant. A richsource of vitamins A and E, also ofascorbic acid. Seeds contain glucon-casturtin. Used for metabolic disor-ders, anaemia, strangury, kidney andbladder disorders and catarrh of therespiratory sativaMill.: Cultivated inNorth India; known as Taraamiraa,Siddhaartha, Bhutaghna. Seeds areused like mustard. Seeds antibacte-rial. Crude juice of the plant inhibitedE. coli, S. typhiandB. ( -Me-thio)-Bu-glucosinolate(glucoerucin) as K and tetra-Me-Nsalts. A composition is used in indura-tion of suaveolensBercht. & Datura Bonpl. ex pinnatum(Lam.) Native to Mexico; grownin Indian Angel s Leaf and flower usedto treat asthma; to induce hal-lucinations. Can cause parts of the plant contain tropanealkaloids (concentration highest inthe foliage and seeds), particularlyatropine, hyoscyamine and hyoscine(scopolamine.)Brunella Prunella Labiatae; The Himalayas fromKashmir to Bhutan at altitudes of , , m, in Khasi Hills andhills of South SubstituteforUstukhudduus.(Lavandula stoechasLinn.)Folk Wound healing, ex-pectorant, antiseptic, astringent,haemostatic, antispasmodic. Leaf used in piles; and as a cooling herbfor herb contains vitamins A, B, Cand K; flavonoids; rutin. Flower spikesare liver-restorative, hypotensive, , stigmasterol and beta-sitos-terol are obtained from the unsapo-nifiable fraction from the leaves, thesaponifiablefractiongavelauric,steari c, palmitic, myristic, oleic andlinoleic laciniosa(Linn.) Bryonia Throughout Lingini, Shivalingi, Iyaveli, Lingadonda (Telugu).Action Seeds anti-inflammatory,spasmolytic. Used for vaginaldysfunctions, as a fertility promot-ing drug. Powdered seeds, alsoroots, are given to help conceptionin women. Plant is also used invenereal pinnatum(Lam.) B. Throughout the warmand moist parts of India, especiallyabundant in West Parnabija, Airaavati.(Also known as Paashaanabheda.)Unani Leaf disinfectant, antibac-terial (used for boils, insect bites,swellings, burns, wounds).B104Buchanania axillaris(Desr.) , mixed with those ofAeglemarmelos,are given in blood andamoebic dysentery. Leaves are alsoeaten to control yield glycosides of querce-tin and kaempferol, and fumaric extracts Leaf ml juice.(CCRAS.)Buchanania axillaris(Desr.) B. Dry deciduous forests inpeninsular Buchanan s Mango,Cuddapah Priyaal (var.).Unani Mudaima, Kernel of seeds areconsidered best amongBuchananiasp. Uses similar to those ethanolic extract ( %) of theaerial part showed CNS-depressant ac-tivity in B. Drier parts of Almondette tree, Cheron-jee, Buchanan s Priyaala, Piyaala,Kharskandha, Bahulvalkala, Taa-paseshtha, Sannakadru Dhanush-pat, Mudaima, Morala (Tamil).Action Kernel laxative, ointment made out of thekernels is used to cure itch ofthe skin and to remove blemishesfrom the face. Oil from kernels substitute for almond oil. Appliedto glandular swellings of the oil is a promising source ofpalmitic and oleic lipids ( . %), comprisedmainly of neutral lipids ( . %), con-sist mostly of triacylglycerol ( . %),freefattyacids( . %)andsmallamountof diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerolsand kernels are used in Indian medi-cine as a brain tonic. The leaves arevalued as a leaves contain . % tannins( . % gallo-tannins). The presenceof triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoidsand reducing sugars are also or crushed leaves are appliedto bark contains . % , saponinsandreducing sugars is also (stem exudate) is antidiar-rhoeal. Used internally in Stem bark g (APIVol. IV.)BButea monosperma(Lam.) Umbelliferae; The Himalayas fromKashmir to Bhutan and the KhasiHills, at , , Hare s Shingu (Himachal Pradesh),Sipil (Punjab), Thaanyo (Garhwal).Action Roots anti-inflammatory,haemolytic, antipyretic. Used ininflammations, muscle stiffness,neurosis, pain and pyrexia. Rootsresolve inflammations of costalmargin and application Extracts havebeen used for the treatmentof chronic hepatitis, nephroticsyndrome and auto-immunediseases (WHO.).Therapeutic properties are attribut-ed to saikoside or saikosaponins (yieldfrom roots . . %), a complexmixture of triterpenic saponins. Sapo-nin content varies with age. Saikos-aponins are analgesic, antipyretic aswell as antitussive; anti-inflammatoryon oral administration. In Japan andChina, roots have been used tradition-ally in auto-immune diseases. Saikos-aponins form an ingredient of anti-tumour pharmaceuticals. A water-soluble crude polysaccharide fraction,preparedfromtheroot, wasreportedtoprevent HCl/ethanol-induced ulcero-genesis in mice significantly. Saiko-saponin-d,at a concentration of morethan m, inactivated measles virusand herpes simplex virus at room sterols, possessing metabol-ic activities and plasma cholesterol-lowering activity, have also been iso-lated from the monosperma(Lam.) B. frondosaKoenig Papilionaceae; Throughout India, up to , m except in very arid Flame of the Forest, ButeaGum, Bengal Paalasha, Kimshuka,Raktapushpaka, Kshaarshreshtha,Brahmavriksha, Dhaak, Samagh Dhaak, Palasam, Bark astringent, styptic(prescribed in bleeding piles,ulcers, haemorrhages, menstrualdisorders), anthelmintic. Flowers astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue(also given for leucorrhoea).A decoction of flowers is given indiarrhoea and haematuria, also topuerperal women. Seeds clinicaluse of seeds as an anthelmintic drugis not considered safe in antibacterial. Stem bark aqueous extract of flowers hasshownhepatoprotectiveactivityagainstC Cl -induced liver injury in of flowers have exhibitedsignificant anti-oestrogenic activity inmice. The seed suspension, on oraladministration to albino rats ( and mg/kg body weight), showed . and . % cases, respectively, wherepregnancy was not interrupted but foe-tus was extract of the whole plantproduced persistent vasodepression plant contains flavonoids andglucosides butin, butrin, isobutrinand palastrin. Flowers contain butrin,coreopsin, monospermoside and theirderivatives and sulphurein; also Stem bark g powder(APIVol. II); flower g powder;seed g powder; gum . . g(APIVol. IV.)Butea Papilionaceae; Central and Lataa-Palaash (orangeor orange scarlet-flowered var.).Action Seeds sedative andanthelmintic; decoction emollientand used topically for piles. Seedoil anthelmintic and exhibit haemagglutinatingactivity against human ABO redcells. Roots hypotensive. Waterysap from stems is used for var. is equated withButea B. The Western and CentralHimalayas and Himalayan Boxwood Chikri, Shamshaad. Paapari(Garhwal).Action Wood diaphoretic. Bark febrifuge. Leaves purgative,diaphoretic; used in Not a safe drug for purifying blood . Symptoms ofpoisoning are severe abdominalpain, vomiting, convulsions mixture of alkaloids is referredto as buxine. Buxenine-G is is preliminary evidence thata specific Boxwood leaf extract (SVP ) might delay disease progression inHIV-infected patients. The extract isavailable through internet sources orAIDS Buyers Clubs. (Natural Medi-cines Comprehensive Database, .)CCaccinia crassifoliaO. C. Native to Gaozabaan. (Accord-ing toNational Formulary ofUnani Medicine,Borago officinalisLinn. and other species ofBoragi-naceaeare used as Gaozabaan.)Action Leaf diuretic, anti-inflammatory, demulcent; used forstrangury, asthma and stems and leaves gave sapoge-nins caccigenin, caccigenin lactoneand -deoxycaccigenin; rutin anda saponin derived from leaves also gave a glucoside, cac-cinin. Caccinin and its aglucone cac-cinetin (which is the dimethylallyl es-ter of caffeic acid) is diuretic; saponinsexhibit anti-inflammatory contain pyrrolizidine alka-loid, the diester of retronecine. Ben-zoic acid has also been isolated fromthe fruticosa(L.) C. CommoninPunjab,Rajasthan, Gujarat, MadhyaPradesh and Tamil Kattagatti, Vilivi, Root and leaves deobstruent, emmenagogue; usedfor uterine leaves and stem bark gave alka-loids, L-stachydrine and L- -hydroxy-stachydrine. Presence of quercetin,isoorientin, hydroxybenzoic acid, sy-ringic acid, vanillic acid and -hydro-xy- -methoxy benzoic acid has alsobeen reported. The stembark containsan alkaloid cadabicine, and dry podscontain bonduc(L.) Roxb. Dandy & C. Throughout the and South India. Oftengrown as hedge FeverNut,BonducNut,Nikkar Puutikaranja, Lataa-karanja, Kantaki Karanja, Karanjin,Kuberaakshi (seed).C108Caesalpinia coriaria(Jacq.) Seed antiperiodic,antirheumatic. Roasted and usedas an antidiabetic , bark and seed and bark emmenagogue,anthelmintic. Root diuretic, seeds contain an alkaloid cae-salpinine; bitter principles such as bon-ducin; saponins; fixed seed powder, dissolved in wa-ter, showed hypoglycaemic activity inalloxanized hyperglycaemic extract of the seeds producedsimilar effects in rats. The powderforms a household remedy for treat-ment of diabetes in Nicobar Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, rootsare used in intermittent fevers and ,theplantisconsid-ered an excellent remedy for chronicfever.(Three plant species PongamiapinnataPierre,Holoptelea integrifo-lia(Roxb.) Planch. andCaesalpiniabonduc(L.) Roxb. are being used asvarieties of Karanja (because flowersimpart colour to water).P. pinnatais a tree and is equated with Karanja,Naktamaala and Udakirya;H. integri-folia,also a tree, with Chirabilva, Puti-ka (bad smell) and Prakiryaa; ,ashrub,withKantakiKaranjaor Lataa Karanja.)Dosage Seed kernel g powder.(CCRAS.)Caesalpinia coriaria(Jacq.) Grows abundantly inSouth India, also cultivated inNorth-western India and American Sumac, Libi-dibi; Bark febrifuge, antiperi-odic. Pod astringent (in piles).Fruit semen parts of the plant contain tan-nin, the maximum amount occurringin the pods ( . %). The tannins frompods comprise pyrogallol type of hy-drolysable tannins and consists of gal-lotannin and ellagitannin. Divi-diviclosely resembles myrobalans both innature and contents of tannins. Seedscontain little or no plant is used for treating freck-les. Leaves contain ellagic and gallicacids, catechol and extract of the leavesshowed antifungal Bengal, Assam andAndamans up to , Teri Root astringent andantipyretic, used in phthisis andscrofulous roots gave a phenolic compoundvakerin, identical with bergenin. Theethanol-water extract of roots inhibitsthe growth ofMycobacterium pods contain % tannin (with-out seeds, more than %). The barkcontains % tannin (without seeds,more than %). The tannin is puregallo-tannin and gallic Root g powder.(CCRAS.)Caesalpinia Cultivated in gardensthroughout Barbados Pride, Padangam, Ratnagandhi, Mayirkonrai, Guleturaa, Leaves laxative, an-tipyretic. Used in Eastern Indiaas a substitute for senna. Driedand powdered leaves are used inerysipelas. Flowers used for cough and a decoction is prescribedin intermittent fevers. Bark emmenagogue, plant contains a flavonoid, my-ricitroside. The leaves, flowers andfruits contain tannins, gums, resin,benzoic acid. Presence of cyanidin- , -diglucoside is also reported fromthe flowers, hydrocyanic acid from theleaves. Therootcontainscaesalpintypediterpenoids along with leaves have displayed anticanceractivity in laboratory animals. A diter-penoid, isolated from the root, alsoshowed anticancer Pakistan, the leaf and flower ex-tract exhibited activity against Gram-positive Native to India andMalaysia. Cultivated in Bengal andSouth India, also grown as a Pattanga, Patanga,Pattraanga, Raktasaara, Ranjana,Pataranjaka, Suranga, Patangam, Wood decoction emmenagogue, antidiarrhoeal; usedin skin heartwood gave an anti-inflam-matory principle brazilin; amyrin glu-coside, ( %) extract of stem exhibitedsemen coagulant and chloroform extracts ofthe wood exhibited inhibitory actionC110Cajanus cajan(Linn.) cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Themethanolic extract of the sappan lignanshowed sleep-time-elongation effectin mice. Significant anti-hypercholes-terolaemic activity is attributed to ben-zilic oil exhibited antibacterial andantifungal pigments find use in facialswhich are resistant to light, heat andwater and are Heartwood g (APIVol. IV.)Cajanus cajan(Linn.) C. Papilionaceae; Cultivated as pulse crop,chiefly in Madhya Pradesh, Bihar,Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra,Uttar Pradesh and Pigeon Pea, Red Aadhaki, Tuvari, Tuvara, Green leaves are consideredhypocholesterolaemic. Pulse showscholesterol and phospholipidlowering effect (reported to causeflatulence). A paste of leaves withsalt and water, is taken on an emptystomach for jaundice. Leaves areused in diseases of the mouth, andtopically for treating measles andother Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diaindicated the use of the seed inlipid disorders and obesity; external-ly for promoting breast development,and attributed blood purifying proper-ties to the acid analysis of the seed ex-tract showed that phenylalanine( . % of the total amino acids) isresponsible for about % of the anti-sickling potency of the seed also contain riboflavin andpyridoxine. Root bark contains isofla-vones, sterols, triterpenoids, flavones,anthraquinone derivatives. Plant alsocontains an isoflavone, aqueous extract of leavesshowed vasodilatory effect in exper-imental nuts had hypoglycaemiceffect in mice; roasted seeds, in con-trast, had a hyperglycaemic effect.(Sharon M. Herr.)Dosage Root g powder. (APIVol. III.)Calamus C. Palmae; Central and South Rotang, Rattan, ChairBottom Vetra, Astringent, antidiarrhoeal,anti-inflammatory (used in chronicfevers,piles,abdominaltumours,str angury), antibilious, plant is used in convulsions andcramps. Thepresenceofasaponininthe stem, an alkaloid in the leaves anda flavonoid in the root is C. Palmae; The sub-Himalayan tractfrom Dehra Dun to Bareilly Vetra (var.) (Vetasa,Salix capreaLinn., is a differentdrug).Action SeeC. travancoricusBedd. ex Hook. Palmae; Deccan peninsula, fromMalabar to Tender leaves are used indyspepsia, biliousness and as ananthelmintic. SeeC. Compositae; Throughout India; wild Pot-Marigold, Marigold; Thulvkka Flowers anti-inflam-matory, antiseptic, stimulant,antispasmodic, emmenagogue,antihaemorrhagic, styptic. Usedin gastric and duodenal ulcersand dysmenorrhoea; externallyfor cuts, bruises, burns, antiprotozoal. Flower antimicrobial. Essential oil application In inflammation ofthe oral and pharyngeal mucosa, in-ternally and externally. Externally,on poorly healing wounds, ul-cuscruris. (German Commission E,WHO, ESCOP.) Anti-inflammatory,vulnerary. (The British HerbalPharmacopoeia.)The flowers contain triterpenes,sterols, flavonoids, carotenes, bitterglycosides, resins, volatile oil, mucilage(do not contain tannins). Polysaccha-rides from flowers exhibited immuno-stimulating and antitumour activity inseveralin vitrotest alcoholic extract has been shownto have antitrichomonal properties are attributed to Mnand carotene. An aqueous alcoholic ex-tract of florets showed CNS inhibitoryeffect with marked sedative activity inexperimental extract of flower-heads exhibit-ed estrogenic activity (reduces periodpains and regulates menstrual bleed-ing).Calephlone, the extract containingthe total polyphenols of the inflores-C112Callicarpa , has a marked cholagogic effectin rats and has been found helpful inthe treatment of CCl -induced hepati-tis. A hypocholesterolaemic saponinhas been extracted from the C. Sub-Himalayan tracts,from Hazara eastwards to Assam,up to , Perfumed Priyangu, Priyan-gukaa, Priyaka, Gandhphali,Gandhpriyangu, Phalini, Vanitaa,Kaantaa, Kaantaahvaa, Shyamaa, Habb-ul-Mihlb (PrunusmahalebLinn., Rosaceae).Siddha/Tamil Gnazhal, Chokkala.(Fruits ofAglaia used as Priyangu.)Action Leaves applied hot inrheumatic pains. Smoked to relieveheadache. Seed paste used instomatitis. Wood paste used inmouth and tongue sores. Seedsand roots employed as used in rheumatism anddiseases of genitourinary Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiaindicated the use of the fruitin emesis and seeds and leaves contain cal-literpenone and its monoacetate; theformer also contain fatty acids, beta-sitosterol and its Dried inflorescencespowder g (APIVol. II); fruitpowder g. (APIVol. IV.)Calophyllum C. wightianumT. Guttiferae; The evergreen forests ofWestern Ghats up to Resin antiphlogistic,anodyne. Seed oil leaves, stem, bark and root con-tain friedelin. Leaves also containcanophyllol and a triterpene lactone;stem, beta-amyrin; bark, apetalic contains a clathrate namedwightianone palmitic acid. Wood con-tains Guttiferae; Coastal regions, particular-ly Orissa, Karnataka, Maharashtraand the Andamans. Also cultivatedas an ornamental Indian Laurel, Punnaaga, Tunga,Sultaan champaa, Naagchampaa, Punnai, Oil of seeds specific forscabies and other skin diseases,and for rheumatism. Used in theCCalotropis procera(Ait.) of genitourinary andvenereal diseases. Bark juice istaken as purgative; pounded withwater is applied in orchitis, andfor dressing ulcers. Root bark antibacterial, used for indolentulcers. Leaf used in vertigo andmigraine, also for chicken pox, skininflammations, scabies, and stamens used asa substitute for Naagakesara (MesuaferreaLinn.)The root bark and heartwood con-tain xanthones. The xanthones exhib-ited anti-inflammatory activity in ratsagainst carrageenan-induce oedema;also CNS depressant activity. Jaca-reubin and -deoxy derivatives exhib-ited antiulcer activity in , a complex -Ph-coumarin isolated from nuts, showedantiarrhythmic (as effective as quini-dine), bradycardiac coronary dilator,and anticoagulant, also anti-inflam-matory and antiarthritic Leaf, flower, bark gpowder; ml decoction.(CCRAS.)Calotropis gigantea(Linn.) Throughout Madar (white-flowered),Giant Alarka, Raajaarka,Shvetaarka, Vasuka, Mandaar,Bhaasvanmuula, Dinesh, Prab-haakara, Ravi, Bhaanu, Madaar, Flowers stomachic,bechic, antiasthmatic. Milky juice purgative (gastrointestinal irritant).Roots used in lupus, tuberculousleprosy, syphilitic juice poisonous. Used inexternal swellings. All parts usedagainst bronchitis and leaf extract showed antitussiveactivity due to the presence of alkaloidsand glycosides. The root contains gly-cosides . . % on dry basis. Thelatex contains akudarin. Flowers con-tain beta-amyrin and Milky juice mg; leaf,flower, root bark g powder.(CCRAS.)Calotropis procera(Ait.) An evergreen shrubdistributed in West and Swallow-Wart, Milk Weed,(purple-flowered), King s Alarka, Surya, Su-uryaahvya, Vikirna, Vasuka,Tapana, Tuulaphala, Kshirparna,Arkaparna, Aakh, Madaar, Vellerukku, The plant is used againstbronchial asthma (especially flowerswith black pepper). Leaves usedfor treating chronic cases ofC114Caltha , flatulence, constipationand mucus in stool. Seed oil geriatric and tonic. Leaves, flowersand root-bark oil antimicrobial(maximum activity in leaves).The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiaindicated the use of the rootand leaf in asthma and dyspnoea;stem bark in diseases of the bark contains benzoylline-olone and benzolisolineolone. Root,stem and leaves, also latex containbeta-amyrin. Flowers contain evanidin -rhamnoglucoside. The plant con-tains a cardenolide, proceragenin, anantibacterial latex is given for treating epilep-sy, also in painful, joints and latex exhibited anti-inflammatoryactivity in carrageenan-and formalin-induced rat paw oedema herb can alter menstrual cycleandtemporarilyinhibitovulation. Car-diac glycosides may be additive whencombined with Digoxin. (Sharon )Dosage Leaf mgpowder;root g for decoction ( ); stem bark . g powder (APIVol. III). Milky juice mg to g(CCRAS.)Caltha Western temperateHimalayas from , to , American cowslip, MarshMarigold, Water Mamiri (Punjab).Action Anti-inflammatory. Root hypocholesterolaemic. flowers contain flavonoids, -rhamnosides, -glucosides and -glu-co- -rhamnosides of kaempferol andquercetin. Roots gave triterpenoidglycosides, which decreased serumcholesterol and total protein and in-creased blood sugar equivalent to bu-tadione in ( %) extract of the plant ex-hibits CNS depressant and hypotensiveactivity in Madhya Pradesh, Penin-sular India and Sushavi, Leaf antidysenteric; usedexternally for ulcers. Fruit used ;flowers calycopterin and sinensis(Linn.) O. Cultivated in Assam,Darjeeling, Travancore, the Nilgiris,Malabar, Bengal, Dehra Dun Chaai, Shaahi, Stimulant, diuretic,astringent. In China, used fordiarrhoea and dysentery (causesgastrointestinal upsets and nervousirritability when consumed inexcess). Green tea: anticancereffects have been observed inChinese green tea,Camellia thea,extract; the extract of Japanese greentea showed antihepatotoxic constituents of leaf budsand very young leaves are: caffeine,with a much smaller amount of oth-er xanthines (theophylline and theo-bromine); tannins (the main tanninin green tea is ( )-epigallocatechin);flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol. Thestimulant and diuretic are due to caf-feine content, the astringency due tothe tea lowers thiamine andthiamine diphosphate losses in urineand blood serum respectively but in-creases niacin losses. Hot water extractof black tea facilitates Ca absorption inthe body experimentally. Tea may de-crease zinc tea, if added to the meal, sig-nificantly lower the availability of is as effective as ascorbic acid incountering the depressing effect of teaon iron availability (in vitro).The green tea catechin inhibited car-cinogenesis in small intestines whengivenduringoraftercarcinogentreat-me nt to experimental rats. ( )-epi-gallocatechin gallate and theaflavin di-gallate from green tea inhibited the in-fectivity of both influenza A and B virus(in vitro).Green tea, when added to a lard-cholesterol diet, decreased the choles-terol and triglyceride levels in polyphenols exhibit hypocholes-terolaemic polyphenols ( )-epicatechingallate, ( )-epigallocatechine galate,theaflavin monogallate A or B, andor theaflavin digallate are used fortreating from tea are used as an-tiulcer use of tea and beta-adrenergic agonists may increase therisk of cardiac arrhythmias. Caffeine,a component of tea, may increase in-sulin resistance. (Sharon M. Herr.)Canarium C. AtreeindigenoustoMalaysia. Now grown in SouthIndia, particularly in Kerala andTamil Java Almond, Kenari Jangali Fruit laxative. Resin anti-inflammatory. Tuber styptic,bechic, essential oil from oleoresin con-tain % anethole and a small quantityof C. sikkimenseKingC116Cannabis BurseraceaeHabitat A large, deciduous treedistributed in West Ghats, Assamand Black Raal Dhuup, Karunkungiliyam(gum).Action Resin used for chroniccutaneous diseases, such as pso-riasis, pityriasis; as a linament inrheumatic affections. DammerOil used for rheumatism, asthma,venereal dammer resin contains (+)-junenol, canarone and plant contains a sesquiterpeneketone sikkimenseKing is knownas Gogul Dhuup in C. Cultivated all over thecountry. Commonly occurs inwaste grounds, along road side,often becoming gregarious alongthe irrigation channels of Hemp, Indian Vijayaa, Bhangaa,Maadani, Maatulaani, Indraasana,Trailokya-vijayaa, Tribhuvana-vijayaa, Shukranaashana, Ganjaa,Bhangaa. (Bhangaa is consumedorally; Ganjaa and charas are usuallysmoked.)Unani Bhang, Charas, Hallucinogenic, hyp-notic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, Hemp derivativesare suggested for treating glaucomaand as an antiemetic in cancerchemotherapy. All variants produceinitial excitement followed yields chemicals ofvarious classes cannabinoids, canna-bispirans and alkaloids. More than cannabinoids have been isolated,the most important one is delta- -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).Toxic constituents are readily ab-sorbed, excreted in urine and feces,stored in lipid tissues, especially CNS,crosses placenta. High doses in ani-mals have damaged developing em-bryos and resulted in birth defects.(Francis Brinker.)Dosage Dried leaves, afterremoving turbity mgpowder. (APIVol. I.)Canscora Throughout India,ascending to , Daakuni (used asa substitute for Shankhapushpi inWest Bengal)Unani Anticonvulsant, CNSdepressant, anti-inflammatory, plant contains calcium . ;magnesium . ; potassium . andiron . g/ g; copper . , zinc . ; manganese . , cobalt . andchromium . contain beta-amyrin, friede-lin, genianineand xanthonesinclud-ing mangiferin. Mangiferin is protec-tive activity against induced liverinjuryin albino rats. Xanthones also showedactivity againstMycobacterium crude powder of the wholeplant exhibited anticonvulsant activityin albino diffusa(Vahl) R. Br. exRoem. & Schultes (synonymC. lawiiWt.), found throughout India at , m, is used as a substitute forC. Plectronia parviflora(Lam.) Throughout the DeccanPeninsula, from Gujarat andMaharashtra southwards, and inBihar and Wild Karai, Kadan Karai,Nalla Karai, Leaves and fruits astringent, antispasmodic; usedagainst cough. A decoction ofthe root and leaves is given in plant contains mannitol ( . %)and alkaloids. Canthium umbellatumWight is also known as C. Rajasthan, Punjab andSindh; southward to Karnataka andTamil Caper Karira, Krakar, Apatra,Granthila, Marubhoo-ruuha,Niguudhapatra, Kabar, Kabar-ul-Hind,Kabar-e-Hindi; Anti-inflammatory(usedforenlarged cervical glands, sciatica,rheumatoid arthritis; externallyon swellings, skin eruptions,ringworm). Fruits and seeds usedfor urinary purulent discharges anddysentery. Flowers and seeds antimicrobial. The fruit is used root bark contains spermidinealkaloids, used for inflammations,asthma and of the seed volatiles againstvibro choleraehas been extract of the plant exhibitsanthelminticactivity; seedscontainan-tibacterial principles glucocapparin;C118Capparis aglycone of blanched fruits, when fed torats at % dietary fibre level, showeda significant hypocholesterolaemic ef-fect, which is attributed to its hemicel-lose fruits are use for destroyingintestinal Leaf, root mg(CCRAS.)Capparis Indigenous to NewZealand. Now distributed inKarnataka and Tamil Fruit used in puerperalsepsis and septic wounds, also fordebility and ( %) extract of aerial partsis CNS containl-stachydrine, rutinand Dry regions of the country,also planted as a hedge Indian Himsraa, Gridhnakhi,Duh-pragharshaa, Kaakdaani,Kabara, Hains, Antiseptic, for eczema and contain taraxasterol, alpha-and beta-amyrin and beta-sitosterol,erythrodiol and Root g powder.(CCRAS.)Capparis Native to the Mediter-ranean region. Distributed inNorth-west India, Rajasthan, andPeninsular Caper Himsraa, Kaakdaani, Anti-inflammatory, deob-struent to liver and spleen, diuretic,anthelmintic, given in splenic, renal andhepatic complaints. Juice of leavesand fruits anticystic, bactericidaland fungicidal. Dried flower buds used in gave glucosinolates glucoi-berin, glucocapparin, sinigrin, gluco-cleomin and glucocapangatin. Rutinhas also been reported from root bark, cortex and leaves gavestachydrine. Stachydrine, when givento dogs, rabbits and rats, quickened thecoagulation of blood and reduced lossof C. Common in plains Ceylon Ahimsra (Himsraaand Ahimsra are synonyms). Root bark sedative,stomachic, anticholerin, diureticfebrifuge. Leaves applied aspoultice to piles, swellings, plant contains a saponin andp-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, vanillic, fer-ulic andp-coumaric acids. The leavescontain beta-carotene. The leaves andseeds contain glucocapparin, alpha-amyrin, n-triacontane and a fixed parts exhibited bursa-pastoris(Linn.) Cruciferae; Throughout India asa weed in cultivated areas and wasteplaces, particularly in the temperateregionsuptoanaltitudeof , Shepherd s Purse, s The herb or its juice extractsare employed to check menorrhagiaand haemorrhages from renal andgenitourinary tract. Also used indiarrhoea and dysentery and application In symptom-basedtreatment of mild menorrhagiaand metrorrhagia. (German Com-mission E.)The British HerbalPharmacopoeiareported antihaem-orrhagic parts contain flavonoids,polypeptides, choline, acetylcholine,histamine and extract of dried or green plantcauses strong contraction of the smallintestines and uterus of guinea quarternary ammonium salt hasbeen isolated from the herb whichis reported to be responsible for itspharmacological leaves contain vitamin A( , IU/ g) and ascorbic acid( mg/ g); among other constit-uents are hesperidin and rutin, whichreduced permeability of blood vesselwalls in white mice. A neoplasm in-hibitory substance has been identifiedas fumaric acid. An inhibitory effectof the extracts of the herb on Ehrlichsolid tumour in mice was found to bedue to the fumaric constituent of the essential oilis Native to the WestIndies and tropical America; nowcultivated throughout tropicalregions of Chilli, Red Raktamaricha, Lankaa, Mirch, Filfil-e-Ahmar,Filfl-e-Surkh, Surkh Stimulant, acceleratesoxygenation of cells, encouragesadrenal glands to produce corticos-teroids, increases gastrointestinalsecretion. Carminative, antispas-modic, antiseptic. Used externallyfor rheumatism, backache, lum-bago, neuralgia, painful chilli contains capsaicin ( . . %), carotenoids, flavonoids, volatileoil; steroidal saponins (capsicidins, on-ly in seeds).Capsaicin stimulates the circulationand alters temperature regulation; top-ically desensitizes nerve endings andacts as a local produces a protective ef-fect in rat lung and liver by strength-ening the pulmonary antioxidant en-zyme defence system. Acute capsaicintreatment causes release of substancedesensitization of the respiratory tractmucosa to a variety of lung pepper or an equivalent amountof capsaicin, when fed along withcholesterol-containing diets to femalealbino rats, prevented significantly therise of liver cholesterol Vitamin C gradually increasesduring maturation and reaches maxi-mum at the semi-ripe or pink colouredstage and decreases exhibited a hypoglycae-mic effect in dogs; insulin release wasincreased. (Phytother Res, , Aug ( ), .)Dosage Fruit mg powder.(CCRAS.)Capsicum Cultivated as a Bird Surkh Musi SeeCapsicum application Externally, inpainfulmusclespasmsinareasof shoulder, arm and spine; fortreating arthritis, rheumatism,neuralgia, lumbago and chilbains.(German Commission E.)TheBritish Pharmacopoeiareportedrubefacient and plant contains hydroxybenzoicacid, hydroxycinnamic acid and ascor-bic acid. Fruits contain up to % brachiata(Lour.) C. lucidaRoxb. ex Throughout India, up toan altitude of , m, and in Karalli, Kierpa. Varanga(Malyalam).Action Leaves used in thetreatment of sapraemia. Bark usedfor treating oral ulcers, stomatitis,inflammation of the leaves contain alkaloids ( . %dry basis), the major being (+) Throughout the plains ofIndia, as a wild Ballon Vine, WinterCherry, Kaakatiktaa,Kaakaadani, Karnsphotaa, Mudukottan, Kanphotaa, Kanphuti,Lataaphatakari. Used as Jyotishmatiin Used in rheumatism,lumbago, skeletal fractures, nervousdiseases, amenorrhoea, haemor-rhoids, erysipelas. The herb is usedin hairoils for treating dandruff,alopecia and for darkening plant extract showed significantanalgesic and anti-inflammatory activ-ity and sedative effect on CNS. Thedrug also showed (transient) vasode-pressant leaves contain beta-sitosteroland its D-glucoside, an alkaloid, oxalicacid and amino acids. The presence ofa saponin and quebrachitol is reportedin the leaves and stem are used inpreparations used against commoncold. Alcoholic extract of the plantexhibits antisickling and antiarthriticactivity. Seeds have positive anabolicactivity and increase body weight byinducing a positive nitrogen alkaloid fraction from the seedsshowed hypotensive activities and car-diac inhibition in anaesthetized dogs;blocked spasmogenic effects of acetyl-choline, histamine and -HT on guineapig ileum, biphasic effort on frog rec-tus abdominis muscle. The seeds alsoshowed antibacterial Whole plant mldecoction. (CCRAS.)Careya Sub-Himalayan tract, fromJammu eastwards to West Bengal,Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Kumbi, Slow-Match Katabhi, Kumbhi-ka, Kumbhi, Kumbi, Kaitrya, Kumbi, Bark demulcent (incoughs and colds), antipyretic andantipruritic (in eruptive fevers),anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. Aninfusion of flowers is given afterchild contain triterpenoid sapo-genols, sterols; leaves contain a tri-terpene ester, beta-amyrin, hexaco-sanol, taraxerol, beta-sitosterol, quer-cetin and taraxeryl herbaceaRoxb., a relatedspecies, is known as Kumbhaadu-lataain Bark ml decoc-tion. (CCRAS.)Carica Native to West Indies andCentral America; now cultivated inUttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan,Gujarat, Maharashtra and Papaya, Erand-karkati, Papitaa Pappaali, Ripe fruit stomachic,digestive, carminative, diuretic,galactagogue. Useful in bleedingpiles, haemoptysis, dysenteryand chronic diarrhoea. Seeds emmengagogue, abortifacient,vermifuge. Juice of seeds isadministered in enlarged liverand spleen, and in application Papain, theenzyme mixture extracted from rawpapain (latex ofCarica papaya), hasbeen included among unapprovedherbs byGerman Commission as well as clinicalresearch indicate that papain maybe effective (in the treatment ofinflammations) in high doses (dailydose mg corresponding to FIP units).Unripe fruit emmengagogue andabortifacient. Latex applied topicallyon eczema, ringworm, psoriasis, corns,warts, sloughing wounds, carbunclesand eschar of parts of the plant and seedcontain an alkaloid carpaine. Seedsalso contain contain enzymes papain andchymopapain and alkaloids carpaineand pseudocarpaine. A proteinaceousmaterial from latex showed anticoag-ulant activity; in higher doses it isheart depressant and as a spasmogenon smooth muscle of guinea pig alkaloid solution showed depres-sant action on heart, blood pressureand anthelmintic action of seedsagainstAscaris lumbricoidesis due , an enzyme mixture pre-pared from the fruit, seeds and leaf,hydrolyses polypeptides, amides andesters, particularly when used in analkaline environment, and is used indigestive inhibits platelet aggregation,which may further increase the risk ofbleeding in patients also taking anti-coagulants. Concurrent administra-tion of cyclophosphamide with papaincaused sever damage to lung tissues inrats. (Sharon M. Herr.)Chymopapin C is an immunosup-pressive enzyme from plant , extracted from the plant,CCarthamus anti-tubercular activity, alsoantitumourin vitro,and Leaf ml infusion;latex g (CCRAS.)Carissa carandasLinn. (Wt.) Throughout Christ s Thorn, Karinkaara, Karamarda,Krishnapaakphal, Kshirphena,Sushena, (Karamardakaa is equatedwithC. spinarumLinn.)Unani Used for acidity, flatulence,poor digestion, as a slimming of the fresh plant is used forinfected wounds that refuse to paste used for diabetic Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diaindicated the stembarkin obstinateskin diseases, and the root in extract of roots exhibithypotensive activity. Roots yield car-dioactive compounds; cardiotonic ac-tivity is due to glucoside of fruits are rich in ascorbic acid( g/ g fruit juice). The seeds arerich in potassium ( mg/ g freshmatter).Dosage Stem bark g fordecoction. (APIVol. II); root g (APIVol. III).Carissa opacaStapf. Ex C. spinarumauct. non Throughout the countryin dry regions, especially in Punjaband Chirukila Jangali Karondaa. Garnaa(Punjab).Action Plant cardiotonic. Root root contains caffeic acid, car-diac glycosides odorosides B, C, Gand H, and paucinerviaA. DC. is alsoequated with the wild var. of Cultivated mainly as anoil-seed crop in Madhya Pradesh, Kusumbha, Vahin-shikhaa, Vastraranjaka, Oil aids prevention ofarteriosclerosis, coronary heartdisease and kidney disorders asa polyunsaturated fat. Flowers stimulant, sedative, diuretic,emmenagogue; used in fevers anderuptive skin conditions, bulbocastanumW. Ko c h .Charred safflower oil is used inrheumatism and for healing application Dried flowers in cardiovascular diseases, amen-orrhoea, dysmenorrhoea andretention of lochia; also in woundsand sores with pain and swelling.(Pharmocopoeia of the People sRepublic of China, .)Safflower contains carthamone, lig-nans and a polysaccharide. The poly-saccharide, composed of xylose, fruc-tose, galactose, glucose, arabinose,rhamnose and uronic acid residues,stimulates immune function in induced antibody formation in micefollowing peritoneal injection. Ex-tracts of flowers have also been testedin China on blood coagulation, wherea prolongation of clothing time was ob-served and platelet aggregation inhib-ited. Chinese research indicates thatSafflower flowers can reduce coronaryartery disease, and lower cholesterollevels. Flowers and seeds exhibit lipaseactivity. The flower extract also exhib-ited anti-inflammatory, sedative andanalgesic effect and inhibitory effecton spontaneous motor plant contains a propanetriolderivative, which can be used for thetreatment of circulatory research suggests that im-proving the lipid profile might notbe as important to reducing the riskof cardiovascular disease as suggest-ed. (Natural Medicines ComprehensiveDatabase, .)Safflower is contraindicated in preg-nancy, gastric disorders, excessivemenstruation, haemorrhagic and thorny Safflower, grow-ing in the arid tract of Haryana andPunjab (locally known as Kantiaari,Poli, Poiyan) is equated withC. oxy-canthaBieb. The plant is oil is applied topically to plant contains a sesquiterpene gly-coside. Aerial parts contain hinesol-beta-D-fucopyranoside. The plant alsocontains luteolin- Leaf g powder.(CCRAS.)Carum bulbocastanumW. Ko ch .Synonym Bunium persicum(Boiss.) Umbelliferae; ApiaceaeHabitat Cultivated in the hills andplains of North India and in thehills of South Black Krishna jiraka, Kaash-mira Jiraa Siyaah, Shemai-shiragam, SeeC. Umbelliferae; Native to Europe andWest Asia. Now cultivated in Bihar,Orissa, Punjab, Bengal, AndhraPradesh, and in the hills of Kumaon,Garhwal, Kashmir and found wild in the NorthHimalayan Krishna jiraka, Jiraa,Kaaravi, Asita Jiraka, Kaashmira-jiraka, Prithvikaa, Upakunchikaa,Sugandha Udgaar, Zeeraa Siyaah, Kamoon, Shimai-shembu,Semai Seearagam, Carminative, antispas-modic, antimicrobial, expectorant,galactagogue, application Seed oil indyspeptic problems, such as mild,sapstic conditions of the gastroin-testinal tract, bloating and fullness.(German Commission E, ESCOP,The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiarecommended the seed inchronic fruit contains a volatile oil con-sisting of carvone ( %) and limo-linewithotherconstituents; flavonoids,mainly quercetin derivatives, polysac-charides and a fixed oil; also antispasmodic and carminativeeffects have been confirmed experi-mentally. The caraway has shown toreduce gastrointestinal the seeds and the essential oilare classed as carminative in essential oil shows moderateantibacterial and antifungal activityagainst several bacteria and with alcohol and castor oil, it isused for Seed g powder.(CCRAS.)Casearia C. ovata(Lamk) (Gaertn.) Samydaceae; FlacourtiaceaeHabitat Peninsular India, up to , Kakkaipilai, Kilar, Saptrangi (root and rootbark).Action Root antidiabetic (usedin milder chronic diabetic cases),astringent, liver tonic. Frequentlyadulterated with the roots ofSalaciachinensisLinn. andS. crude aqueous extract of theroots has shown hypoglycaemic root gave leucopelargonidin,beta-sitosterol, dulcitol, a flavonoidand C. Samydaceae; The Himalayas fromKashmir to Nepal, ascending to , m; throughout tropical Chillaa, Root bark is used as a tonic inanaemic pulp diuretic, purgative,Leaves anti-inflammatory. Fruit pulp ( %) extract of the leavesshowed significant anti-inflammatoryactivity in rats. Oil extracted from theseeds in rubbed on sprains. Variousplant parts are used in Throughout Chakshushyaa, Aranya-kulathhikaa, Muulaipalyirai, Ban Seed bitter, blood-purifier,astringent, stimulant, diuretic. Usedtopically forleucoderma, ringworm,venereal ulcers and other skindiseases. Roots gave sitosterol-beta-D-gluco-side and alkaloids chaksine and iso-chaksine. Chaksine is found to beantibacterial againstMicrococcus stimulates contrac-tion of different tissues of plain mus-cles, like uterus, intestine, bladder,and muscles in blood vessels. It de-presses the parasympathetic nerve-endings of certain organs like intestineand bladder. Chaksine has ganglion-blocking property. Chaksine and iso-chaksine possess a local anaesthet-ic effect intradermally. It producesa sustained fall in blood pressure ofanaesthetized animals and producesa weak anti-acetylcholine effect. Rootsalso contains anthraquinones and Seed g powder.(CCRAS.)Cassia Native to the West wild almost Ringworm Dadrughna, Malanthakerai, Seemaiagathi (Tamil).Folk Leaf usedinskindiseaseslike herpes, blotch, eczema, mycosis(washerman s itch). Dried leaves in leprosy. A strong decoction isused for ringworm, eczema andherpes. Leaves are also used asa pods contain rhein, emodinand aloe-emodin. The antibacterialactivity of the leaves is reported to bedue to rhein. The roots contain an-thraquinone. Emodin, aloe-emodinand anthraquinone contribute to thepurgative activity of the leaves androots. Crushed leaves or roots areCCassia on to the skin to cure ring-worm and to controlTinea imbricata, C. sennaLinn. Native to Sudan andArabia. Now cultivated mainly inTirunelveli and Ramnathpuramdistricts and to a lesser extent inMadurai, Salem and Tiruchirapallidistricts of Tamil Nadu. Also grownon a small scale in Cuddapahdistrict of Andhra Pradesh andcertain parts of Indian Senna, Svarna-pattri,Maarkandikaa, Sannaa, Sanaa-makki,Senaai, Sonaamukhi, Purgative (free fromastringent action of rhubarktype herbs, but causes gripe),used in compounds for treatingbiliousness, distention of stomach, febrifuge, in splenic enlargements,jaundice, amoebic in inflammatorycolon application Leaf and driedfruit in occasional constipation.(German Commission E.)Asa stimulant laxative. (The BritishHerbal Pharmacopoeia.) , -dihydoxy-anthracene derivativeshave a laxative effect. This effect isdue to the sennosides, specifically,due to their active metabolite inthe colon, rheinanthrone. Theeffect is primarily caused by theinfluence on the motility of thecolon by inhibiting stationary andstimulating propulsive contractions.(German Commission E, ESCOP,WHO.) Seena has been included as a of theSennasp. contain rhein,aloe-emodin, kaempferol, isormam-netin, both free and as glucosides,together with mycricyl alcohol. Thepurgativeprinciplesarelargelyattribut -ed to anthraquinone derivatives andtheir is an Arabian name. The drugwas brought into use by Arabian physi-ciansforremovingcapillarycongestio n(pods were preferred to leaves).The active purgative principle ofsenna was discovered in .CassiaacutifoliaDelile is also equat-ed with Maarkandikaa, Svarna-pattri, Leaves mg to g(APIVol. I.)Cassia Wild in dry regions ofMadhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu andRajasthan. Cultivated in other partsof Tanner s Aaavartaki, Roots used in skindiseases and asthma. Flowersenterintocompoundsfordiabetes,uri nary disorders and husk contains nonacosane andnonacosan- -one,chrysophanol,emodin and Whole plant ml(CCRAS.)Cassia C. Cultivatedasanornamentalthroughout Indian Laburnum, PurgingCassia, Golden Aaragvadha, Chatu-raangula, Kritamaala, Kritmaalaka,Karnikaara, Shampaaka, Praagra-ha, Raajvrksha, Nripapaadapa,Raajadruma, Vyaadhighaataka, Amaltaas, Flowers and pods purgative, febrifugal, astringent,antibilious. Seed powder used Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiaindicated the fruit pulp for con-stipation, colic, chlorosis and of the pod contains anthraqui-none glycosides, sennosides A andB, rhein and its glucoside, barbaloin,aloin, formic acid, butyric acid, theirethyl esters and oxalic acid. Presenceof pectin and tannin is also gave galactomannan free sug-ars and free amino acids; extract lax-ative, carminative, cooling and anti-pyretic gave ceryl alcohol, kaem-pferol, rhein and a bianthraquinoneglycoside, gave free rhein, its glyco-sides sennosides A and javanicaL., a related speciesfound in West Bengal, Maharashtraand Tamil Nadu, is used as a substituteforCassia Fruit pulp g powder.(APIVol. I.)Cassia obovata(L.) C. Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan,Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Ma-harashtra, Karnataka, Kerala andTamil Spanish, Sudan Maarkandikaa, Svarna-pattri. (related species)Folk Sonaamukhi, An adulterant of the truesenna. Leaves and seeds purgativeand FromJammuandHimachalPradesh to West Bengal, also incentral and western India, up to analtitude of , Chakramarda, Chakondaa, Chakwar, Pods Antidysenteric,antibacterial, antifungal. Seeds used for ringworm and skin diseasesalso for cough, cold, asthma, and asa mild purgative in liver Throughout India, up toan altitude of , Coffee Senna, FoetidCassia, Negro Kaasamarda, Paeyaavarai, Kasondi (bigger var.).Action Purgative, diuretic,febrifugal,expectorant, used internally andexternally in scabies, ringworm andother skin diseases. A hot decoctionis given as an antiperiodic. Seeds used for cough, whooping coughand convulsions. Roasted seeds(roasting destroys the purgativeproperty) are mixed with coffee pods contain sennosides andanthraquinones; seeds polysacchari-des, galactomannan; leaves dianthron-ic hetroside; pericarp apigenin; rootsemodol; plant xanthone cassiolin;seeds phytosterolin; flowers physcionand its glucosides, emodin and volatile oil obtained from theleaves, roots and seeds showed antibac-terial and antifungal seeds, when fed to animals, re-sulted in weight loss and also werefound to be toxic to experimental ani-mals. Leavesarepreferredtoquinineasa tonic, seeds are considered as a hae-mateinictoxicandrootisusedasahep-ati c Seed g powder;leaf ml juice; root bark ml decoction. (CCRAS.)Cassia Ingardensashedgethroughout Sophera Leaves, seeds, bark cathartic; considered specific forC130Cassia and other skin diseases(bark may cause dermatitis); usedfor bronchitis and paste of leaves is used for treat-ing piles. An infusion of fresh leaves,with sugar, is given in jaundice. Plantis spasmolytic. Alcoholic extract ofleaves is intestinal and bronchial mus-cle leaves contain a flavone glyco-side and sennoside. Root bark con-tains anthraquinones, chrysophanol,physcion and beta-sitosterol. Heart-wood gave isomeric derivatives, , , -trihydroxy- -methylanthraquinone,along with sopheranin, beta-sitosterol,chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, -octadecanol and Throughout India asa Sickle Senna, Chakramarda, Chakri,Prapunnaada, Dadrughna, Me-shalochana, Padmaata, Penwaad Chakavad, Leaves taken internallyto prevent skin diseases; appliedagainst eczema and ringworm;pounded and applied on cuts, actlike tincture of iodine. Seeds,soaked in water, are taken forspermatorrhoea. A paste made ofequal parts of leaves and seeds isgiven for jaundice. Pods are used with other therapeutic appli-cations,The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeiaof Indiaindicated the use of the seed inparalysis and hemiplegia as a support-ing leaves contain chrysophanol,aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin. Ma-tureleaves possess purgativepropertiesand are sometimes utilized to adulter-ate the true senna; also used as anantiperiodic and leaf extract exhibited antifungalactivity against the ringworm fungusMicrosporon contain anthraquinone glyco-sides, naptho-pyrone glycosides, cas-siaside and rubrofusarin- -beta-genti-obioside. These constituents showedsignificant hepatoprotective , isolated from seeds,showed stronger antioxidant activitythan tocopherol and acid- -anthrone, ex-tracted from the seed, was found to beactive against ringworm Seed g powder. (APIVol. III.)Cassytha LauraceaeHabitat Throughout the greaterparts of Doddar-Laurel, Amarvalli, Aakaashbel.(Cuscuta reflexais also known asAmarvalli.)CCatharanthus roseus(L.) G. Astringent, diuretic (givenin dropsy and anasarca, also inbiliousness, chronic dysentery,haemoptysis and for supressinglactation after still-birth); piscicidaland insecticidal (used as a hair-washfor killing vermin).The plant contains aporphine C. Darjeeling, Khasi Hills,Punjab and Himachal Spanish Chestnut, Singhaaraa (not to be confusedwith water-chestnut,Tripa natansL.)Action Leaves astringent,antitussive and febrifuge (usedfor fevers and diseases of therespiratory tract). An infusion isused as a gargle in pharyngitis,proxysmal coughs, catarrh andwhooping cough. Nuts extract, asplatelet inhibitor in thrombosis leaves contain tannins ( %)flavone glycosides, triterpenoids, urso-lic acid, lupeol and betulin. Heartwoodcontains . % tannins and . % non-tannins. The wood and bark contain and % tannins are eaten raw, roasted or boiledlike potatoes. Nuts contain protein,calcium, phosphorus, thiamine, ribo-flavin and niacin; also , crushed with vinegar and barleyflour, are used against indurations ofbreast. The extract of nuts exhibits pos-sibilityofitsuseasaplateletinhibitor inthrombosisandatherosclerosis. Leavesare inhibitors of pectinolytic chestnut and Europeanchestnut are equated ,respectively. Bothare used for respiratory Cultivated in coastalregions of Peninsular Casuarina, She-Oak,Australian or Whistling Pine, Jhaau, Vilaayati Bark astringent, an-tidiarrhoeal. Leaf antispasmodic,used in colic. Aerial parts plant contains kaempferol gly-coside, quercetin glycoside, cupressu-flavone, tannins, shikimic acid, quinicacid, amino acids, roseus(L.) G. Vinca rosea(L.) carnosa(Wall.) Commonly grown inIndian Madagascar Periwinkle(Vinca majorL. Pich. andVincaminorLinn. are known as GreaterPeriwinkle and Lesser Periwinklerespectively).Folk Sadaabahaar, Nayantaaraa, The cytotoxic dimericalkaloids, present in MadagascarPeriwinkle,Catharanthus ,Vincea roseaL., and used forthe treatment of certain type ofcancer, have not been found roseus(MadagascarPeriwinkle) : cytostatic, anti-neoplas-tic, slows down growth of cells by su-pressing immune response. Vinblas-tine and Vincristine are said to prolongremission of leukaemia to more thanfive years. These chemotherapeuticagents are toxic to the nervous sys-tem. Vinblastine is also used for breastcancer and Hodgkin s majorL. Pich. (Greater Peri-winkle): astringent, anti-haemorrha-gic; used for menorrhagia and leu-corrhoea. Contains indole alkaloidsincluding reserpinine and serpentine; minorLinn. (Lesser Periwin-kle): astringent; circulatory stomachic and bitter. Root hypotensive. Used for gastric catarrh,chronic dyspepsia, flatulence; also forheadache, dizziness, behaviours disor-ders. A homoeopathic tincture is givenfor internal carnosa(Wall.) C. trifolia(L.) Throughout the warmerparts of India, from Jammu andRajasthan to Assam and up to Leaves, seeds, roots astringent, applied to ulcersand boils. Leaves diaphoretic(recommended in high fever). Root-given in anaemic conditions. Aerialparts CNS active, stems, leaves and rootscontain hydrocyanic acid. Presenceof delphinidin and cyanidin isreported in the pedata(Wall.) Vitis pedataVahl ex Bihar, West Bengal andAssam, up to Leaves astringent and re-frigerant (used for ulcers, diarrhoea,uterine and other fluxes).Aerial parts diuretic, Toona ciliataM. deodara(Roxb.) Sub-Himalayan tract,Assam and throughout hilly regionsof Central and South Red Cedar, Toon, IndianMahogany Tuunikaa, Nandi Tunumaram,Santhana Bark astringent, an-tidysenteric, antiperiodic. Flow-ers emmenagogue. Leaf spasmolytic, hypoglycaemic, and heartwood yielded tetra-nortriterpenoids, including also gave a coumarin, ger-anylgernalol and its fatty esters. Toona-cilin and its -hydroxy derivatives deodara(Roxb.) C. libaniBarrel. North-western Himalayasfrom Kashmir to Garhwal, from , to , Himalayan Cedar, Devadaaru, Suradru-ma, Suradaaru, Devakaashtha,Devadruma, Saptapatrika, Daaru,Bhadradaaru, Amarataru, Ama-radaaru, Daaruka, Devaahvaa,Surataru, Bark decoction isused internally as astringent,antidiarrhoeal and oil antiseptic (used inskin diseases).The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiaindicated the use of the heart-wood in puerperal wood contains sesquiterpeno-ids; exhibits sapasmolytic activity. Al-coholic extract of the wood showedmarked anti-inflammatory activity inmice; alcoholic extract showed an-tibacterial wood possesses diaphoretic, di-uretic and carminative properties, andis used in fevers and in pulmonary andurinary Cedarwood Oil containstwo major sesquiterpenoids alpha-and beta-himchalenes. Presence of bu-tyric and caproic acids is also oil showsin vitroantibacterial andantifungal activity. It increases vascu-lar permeability. Needles, on steamdistillation, yield a volatile oil, rich inborneol and its esters. An alcoholic ex-tract of the needles shows significantantibacterial activity against diptheriabacteria. The juice shows antiviral ac-tivity against tobacco mosaic virus andpotato bark contains -C methyltaxi-foline, dihydroquercetin, -C methyl-quercetin, quercetin, sitosterol, andtannins . %, non-tannins . %(varies with the age of the tree). Analcoholic extract of the bark showssignificant activity against diptheriabacteria; aqueous extract of the driedbark showed anti-inflammatory activ-C134Ceiba pentandra(Linn.) against acute and chronic inflam-mations. Aqueous extract of the barkis found effective in reducing sugarcontent of diabetic patient s urine andblood to normal Heartwood gpowder. (APIVol. IV.)Ceiba pentandra(Linn.) Eriodendron West and South found planted around villagesand Kapok, White Silk Kuuta-Shaalmali, Ielavum (Tamil).Action Gum laxative, astringent,demulcent (given in painful mic-turition). Unripe fruit diuretic, antidiabetic, an-tispasmodic (used in dysentery).Flowers laxative; used in lochi-orrhoea. Unripe pods used invertigo and migraine. Seed oil used in plant contains linarin (acacetin -rutinoside). Seedscontainfattyacids,diglyceridesandph ospholipids. Leavesare considered a good source of ironand calcium. Stem-bark extract Sub-Himalayan tract up to , m and South Indian Staff tree, Intellect Jyotishmati, Paaraavat-padi. Kangunikaa, Kanguni, Vegaa,Maalkaanguni, Svarnalatikaa,Kaakaandaki, Seeds nervine andbrain tonic, diaphoretic, febrifugal,emetic. Seed-oil used for treatingmental depression, hysteria and forimproving memory; also used forscabies, eczema, wounds, rheumaticpains, paralysis. A decoction ofseeds is given in gout, rheumatism,paralysis and for treating leprosyand other skin diseases. Leaves antidysenteric, a paste of root-bark isapplied to swollen veins andpneumonic application As a tranquilizer(Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia)and brain tonic (The AyurvedicPharmacopoeia of India).TheAyurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Indiaindicated the use of ripe seed inleucoderma and arereported tocontain thealkaloids, celastrine and paniculatine,which are the active principles of experimental animals, the drugshowed lowering of leptazol toxicity,motor activity and amphetamine toxi-city, and raising the capacity for learn-ing process. It showed significant CNSdepressant effect and a clear synergismCCentaurea pentobarbital. The seed extractshowed hypolipidaemic effect and pre-vented atherogenesis in seed oil showed tranquilliz-ingeffectandhastenedtheproce ssof learning in experimental produced fall in blood pressure inanaesthetized dog, depressed the heartof frog, and was found to be toxic addition to the seed, % alco-holic extract of the plant showed seda-tive, anti-inflammatory and antipyret-ic, anti-ulcerogenic effect in experi-mental extract of flowersshowed both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities Ripe seed, devoid ofcapsule wall g; oil drops. (APIVol. II.)Celosia A common weed,occurring throughout Wild Cock s Shitivaaraka, Shveta-murga, Sarvari,Sarvali, Flowers used in menor-rhagia, blood-dysentery. Seeds antidiarrhoeal, also used in stom-atitis. Whole plant antibacterial,antiscorbutic and leaves are rich in potassiumandinB andB .Analcoholicextractof the leaves and its flavonoids showedantibacterial activity, which was seeds contain . % of pro-tein and . . % of a fatty oil. Theseedsandrootsyieldtriterpenoidsapo-ni ns. An alcoholic extract of the seedspossess significant diuretic Indian gardens, Cock s Laal Seeds demulcent; usedfor painful micturition, used in menorrhagia plant contains betanin, and sev-eral sterols. The inflorescence containamarantin, isoamarantin, celosianinand isocelosianin. The seeds contain . . % of protein and yield . . % of a fatty esters of hyaluronic acidfrom the plant, when fed to rats,showed antiulcer and Compositae; Indigenous to into asiatica(Linn.) White Behman Safed, Root nervine and anabolictonic, strengthens central nervoussystem; also used in jaundice andaffections of the roots contain taraxasterol, its ac-etate and asiatica(Linn.) Hydrocotyle Umbelliferae; In marshy places through-out India up to Asiatic Pennywort, Manduukaparni,Manduukaparnikaa, Maanduuki,Saraswati, Adaptogen, centralnervous system relaxant, peripheralvasodilator, sedative, antibiotic,detoxifier, blood-purifier, laxative,diuretic, emmenagogue. Usedas a brain tonic for improvingmemory and for overcomingmental confusion, stress, fatigue,also used for obstinate skin diseasesand application Extracts orallyto treat stress-induced stomachand duodenal ulcers; topically toaccelerate healing, particularlyin cases of chronic postsurgicaland post trauma wounds; alsoto treat second and third degreeburns. Patients suffering fromvenous insufficiency were treatedwith a titrated extract of the drug.(WHO.)Used in Indian medicine as a braintonic and sedative. (Indian HerbalPharmacopoeia.)Major constituents of the plant are:triterpenoid saponins brahmoside,asiaticoside, thankuniside; alkaloids(hydrocotyline); bitter principles (vel-larin).Brahmoside, present in the plant, isreported to exhibit tranquilizing andanabolic activity. Raw leaves are eatenor plant decoction is drunk to , extracted from leaves,gave encouraging results in leprosy. Itdissolves the waxy covering ofBacil-lus has also beenfound useful in leprosy. Asiaticosidereduced the number tubercular lesionsin the liver, lungs, nerve ganglia andspleen in experimental animals. An-other derivative of asiaticoside, oxyasi-aticoside, inhibits growth ofTuberclebacillusat a concentration of . ml/mlAsiaticosides are also asiatic acid acts against resis-tant bacteria, particularlyMycobacteri-um tuberculosisandM. lepraeas well asGram-positive elevate blood glucose,triglycerides and cholesterol seem to decrease blood ureanitrogen and acid phosphatase lev-els. (Pharmacological Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)CCentratherum leaves are eaten for urinarytract infections, and unfiltered juice forscrofula and of the fresh plant significant-ly inhibits gastric ulceration by cold re-straint stress in research, using rats, the herbexhibited protective effect against al-cohol-induced and aspirin-induced ul-cers. (JExpBiol, , Feb, ( ), .)Dosage Whole plant g (APIVol. IV.)Centipeda C. minima(Linn.) Compositae; In damp places throughoutthe plains and low hills in Kshavaka, Chhikkini, Used for the treatment ofrhinitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngealtumors and obstructions, asthmaand cold; also used in plant extract showed a good an-titussive and expectorant activity onmice. The flavonoids, sesquiterpenesandamideexhibitedsignifica ntantial-lergy activity in passive cutaneous ana-phylaxis (PCA) Seed g powder.(CCRAS.)Centratherum Vernonia Throughout India up to , m in the Himalayas and Purple Flea-bane, Aranya-Jiraka, Vanajira-ka, Kaalijiri, Karjiri. Somaraaji (alsoequated withPsoralea corylifoliaLinn.,Papilionaceae).Unani Kamoon Kaattu Anthelmintic (againstearthworms and tapeworms),stomachic, diuretic; used in -avenasterol is the main ac-tive principle of seeds. Seed oil con-tains vernasterol. Seeds bitter principleis a demanolide lactone. Centratherinand germacranolide from the leavesand stem have been isolated. Leavescontain abscisic acid. EtOH extract ofachenes exhibited good results in giar-diasis. Various plant parts are used insyphilis. Clinical studies on vircarcikaeczema validated the use of the drug inskin drug exhibited smooth muscle-relaxant and hypotensive activity in Seed g powder.(CCRAS.)C138Cephaelis ipecacuanha(Brot.) A. ipecacuanha(Brot.) A. Psychotria Native to tropical cultivated in Darjeeling,Assam, in the Nilgiris, and Ipecac, Root Antiprotozal,expectorant (in low doses), diapho-retic, emetic (in high doses); used inamoebic dysentery, stubborn cough,whopping cough (for liquefyingbronchial phlegm).Key application As expecto-rant, emetic. (The British HerbalPharmacopoeia.)The root contains isoquinoline al-kaloids (consisting mainly of emetineand cephaeline); tannins (ipecacuan-ha and ipecacuanhic acid; glycosidesincluding a monoterpene isoquinolinederivative); saponins; a mixture of gly-coproteins; starch; choline; alkaloids are clinically useful inthe treatment of and cephaeline are emeticdue to their irritating effect on stom-ach; cephaeline is more toxic. Emetineis a standard antiamoebic principle. Insmaller doses, both are fluid extract is times strongerthan the syrup of the crude drug. Thepowder is toxic at accumulates in liver, lungs,kidneys and spleen; traces are de-tectable after days. (FrancisBrinker.)Ceratonia Cultivated in Locust Bean; St. John sBread, Carob Kharnub Pod and husk from seed antidiarrhoeal (stools in gastro-enteritis and colitis are known tosolidify within h).The pods contain tannin from . to . %.Pulp of the pod contains %sugars, fats, starch, protein, aminoacids, gallic acid; leucoanthocyaninsand related phenolics. Leaves All over India fromtemperate to tropics, in ponds Coontail, Shaivaala (also equatedwithVallisneria spiralisLinn.,Hydrocharitaceae), Jalnili, Tuhlub, Pashm Purgative, antibilious, herb is rich in protein, calci-um and magnesium; contains ferre-doxin and plastocyanin. EtOH ( %)extract Whole plant ml juice; ml decoction.(CCRAS.)Cereus Indian Cereus, Night BloomingCereus, Sweet Scented Nivadung Paanchkoni(Maharashtra).Action Fresh, young shoots car-diac stimulant, plant contains glucose, fructose,starch, amino acids and citric, fumar-ic, maleic, malonic and oxalic , a cardiotonic amine, canstrengthen heart muscle , stemandyoungshootsofcereus can stimulate heart and dilateperipheral vessels, as well as stimu-late spinal cord motor neurons. Thereputed digitalis effect of cereus isclaimed to be non-cumulative. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)Ceriops C. tagal(Perr.) Muddy shores and tidalcreeks of Compound Kirrari (Sindh, Maharashtra).Chauri (Maharashtra). Goran(Bengal, Sundarbans).Siddha/Tamil Pandikutti, Pavrikutti,Pavrikutti, Kandal, Plant astringent. Stembark hypoglycaemic. Bark haemostatic. A decoction is usedto stop haemorrhage and is appliedto malignant ulcers; also given afterchild used as a substitute for leaves (dry basis) gave . %tannin, . % non-tannin; twig bark . %, tannin, . % non-tannin; bolebark . % tannin, . % of sitosterol, cholesterol,campesterol, stigmasterol, -isofu-costerol and a hydrocarbon, squalene,is reported in the Punjab and South Khappar-kaddu, Bhuu-tumbi,Paataal-tumbi. Gilothi. Galot(Punjab). Tuberous root used fordiarrhoea and fresh tubers are eaten afterremoving the bitterness by bitter principle is an alkaloid,ceropegine. The tuber contains . %starch and possesses refrigerant aqueous extract of edible Cero-pegia sp. contains steriods, polyphe-nols, sugars and potassium. It potenti-ated pentobarbitone hypnosis and ex-hibited analgesic and diuretic also antagonized histamine-inducedasphyxia in guinea candelabrumL. (L.)M. Y. Ansari, synonymC. bifloraL.,C. tuberosaRoxb.,C. , are also equated with Bhuu-tumbi, Peninsular Kanvel (Maharashtra). Bella-gada (Telugu, Andhra Pradesh).(Soma is a disputed synonym)Action The plant extract exhibitstranquilizing, hypotensive, hepa-toprotective, antiulcer, antipyretic,topically anaesthetic activities inexperimental pyridine alkaloid, cerpegin, to-gether with a triterpene, lupeol hasbeen isolated from the plant fromTiruneveli, Tamil islandica(Linn.) Lichen found in the hillsfrom Tehri Garhwal to East Cetraria, Iceland Lichen,Iceland Shaileya (black var.)Folk Charela (black var.)Action A food and tonic inconvalescence and exhaustingdiseases. Used for chronic catarrhand application In irritation ofthe oral and pharyngeal mucousmembrane and accompanyingdry cough. (German CommissionE, ESCOP.)Asdemulcent. (TheBritish Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)Asa bitter remedy for lack of appetite.(ESCOP.)The moss contains lichen acids (dep-sidones); mainly cetraric, protoce-traric, fumarprotocetraric, lichestericand usnic acids; polysaccharides about % lichenin % and isolichenin %; also furan derivatives, fatty acidlactones and terpenes. Lichenin isa moss-starch. Demulcent, expecto-rant and antiemetic properties are duemainly to the usnic acid and protolichesteri-nic acid in the lichen and its crude,aqueous extract showed antibacterialactivity against several pathogenic ulcers due to its mucosa irritatingproperties. (Sharon M. Herr.)Lozenges containing mg of anaqueous extract of Iceland moss, weredetermined to be positive in % caseswith good gastric tolerance. (ESCOP .)Cheiranthus Cruciferae; Native to South Europe, Wall-flower, Gilli Tudri (Surkh, Safed, Zard)Action Flowers cardioactive,tonic, antispasmodic, purgative,emmenagogue, deobstruent (usedin liver diseases and sexual debility).Seeds stomachic, diuretic,expectorant (in bronchitis andasthma); also goitrogenic. Juice ofleaves and seeds contain flavonoids (querce-tin and rhamnetin derivatives); seedscontain high levels of cardiac aglycones( cardiac glycosides have been isolat-ed); oil contains cherinine, a glucosideof the digitalis Unani medicine, the drug is usedas a tonic to the male reproductive sys-tem, but recent findings do not vali-date its therapeutic use. The flavonoid,kaempferol, isolated from the youngplant, inhibits spermatogenesis and al-ters leydig cell number and diameter,affecting the A common herb. Itsleaves and tender twigs are used asvegetable and Fat Hen, Lamb s Quarter,White Goosefoot, Wild Spinach, Bathuaa, Bathuaa, Chilli, Laxative, anthelminticagainst round-and hookworms,blood-purifier, infusion is used for hepaticdisorders, spleen enlargement,biliousness, intestinal ulcers. Usedfor treating leaves yield ascaridole, used fortreating round-and hookworms. Theoil also contain traces of contains % saponins. Cryp-tomeridiol, isolated from the seeds,showed significant growth Native to West Indies andSouth America. Now distributedin South India, Bengal, Kashmirand Maharashtra in wet places withcultivated Indian Wormseed, SweetPigweed, Mexican Sugandh-vaastuuka, Antispasmodic, pectoral,haemostatic, in treating nervousaffections, particularly herb anthelmintic againstround and , an active constituent ofthe oil, is highly active against round-worms, hookworms and small, but notlarge, tapeworms. It is highly toxic andcan cause serious side oil has been found useful inamoebic dysentery and intestinal in-fections(shouldbeusedwithcaution).Lea ves contain kaempferol- -rham-noside and decoction of the herb is given as aninternal haemostatic and the infusionas an enema for intestinal infusion is sudorific and oil exhibits antimicrobial andstrong antifungal activity against hu-man pathogenic The Himalaya, fromKashmir to Feather Geramium, Jangaddi (Tibbet). Sahanik,Vaastuuka (Ladakh).Action Stimulant, diuretic,carminative, antispasmodic, emme-nagogue, pectoral. Used in asthma,catarrh; diseases of the stomach andliver. Seeds are considered herb contains flavonoids (in-cluding chrysoeriol and quercetin), al-so several sesquiterpenoids. Betaine isfound in all parts of the herb yields an essential oil; In-dian oil is reported to be devoid of as-caridole, the anthelmintic Poaceae, Annual grass introducedinto India from South Africa;cultivatedintropicalandsubtropica llow-lying areas where rainfall is lessthan Giant Rhodes, Rhoolsoohullu (Karnataka).Action Aproteinaceousfactor,phytotrophin, isolated from thegrass, was found to have antigenicproperties similar to those of animalsex hormones and human related species,Chloris incompletaRoth.,knownasBamnaainRajasthan and Mathania in Uttar Pradesh, hasbeen equated with Ayurvedic classi-cal herbs Manthaanak and species,C. virgataBenth. &Hook. f., known as Gharaniyaa-ghassin Rajasthan, is used for the treatmentof colds and The Himalaya from Nepalto Bhutan, Assam and Shveta-Musali. (Con-sidered different fromAsparagusadscendensRoxb.)Unani Musali Safed, Nising, Tibbati tomentosumRuiz et Tuber nervine andgeneral tonic. The plant is used asa substitute for onion. Fried powderof the root is chewed in aphthae ofmouth and throat. A decoction ofthe root with turmeric is given roots contain a bibenzyl xylo-side, the steroidal sapogenins, besidesstigmasterol and its glucoside, nona-cosane and tetracosanoic, and triacon-tanoic root extract exhibited goodadaptogenic properties. The fruitsyield a polysaccharide, Central and PeninsularIndia up to , Musali, Dried tubers are used commercial drug, Safed Musali,contains thetubers ofC. arundinaceumBaker,C. tuberosumBaker andC. in-dicum(Willd.) Dress, synonymC. indicumis found on the hills inKerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and onthe hills near Udaipur in Dried tuber gpowder. (CCRAS.)Chloroxylon Dry, deciduous forests,throughout Peninsular Indian Satinwood Provisionally equatedwith Karumboraju,Kudavuboraju, Bhirraa, Bharahula, Leaves anti-inflammatory,antiseptic. A paste is appliedto wounds; also in astringent. A decoction isused in contusions and for painfuljoints. (The wood, its dust, moistdust of freshly cut wood, cause skinirritation and dermatitis.)The bark contains the alkaloids skimmianine, swietenidins A and B,chloroxylin and is a powerful bark also contains the coumarinsand leaves yield an essential oilwhich shows antibacterial and anti-fungal tomentosumRuiz et A native of Peru and False Pareira Paatha, Ambashthaa(true Pareira is equated withCissampelospareira root).C144Chonemorpha macrophylla(Roxb.) G. Diuretic (used for chronicinflammation of urinary passages,calculus affections, jaundice,dropsy); also for leucorrhoea, and stem contain alkaloids,including delta-tubocurarine andl-curarine. Tubocurarine is a potentmuscle relaxant. The plant containstoxic derivatives and must be used inmedicinal doses with alkaloid is used astubocurarine chloride to paralysebody s muscles during macrophylla(Roxb.) G. C. fragrans(Moon) Dense moist foreststhroughout India up to , Wood Used in the Southernstates as Powdered root and stems laxative, lignan derivative has been isolatedfrom the stem. It accelerated uptake oflow density lipoprotein by Hep G cellby . %.The root bark contains . % oftotal alkaloids consisting mainly ofchonemorphine. Chonemorphine di-hydrochloride is an anti-amoebic prin-ciple. It showedin vitroactivity againstEntamoeba histolyticaandtrichomo-nas hepatic amoebiasis in goldenhamsters and intestinal amoebiasis inWister plicataHook. C. Throughout India exceptJammu & Kashmir and north-eastern India as a Ash of root bechic. Leaf depurative. Seed contain xanthone glycosidesand a chromone glycoside. Seeds gaveoil rich in linoleate. The plant contains . % Pyrethrum Compositae; Native to China and as an Samanthipoo, Flowers stomachic, ape-rient, anti-inflammatory. Leaves prescribed in migraine (as circula-tory stimulant). Uses same as thoseof flowers contain daucosterol,cumambrin-A, glyceryl-l-monobehe-nate and palmitic acid. The flowers alsocontain chrysanthemol which showedstrong anti-inflammatory activity inmice. The flavones, apigenin and lu-teolin, are reported to exhibit markedantitumour yield an essential oil con-taining camphor ( . %),trans-cara-ne-trans- -ol ( . %), bornyl acetate( . %) and sabinene ( %).A related speciesC. parthenium(Linn.) Berhh., Feverfew, synonymTanacetum parthenium,used for themanagement of migraine in Westernherbal, is found in Jammu and Kash-mir. The plant extracts have a power-ful and prostaglandin-independent in-hibitory effect on the secretion of gran-ule content by leucocytes and inhibition of the agonist-inducedserotonins release by platelets could beaccounted for the benefit in compound responsible for theanti-secretory activity has been identi-fiedassesquiterpenealpha-methylen e-gamma-lactone derivatives; partheno-lide being the main constituent of thelactones. (Two fresh or frozen leavesa day are chewed or capsules or pillscontaining mg of the leaf materialis taken for migraine. Fresh leaves maycause mouth sores.)Chukrassia tabularisA. Hills of Sikkim, Ma-harashtra, Tamil Nadu and Bastard Cedar, WhiteCedar, Indian Red Aglay, Melei Bark astringent, febrifuge,antidiarrhoeic, spasmolytic, di-uretic. The plant is used in bark contains sitosterol, melia-none, scopoletin and , -di-MeO-coumarin. The leaves gave querce-tin galactoside, galloyl glucocide andtannic acid. The bark and young leavescontain and % tannin contain ( %) extract of the stembark exhibited spasmolytic, hypoten-sive and diuretic activity. The salineextract of seeds showed haemaggluti-nating Papilionaceae; Cultivated in most parts Bengal Gram, Chick Chanaka, Chanakaa,Harimantha, Vajimantha, Jivan, Kadalai, Antibilious, hypoc-holesteremic, antihyperlipidemic,antistress. Acid exudate fromthe plant used in indigestion,diarrhoea, dysentery. Seed coatC146Cichorium diuretic, antifungal (exter-nally). Dry leaf of gram in wheatbased diet helps in lysine absorptionwhich is otherwise a limiting aminoacid in cereal based diets. Germina-tion improves mineral germinated gram flour, there is sig-nificant increase in nutritional qualityof protein and very significant increasein ascorbic seeds contain pangamic acid,the stemina building, antistress andantihyperlipidemic principle of is given as preventive diet toatherosclerosis patients because of itsrich phosphorus , biochanin A and for-monetin exhibited hypolipidermic ac-tivity in rats. Total flavonoids reducedserum and liver cholesterol in reduced postprandial plasmaglucose in Compositae; Native to the Mediter-ranean region, cultivated mainly inNorthern Succory, Kaasani, Bustaani (Baaghi).Action Plant antibilious. Root demulcent, febrifuge, diuretic; usedin dyspepsia; as a tonic for liverand digestive system. Milder contain sesquiterpene Compositae; Native to Europe;commonly occurs in North WestIndia, Tamil Nadu and parts ofAndhra Chicory, Indian Kaasani Dashti (Barri).Siddha/Tamil Diuretic, laxative, chol-agogue, mild hepatic. Excitesperistalsis without affecting thefunctions of the stomach. Usedin liver congestion, jaundice,rheumatic and gouty application (herb and root) Inloss of appetite, dyspepsia. (GermanCommission E.)The herb contains inulin (up to %in the root); sesquiterpene lactones(including lactucin and lactucopicrin);coumarins (chicoriin, esculetin, es-culin, umbelliferone and scopoletin);the root includes a series of glucofruc-tosans. Raw chicory root containsonly citric and tartaric acids; roastedchicory contains acetic, lactic, pyru-vic, pyromucic, palmitic and tartaricacids. The carcinogenic hydrocarbonsand floranthene are also reported inthe chicory (a potent carcinogen , -benzpyrene has been detected).Added to coffee, chicory root coun-teracts caffeine and helps in alcoholic extract of the plant wasfound effective against chlorproma-zine-induced hepatic damage in adultCCinchona rats. The cholagogue activity isattributed to sedative effect of chicory is at-tributed to lactucopicrin. The sedativeeffect antagonizes the stimulant effectof tea and coffee. (Natural MedicinesComprehensive Database, .)The extracts of roots were found tobe active against several Seed g powder;leaf ml juice; root ml. (CCRAS.)Cimicifuga racemosa(Linn.) Temperate HimalayasfromKashmirtoBhutanuptoat , , Black Cohosh Root, BlackSnake Cohosh, Jiuenti (Punjab).Action Sedative, anti-inflammatory,antitussive, diuretic, in homoeopathy for rheumaticdiseases of nervous, hystericalwomen, suffering from uterineaffections; also for application In climacteric(menopausal), neurovegetativeailments, premenstrual discomfortand dysmenorrhoea. (GermanCommission E, ESCOP.)The rhizome contains triterpene gly-cosides (including actein, cimigoside,cimifugine and racemoside; isofla-ones (including formononetin; isofer-ulic acid; volatile oil, studies haveshown that the menthol extract bindsto oestrogen receptorsin vitroand inrat uteri; this activity is thought to bedue to the presence of exhibited antiulcer activ-ity in mice. Isoferulic acid loweredbody temperature in rhizome is hypotensive in ani-mals; a central nervous system depres-sant and antispasmodic in mice; caus-es peripheral vasodilation in exhibits anti-inflammatory (TheBritish Herbal Pharmacopoeia)andhy-poglycaemic has been studied for usein treating peripheral arterial disease.(Expanded Commission E Monographs.)Clinically, the rhizome and rootconstituents of Black Cohosh doesnot seem to affect hormonal levels,such as estradiol, LH, FSH and pro-lactin. (Natural Medicines Comprehen-sive Database, .)Cimicifuga foetidaL. root is usedin bronchial and rheumatic EtOH extract is used in cos-metic preparations for protecting skin;also used for preventing oral diseasesand bad Cohosh, used for urinogen-ital disorders, is equated withActeapachypoda,synonymA. alba, A. Cohosh has been identified asCaulophyllum is toxicand C. camphora(Linn.) Nees & Cultivated in West Bengaland Tamil Crown or Loxa Al-keenaa, Antimalarial, febrifuge, as-tringent, orexigenic, prescribed in amoebic dysen-tery, jaundice, atonic dyspepsia,night cramps. Sometimes causesgastric and intestinal application In peptic dis-comforts such as bloating andfullness, loss of appetite. (GermanCommission E.)The bark contains alkaloids quinine( . . %); quinidine ( . . %);cinchonine ( . . %); cinchoni-dine ( . . %) and other alkaloids,quinamine, javanine ( . . %).The leaves contain quercetin, kaem-pferol and is antimalarial; quinidine isantiarrhythmic and cardiac tonic, alsoused in psychic bark shows potent inhibitory ac-tivity against polymorphonuclear leu-cocytes; the activity is attributed to thealkaloids of the bark. Cinchona maypotentiate coumarin derivatives. Inlarge doses, it is sedative to CNS andcardiac is toxic at over g, quini-dine at Cinchona sp.:C. calisayaWedd. (Nilgiris and Sikkim);C. cal-isayaWedd. (West Bengal, Khasi Hills and TamilNadu); andC. succirubraPav. ex Klotz.(Nilgiris and Annamalis in TamilNadu, Sikkim and West Bengal).The bark of all the species containquinine, quinidine, cinchonine andcinchonidine and exhibit antimalar-ial activity. The alcoholic extract ofC. ledgerianaMoens ex Trimen barkexhibits antibacterial activity againstGram-positive bacteria comparable tosodium penicillin. The extract, how-ever, exhibits lesser activity than di-hydrostreptomycin sulphate againstGram-negative camphora(Linn.) Nees & A tree native to China andJapan and often grown as a Camphor Karpura, Ghanasaara,Chandra, Chandra Prabhaa,Sitaabhra, Hima-valukaa, Hi-mopala, Himakara, Shashi, Indu,Tushaara, Gandhadravya, Indu, Camphor taken internally insmalldoses(toxicinlargedoses)actsas a carminative, reflex expectorantand reflex stimulant of heart andcirculation as well as used as a sedative and nervousdepressant in convulsions, hysteria,epilepsy, chorea. Topically used asa rubefacient and mild application Externally incatarrhal diseases of the respiratorytract and muscular rheumatism;internally in hypotonic circulatoryregulation disorders, Catarrhaldiseases of the respiratory tract.(German CommissionE.)The plant contains a volatile oilcomprising camphor, safrole, linalool,eugenol and terpeneol. It also con-tains lignans (including secoisosolari-ciresinol dimethyl ether and kusunoki-ol). Safrole is thought to be ( . %); also contained cit-ronellal ( . %).Camphor in concentration of mcg/ml completely inhibits the growthof vibro parahaemolyticus, one of thecausative agents of diarrhoea and dys-entery. Ethanolic extract ( %) offruits show antibacterial activityagainst several Gram-positive andGram-negative bacteria. The essentialoil from the plant possesses antifungalactivity against many is toxic at Concentrate mg(CCRAS.)Cinnamomum C. Native to China, Indonesiaand Chinese Cinnamon, Tvak, Daalchini (bark).Siddha/Tamil Antispasmodic, carmina-tive, antiputrescent, antidiarrhoeal,antiemetic, antimicrobial, mildanalgesic. Used for flatulentdyspepsia, colic, irritable bowel,diverticulosis; also for influenzaand application In loss of appetite,dyspeptic complaints such as mildspasma of gastrointestinal tract,bloating, flatulence. (GermanCommission E, The British HerbalPharmacopoeia, ESCOP.)The bark yields an essential oil con-taining cinnamaldehyde ( . %) andeugenol ( . %) as major is a weak CNSstimulant at low doses and a depres-sant at high doses and has spasmolyticactivity. It is hypotensive, hypogly-caemic and increases peripheral bloodflow; it reduces platelet aggregabilityby inhibiting both cyclooxygenase andlipoxygenase pathways of arachidonicacid extract of the bark showssignificant antiallergic activity inguinea pig. Diterpenes (Cinncassi-ols) are thought to be responsible foratleast some of the antiallergic herb inhibited ulcers inducedby ethanol, also ulcers induced byphenylbutazone; failed to prevent ul-cers induced by indomethacin. (PlantaMed , ( ), .)The extract, when administeredorally to rats with nephritis, preventsthe increase of protein level in bark markedly reduces bloodpressure in experimental rats; exhibitstranquilizing effect and is used asC150Cinnamomum antiepileptic and sedative agent indrugs of The subtropical Himalayas,Khasi and Jaintia Indian Cassia, Tejapatra, Patra,Patraka, Utkat, Tamaalpatra,Naalukaa, Saleekhaa, Saazaj Hindi (Al-so equated with Zarnab/TelispattarbyNational Formulary of UnaniMedicine, Part I.)Siddha/Tamil Talishpattiri (nowequated with the leaf ofAbieswebbiana); Leaf Carminative,antidiarrhoeal, spasmolytic, an-tirheumatic, oil oil from bark contains cin-namaldehyde ( %) as major con-stituent. ( ) Leaves fromNepal yield a volatile oil, containingmainly linalool . %; cinnamalde-hyde . %, alpha-and beta-pinene,p-cymene and wightiMeissn. is al-so equated with Tejapatra. The bud,known as Sirunaagappoo in Siddha/Tamil, is used as Naagakeshara (blackvar.). (Naagakeshara is obtained fromMesua ferraandDillenia pentagyne.)C. impressinerviumMeissn. (Sik-kim) andC. obtusifolium(Roxb.) Nees(the Central and Eastern Himalayas upto , m, Assam and Andaman Is-lands) are related species leaves and bark contain Dried leaves gpowder. (APIVol. I.)Cinnamomum C. Western Ghats at lowlevels. Plantations of cinnamon areconfined to Kerala Cinnamon, Tvak, Daaruchini,Chochaa, Choncha, Varaanga,Utkata, Daarusitaa (bark).Unani Daarchini (bark).Siddha/Tamil Bark carminative, astrin-gent, antispasmodic, expectorant,haemostatic, antiseptic. Leaf antidiabetic. Ground cinnamon isused in diarrhoea and dysentery;for cramps of the stomach, gastricirritation; for checking nauseaand vomiting; used externally intoothache, neuralgia and rheuma-tism. The bark is included inmedicinal preparations for indiges-tion, flatulence, flu, mothwashes,gargles, herbal application As antibacterialand fungistatic. Internally, forloss ofappetite, dyspeptic complaints suchas mild spastic conditions of thegastrointestinal tract, bloating andflatulence. (German CommissionE, ESCOP.) Contraindicated instomach and duodenal ulcers.(WHO.)The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diaindicated the use of dried matureleaves ofCinnamomum tamalaanddried inner bark ofC. is the major con-stituent ( %) of the essential oil constituent of the leaf oil iseugenol ( %) and that of root-bark oil camphor ( %).Cinnamaldehyde is hypotensive,spasmolytic and increases peripheralblood flow; and it inhibits cyclooxy-genase and lipoxygenase enzymes ofarachidonic acid effects at high doses. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)The bark oil and extracts exhibit an-tibacterial, antifungal and antiviral ac-tivities, and enhance trypsin content of the leaf oil is an-tiseptic and anaesthetic. It is not inter-changable with the bark bark oil acts as a stimulant inamenorrhoea. The bark contains tan-nins ( . %) consisting of tetrahydrox-yflavandiols; diterpenes, cinnzeylaninand malabatrum(Burm. f.) Blume isequated with Jangali Dried inner bark gpowder. (APIVol. I.)Cissampelos The tropical and sub-tropical parts of Velvet-Leaf Pareira, Paathaa, Ambashthaa,Varatiktaaa, Vriki, Aviddhakarni,Piluphalaa, var.,Raaja Paathaa, is equated withStephania hernandifoliaWalp.)Unani Paadakkizhangu, Root astringent, an-tispasmodic (used for cramps,painful menstruation), analgesic,antipyretic, diuretic, antilithic andemmenagogue. Prescribed fordiarrhoea, dysentery, piles, urogen-ital affections (cystitis, nephritis,menorrhagia) Root paste is appliedtopically on scabies and erup-tions on the body. Also used forpreventing Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diaattributed blood purifying proper-ties to the root and indicated it in (dl-beberine) is the prin-cipal alkaloid of the root. Its deriva-tives, methiodide and methochlorideare reported to be potent neuromus-cular-blocking to be confused withAbuta gran-diflora, a South American Root g powder. (APIVol. I.)Cissus Vitis Throughout the warmerparts of India, also cultivated Square Stalked Vine,Adamant Asthisamhaara,Asthisamhrita. Asthi-samyojaka,Vajravalli, The anabolic and steroidalprinciples of the aerial part showeda marked influence in the rate offracture-healing. The drug exertsinfluence both on the organic andmineral phase of alterative in scurvy (theplant is rich in vitamin C) andirregular plant contains phytogenic ste-roid, ketosteroids, sitosterol, alpha-amyrin, alpha-ampyrone and tetra-cyclic triterpenoids. Phytogenic ste-riods showed bone healing possesses smooth musclerelaxant effect. The total alcoholic ex-tract of the plant neutralizes the anti-anabolic effect of the cortisone in heal-ing of fractures. The aqueous extract ofthe plant hastens fracture-healing byreducing the total convalescent periodby % in experimental rats and dogs;it aids in recovery of the strength ofthe bones up to % in Stem ml juice.(APIVol. III.)Citrullus Throughout Colocynth Bitter Indravaaruni, Indraval-li, Indravaarunikaa, Gavaakshi,Chitraa, Chitraphalaa, Indraasuri,Mrigaani, Mrigairvaaru, Vishaalaa,Vishaalyka, Indraayana. Ain-dri (also equated withBacopamonnieri).Unani Dried pulp of ripe fruit cathartic, drastic purgative, irritantand toxic. The pulp is used forvaricose veins and piles. A pasteof root is applied to variousinflammations and swellings. Thecataplasm of leaves is applied inmigraine and Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiaindicated the use of the fruit injaundice; the root in diseases of the liv-er and spleen and the leaf in cutaneousaffections and contains up to % cucur-bitacin. The drug and its preparationscause drastic irritation of the gastroin-testinal mucosa and aurantifolia(Christm.) include cucurbitacinE-, J-, L-glucosides. In addition, thepulp contains caffeic acid derivatives(chlorogenic acid).Roots contain aliphatic extract ( %) shows signif-icant anti-inflammatory activity in al-bino and flowers contain querce-tin and kaempferol. The ethanolic ex-tract of leaves and flowers exhibits an-tibacterial activity against a numberof Gram-positive and powder is toxic at . . g. Thefruit exhibited carcinogenic activity inanimal Dried fruit mgpowder. (APIVol. III.) Root (CCRAS.) Dried leaf for external use. (APIVol. II.)Citrullus C. lanatus(Thunb.)Matsumura & Cultivated throughoutIndia on sandy river beds, up to analtitude of , Poiychaviral, Tharbuza-palam ( Pulp cooling andrefreshing, a rich source of pectin,carotenoids, surcose (as majorsugar). Fruit juice is prescribed instrangury and urinary complaints,also in hepatic congestion andintestinal catarrh. Seeds cooling,purgative, diuretic, demulcent (usedin urinary infections). Leaves febrifuge. The pericarp is given juice contains citrullin( . %) and arginine, which arethought to increase urea productionin the liver, thus increasing the flow seeds possess a high lipase activ-itycomparabletothatofwheatgerm, inaddition to high lipoxygenase, ureaseand trypsin-inhibitor activities. Aque-ous extract of the seeds also exhibitamylase inhibitor activity. The seed oilis used as a substitute for almond roots of mature plant containa triterpene, bryonolic acid. Bryono-lic acid possesses astrongerantiallergicactivitywith lessersideeffectsthanthatof glycyrrhetinic acid, the aglycone ofglycyrrhizin, used clinically in Japanfor the treatment of allergy and aurantifolia(Christm.) C. medicaL. (Roxb.) Hook. Wild in the warm valleysof the outer Himalayas. Cultivatedin the Acid or Sour Lime,Country Limu Elummichhai, Kaagazi Antiscorbutic, stomachic,appetizer, refrigerant. Used inbilious vomiting. Leaves aninfusion is given for fever injaundice, for sore throat, an infusion is given for colicand dysentery, also as are rich in vitamins, mineralsand alkaline salts, but not in fruit sug-ars. Lime peel contains ergosterol. Anenzyme, , -beta-glucan hydrolase hasbeen reported from the bark and leafextract. SeeC. Cultivated in Khasihills and Cachar. Also in Guntur(Andhra Pradesh). Found in semi-wild state in the Naga and Citrus dulcis, Sour Orange,Sweet Peel laxative, feeble stom-achic, emmenagogue. Leaves prescribed in the treatment ofarthritis and bronchitis. Flowers aqueous extract is employed inscurvy, fever, inflammation, ner-vous and hysterical cases. Fruit a decoction is used to recoverfrom cachexia left by intermittentfever and in cases of enlargedspleen. Dried rind used in application Cut peel in lossof appetite and dyspeptic ailments.(German Commission E.). As a bittertonic. (British Pharmacopoeia.)The main constituents of the peel in-clude the alkaloid synephrine and N-methyltyramine. Synephrine, an alpha -adrenergic agonist, stimulates a risein blood pressure through vasocon-striction. N-methyltyramine also rais-es blood root gave essential oil exhibits antifun-gal activity, it was found effective intreatment-resistant fungal skin dis-eases. (Expanded Commission E Mono-graphs.)Commercially available Citrus vul-garis (bitter orange) extracts are oftenpromoted for weight loss due to pur-ported thermogenic effects. In animalmodels, synephrine causes weight loss,but also increases cardiovascular toxic-ity. (Natural Medicines ComprehensiveDatabase, .)Citrus limon(Linn.) Cultivated all over Jambira, Jambh, Jambhir,Jaamphal, Nimbu, Nimbuka,Naaranga, Limpaka, Dantashatha,Airaavata, Neebu (bigger var.).Unani maxima(Burm.) Periya Fruit antiscorbutic, carmi-native, stomachic, antihistaminic,antibacterial. Used during coughs,colds, influenza and onset of fever(juice of roasted lemon), hiccoughs,biliousness. Fruit juice used ex-ternally for ringworm (mixed withsalt), erysipelas, also in the treat-ment of leprosy and white and stems parts of the plants ofcitrussp. contain coumarins and fruits contain flavonoids and li-monoids. The flavonoids comprisethree main groups flavanones, fla-vones and -hydroxyflavylium (antho-cyanins); flavanones being predomi-nantly followed by flavones and antho-cyanins. Bitter flavonoids do not occurin lemon and juice is a richer source ofantiscorbutic vitamin (contains mg/ gofvitaminC)thanlime,and a fair source of carotene and vita-min B . Volatile oil (about . % of thepeel) consists of about % limonene,alpha-and beta-pinenes, alpha-ter-pinene and citral. The fruit juice alsocontains coumarins and , oncedi-gested, provides an alkalineeffect with-in the body and is found useful in con-ditions where acidity is a contributoryfactor (as in case of rheumatic condi-tions). The bioflavonoids strengthenthe inner lining of blood vessels, es-pecially veins and capillaries, and helpcountervaricoseveins, arteriosclerosis,circulatory disorders and infections ofliver, stomach and flavonoid glycosides, isolatedfrom citrus peels and juices, includehesperidin (with properties of vitaminP). Rutin andotherflavanones, isolatedfrom citrus fruits, form the principalcomponents of vitamin P. Flavanoneglycosidescontainedinlemonandli mejuices are eriocitrin and ; hes-peridin and mg/l, composition of cold pressedlime oil is quite similar to lemon oil,but citral content of lime oil is alcohols and their es-ters, aldehydes geraniol, geranial andneral, contribute to the characteristicaroma of lemon and Fruit g (Juice ml). (APIVol. IV.)Citrus maxima(Burm.) C. grandis(L.) North-eastern region upto , m in Assam and Pummelo, Mahaa-nibu, Fruit cardiotonic. Leaves,flowers and rind used as a sedativein nervous affections. Leaves used in convulsive cough, chorea,epilepsy, also in the treatment ofhaemorrhagic diseases. A lotion ofboiled leaves used hot in painfulswellings. The essential oil fromC156Citrus leaves exhibits dermatophytic,and fungistatic root-bark contains beta-sitos-terol and acridone alkaloids. It alsocontains several coumarins. The alka-loids and coumarins show antimicro-bial essential oil from the leavesand unripe fruits contain % limonin, % nerolol, % nerolyl acetate and % Khasi Hills, submountain-ous Himalayan ranges in Garhwal,Kumaon in , Maland areasof South, Pachmarhi (MadhyaPradesh), Sikkim and Maatulunga, Lunga,Maatulaka, Mahaalunga, Bijpuura, Kadaranrathai,Naarthankai, Fruit antiscorbutic,refrigerant, astringent, carminative,stomachic, antibacterial. Usedfor dyspepsia, bilious vomiting,cold, fever, hiccough. Root anthelmintic. Flowers and buds peel contains coumarins, limet-tin, scoparone, scopoletin and um-belliferon; besides nobiletin, limonin,diosmin, beta-sitosterol and beta-D-glucoside. The roots contain campes-terol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and extract of the peel showedhypotensive action in fruits and seeds are a cardioton-ic; found useful in Fruit ml juice. (APIVol. III.) Leaf, flower, fruit, root ml decoction. (CCRAS.)Citrus Native to the West in the mainly in Grapefruit, Marsh Chakotraa. Chima Bombili-maas (Tamil Nadu).Action Young leaves decoctionis used to relieve cold or used for developing resis-tance against colds and is rich in vitamins, min-erals, potassium and pectin, which bal-ance the acid reaction in the stomachand stimulate appetite. Half grape-fruit contains vitamin A IU, vita-min C . mg, niacin . mg, potas-sium mg. The fruit contains beta-carotene and cartenoid lycopene. Ly-copene is especially noted for reduc-ing the risk of prostate cancer. Thefruit juice contains furanocoumarins,including bergamottin, also naringin,naringenin, limonin, quercetin, kaem-pferol and purpurea(Fr.) drug interactions with grape-fruit juice, seeNatural Medicines Com-prehensive Database, .Grapefruit is not to be confused withgrape (Vitis vinifera).Clausena pentaphylla(Roxb.) The sub-Himalayan tractfrom Garhwal to Sikkim; also inChakrata Ratanjot (var.), is a doubtful Bark anti-inflammatory,spasmolytic; used in veterinarymedicine for wounds and parts contain coumarins clausmarins A and B. Coumarins ex-hibit spasmolytic activity. The root al-so contains coumarins. Root and stembark ofClausena excavataBurm. sub-Himalayan tract, Orissaand Bihar) also contain coumarins clausenin and clausenidin. The rootbark exhibits antibacterial activityagainst both Gram-positive and Gram-negative related species,C. anisata(Willd.)Oliver, is reported from Uttar extract of the aerial partsexhibited spasmolytic activity. The fu-ranocoumarins, anisolactone, xantho-toxol, indicolactone, imperatorin and , -epoxy-anisolactone have beenisolated from the West African traditional medi-cine, the decoction of the root is givento control convulsions in children. Theanticonvulsant agent has been foundto be heliettin, extracted from the stembark and purpurea(Fr.) A fungous parasite ona number of grasses particularly inrye, cultivated in the Nilgiris and atChakrohi farm in Ergot of Rye. Fungus Annamaya, Uterine stimulant. Oxy-tocic, abortifacient, parturient,vasoconstrictor, haemostatic. Usedin obstetrics (difficult childbirth,for exciting uterine contractions inthe final stages of parturition). Alsoused after abortion for removal ofthe placenta. It is no more employedin internal haemorrhages, as it hasbeen found to raise blood pressurein pulmonary and cerebral haemor-rhage. Included among unapprovedherbs byGerman Commission fungus gave indole ergometrine or ergonovine groupincludes ergometrine and ergometri-nine. The ergotamine group includesergotamine and ergotaminine. The er-gotoxine group includes ergocristine,ergocristinine, ergocryptine, ergo-cryptinine, ergocornine and ergo-corninine. The fungus also containshistamine, tyramine and other amines,sterols and alkaloids of ergot are beingused independently (not as a herbalmedicine). Ergotamine is used to re-lieve migrainous headaches as it isa vasoconstrictor and has antisero-tonin activity. Ergometrine is usedafter childbirth in the third stage oflabour and for post-partum haem-orrhage, as it is a powerful uterinestimulant, particularly of the puerper-al uterus. (Both the constituents areused under medical supervision). Er-gocornine significantly inhibited thedevelopment of induced mammary tu-mours in rats. The derivatives of ergotalkaloids are known to have suppress-ing effect on human breast cancer ininitial stages. This activity is linked toprolactin inhibitory extract is toxic at . . g,ergot alkaloids at g in adults, mgin infants. (Francis Brinker).Dosage Whole plant mlinfusion. (CCRAS.)Clematis Throughout India Commercially known Belkangu (used as substitutefor Muurvaa in Maharashtra).Action Leaf and stem vesicant, parts and roots contain a qua-ternary aporphine alkaloid, magnoflu-orine. The leaves yield protoanemonin,a fungitoxic related species,C. napaulensisDC. is used in recta(Up-right Virgin s Bower) is used in ho-moeopathic medicine for cancerousand foul ulcers; orally for rheumat-ic pains, varicose veins, gout and brachycarpaVahl ex C. Northwestern Rajasthan,Punjab plains and Madhio (Rajasthan).Action Anti-inflammatory,antirheumatic, antidermatosis (usedin scabies, also in leucoderma).The plant contains trinortriterpe-noids and cabralealactone, besides ur-solic C. Throughout India; Tripura,West Bengal and Gangetic valley, asa Wild Tilaparni, Hurhur(yellow var.), Panwaar, Nayikkadugu, inerme(L.) Seed carminative,antiseptic, anthelmintic (for roundworms). Leaf sudorific. Bark externally rubefacient, aerial parts contain a macro-cyclic diterpene, cleomaldeic acid, anda bicyclic diterpene, cleomeolide. Theseeds contain coumarino-lignans,cleomiscosin A,B,C and D. The leafextract exhibited fungitoxicity againstringworm causing fungi with reportedmycelian aqueous extract of seeds ex-hibited significant analgesic and lo-cal anaesthetic activities in mice andguinea pigs, respectively. It failed toprotect rats against convulsions in-duced by picrotoxin, though it poten-tiated the barbiturate sleeping purple var. of Hurhur is equat-ed withCleome monophyllaL. (Bihar,Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and TamilNadu).Clerodendrum indicum(Linn.) Clerodendron siphonan-thus(R. Br.) C. B. Cultivatedasanornamentalthroughout India, especially inSouth and Eastern Turk s Turban, Vaamana-haati (asubstitute for Bhaarangi).Siddha/Tamil Kavalai, Root used for asthma,cough, scrofulous affections. Leaf vermifuge. Resin plant is also used in fever,atrophy, emaciation of cachexia leaves contain flavonoids scu-tellarein ( . %), hispidulin ( . %) andtheir -O-glucuronides; also contain beta-sitosterol and tri-terpenoids. The bark yields hexitol flavone, pectolinarin and a di-terpene, oncinotine, exhibit antifee-dant inerme(L.) Throughout India in tidalforests, wild all over coastal areas;planted in gardens in Tamil Smooth Putigandhaa, Kundali, Peenaari, Leaf febrifuge, as a substitute forSwertiachirayitaand quinine in remittentand intermittent fevers. The leafjuice is taken orally to relievemuscular pains and stiffness of legs(in tetanus).The leaves and stem contain a num-ber of triterpenes, neolignans, diter-penoids, sterols and infortunatumauct. non Linn. roots are prescribed in venere-al diseases. The methanolic extract ofthe roots contains verbascoside whichexhibits analgesic and infortunatumauct. non Linn. Throughout Bhaandira, Bhaandi,Kaari. Also known as Bhaarangi(C. serratum).Siddha/Tamil Karukanni, Leaves used as a substitutefor Chiretta. Leaves and roots employed externally for skindiseases and alopecia. Leaves areprescribed in headache. Roots aregiven in cramps and homoeopathy, the fresh leaves areemployed for colic due to worms, diar-rhoea associated with nausea, chronicfever with loss of appetite and in en-largement of liver and spleen with in-digestion and alcoholic extract of the wholeplant showed antiprotozoal activityagainstEntamoeba al-so exhibited hypoglycaemic activity inalbino rats. The leaves exhibit antifun-gal Leaf ml juice.(CCRAS.)Clerodendrum C. multiflorum (Burm. f.)O. Throughout India, in thedrier Agnimantha, Tarkaari,Vikraantaa, Jayanti, Jai, Jayaa,Ganikaarikaa, Vaijayanti, Biggervar. is equated withPremna integri-foliaLinn., Shriparni, Laghu Plant parts used indyspepsia, stomachache, colic,cholera, dysentery, postnatal fever,during convalscence from and bark bitter tonic, usedin debility and nervous Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diaindicated the use of root in dysuriaand retention of , scutellarein and pec-tolinarin, have been isolated from theleaves. Stems gaved-mannitol, beta-sitosterol, its glucosides and ceryl al-cohol. The roots contain ceryl alcohol,clerodin, clerosterol and ethanolic extract of leaves ex-hibited hepatoprotective activity. Theaqueous extract of leaves exhibitedinvitroanthelmintic activity. The plantalso exhibited antidiabetic Root g fordecoction. (APIVol. III.)Clerodendrum serratum(Linn.) Ashrubdistributedthroughout the country, especiallycommon in Assam and Blue-flowered Glory tree,Beetle Bhaargi, Bhaaran-gi, Angaarvalli, Phanji, Braah-manyashtikaa, Kharshaak, Padma,Bhragubhavaa, Kandoorbarangi(root), Root Antiasthmatic,antihistaminic, antispasmodic,antitussive carminative, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiaindicated the use of the driedroots in cough, bronchitis, dyspnoea,chest diseases and bark contains triterpenoids serratagenic, oleanolic and queretaricacids; leaves contain alpha-spinasteroland flavonoids, including luteolin, api-genin, baicalein, scutellarein, phenolicacids caffeic and ferulic ( %) extract of the plant ex-hibited hypotensive and spasmolyticactivity. Polyhydric property on iso-lated guinea pig ileum. Antiasthmaticeffect was also observed Root g powder; g for decoction. (APIVol. III.)Clitoria Papilionaceae; Throughout India intropical areas; also cultivated Butterfly Pea, Winged-leaved Clitoria, Girikarnikaa, Aparaa-jitaa, Aasphota, Girimallikaa,Girikanyaa, Kokilaa,Yonipushpaa,Vishnukraantaa. (Evolvulus alsi-noidesLinn. is also known asVishnukraantaa, Vishnukranti).Used as Shankhapushpi in Mezereon Koyal (Punjab).Action Root cathartic likejalap. Roots cause gripe andtenesmus, hence not recommendedas purgative. Used in ascites. Rootbark diuretic (infusion used inirritation of bladder and urethra).Root juice given in cold milkto liquefy phlegm in chronicbronchitis. The root, bark, seedsand leaves used for gastric root is administered with honeyas a general tonic to children forimproving mental Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiarecommends the dried leaf inmigraine, psychoneurosis and alcoholic extract of the plantshowed sedative and hypothermic ef-fect in , fed with ethanol extract offlowers, showed a significantly loweredserum sugar level in experimentally in-duced seeds contain a nucleoproteinwith its amino acid sequence similarto insulin, but for the absence of his-tidine, threonine, proline and indicaW. & A .Seeds gave cinnamic acid, flavonol gly-coside. Leaves contain glycosides South India, the seeds and rootsconstitute the drug Shankhapushpi,used as a nervine tonic. In other re-gions,Canscora decussata, Convolvu-lus pluricaulis, Evolvulus alsinoidesandLavendula bipinnataare used as Root g powder (APIVol. II); dried leaf g; seed g.(APIVol. IV.)Coccinia indicaW. & C. Cultivated in Assam, WestBengal, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra,Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; wildin many parts of Bimbi, Tundi, Tundikaa,Tundikeri, Kunduru, Raktaphala,Piluparni, Carminative, antipyretic,galactagogue. Powder of root istaken with water to stop of leaves antispasmodic andexpectorant. Applied externallyin eruptions of the skin. Root antiprotozoal. Fruit, leaf and root antidiabetic. Various plant parts areused in slow pulse and convulsions,also against infective Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diarecommends the whole plant foroedema, anaemia, disorders due to vi-tiated blood, cough and fruit yielded beta-amyrin and itsacetate, lupeol and cucurbitacin Whole plant gpowder; ml juice. ( )Cocculus hirsutus(Linn.) C. villosus(Lam.) Throughout tropical andsub-tropical tracts of Broom-Creeper, Chhilihinta, Paataala-garuda, Mahaamuulaa, Dirghavalli, Root laxative, sudorific,alterative, antirheumatic. Leaf used externally for eczema, prurigoand inpetigo. A decoction of leavesis taken in eczema, leucorrhoea extract of stem and root sedative, anticonvulsant, hypotensive,bradycardiac, cardiotonic and sapas-molytic. Roots are used as a substitutefor Sarsaparilla in chronic rheumatismgout, and syphilitic stem contains cyclopeptide al-kaloids. The plant contains coclaurine,magnoflorine, beta-sitosterol, ginnoland a monomethyl ether of pendulus(Forsk.) Diels, synonymC. leaeba(Del.) DC. (Punjab, GujaratCCocos South India) is known as Parwati(Gujarat, Sindh) and Ullar-billar (Pun-jab).Ethanolic extract of the leaves andstem showed anticancer and hypoten-sive activities associated with the al-kaloidal fraction which contains bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (includ-ing pendulin and cocsulin). Presenceof quercitol is reported from non-alkaloidal Root ml decoc-tion. (CCRAS.)Cochlearia Armoracia Cruciferae, Eastern Europe; cultivatedin Britain and the USA. Grown toa small extent in North India andhill stations of South Root used for catarrhs ofthe respiratory tract. Antimicrobialand root contains glucosinolates,mainly sinigrin, which releases allyl-isothiocyanate on contact with the en-zyme myrosin during crushing and -phenylethylglucosinolate. Crushedhorseradish has an inhibitory effect onthe growth of root contains vitamin C on anaverage mg% of ascorbic related species,C. cochlearioides(Roth) Sant & Mahesh, ex Roxb. (upperand lower Gangetic valleys), is usedfor C. religiosum(Linn.) Andhra Pradesh, Karnata-ka,TamilNadu,MadhyaPradeshand Bihar; cultivated at Agartala Golden Silk tree, WhiteSilk Cotton Samagh, Kateeraa (substitutefor gum tragacanth).Siddha/Tamil Kongilam (flowerjuice), Gum cooling, sedative,bechic, useful in coughs, hoarsethroat,diarrhoea,dysentery,scaldin g urine. Dried leaves andflowers leaves contain terpenoids, sapo-nins and tannins. Flowers containnaringenin and beta-sitosteryl-gluco-side ( . %). The gum, after hydrolysis,furnished a mixture of acidic Palmae; Cultivated chiefly inKerala, Tamil Nadu and Coconut Naarikela, Naalikera,Laangali, Tunga, Skandhaphala,Sadaaphala, Trnaraaja, Naarjeel, Thenkai. Kopparai(kernel of ripe coconut).Action Water from tender fruit cooling, used in thirst, fever, urinarydisorders, gastroenteritis, and stomachic, laxative, diuretic,styptic, sedative; useful in dyspepsiaand burning sensation. Oil fromendosperm antiseptic; used inalopecia. Root astringent; used inurinary and uterine and coconut water is rich inpotassiumandothermineralsandvita-mins. It contains reducing sugars . . %, totalsugars . . %; brix . . %. It is used as a substitute for nor-mal saline in cases of extract of coconut shell( % in petroleum jelly, externally) wasfound very effective in dermatophyto-sis. Lighter fractions of the tar oil areused as , mixed with oil, are appliedto swellings, leaves to treat abscesses,shoots and ashes of dry meat to deepcuts, grated meat to burns, roots towounds and and fibre Dried endosperm g powder. (APIVol. III.)Coffea GrowninTamilNadu,Karnataka and Arabian Kaapi, Diuretic, antinarcotic,psychotropic agent, direct heartstimulant (raises blood pressure).Neutralizes therapeutic effects ofmany herbs; potentiates the actionof aspirin and paracetamol; depletesthe body of B-vitamins. Charcoalof the outer seed parts astringent, application Powdered coffeecharcoal in nonspecific, acutediarrhoea; local therapy of mildinflammationoforalandpharyngealmucos a (average daily dose g).(German Commission E.)According toWHO,coffee drinkingis not responsible for breast cancer andmay protect against cancerof colon andrectum. Caffeic and chlorogenic acidsin coffee act as asthma is less frequentamong coffee drinkers due to caffeineand aroma components include sev-eral furfuryl methyl mercaptan deriva-tives. Coffee extracts yielded organicacids. Atractyloside, severalsterolsandacids, as well as alkaloids, have beenreported. Caffeine is the major alka-loid of coffee. One cup of coffee con-tainsapprox. mgcaffeine; otheractive constituents include chlorogenicacid, caffeol and acid in coffee mightinhibit glucose- -phosphatase, whichCColchicum lower hepatic glucose produc-tioncaffeineseemstostimulatepancr e-atic beta cells to secrete insulin. (Natu-ral Medicines Comprehensive Database, .)Coix C. Gramineae; Warm and damp areas upto about , m, both wild andcultivated as an annual Job s Kaatu Garaheduaa, Fruits a decoction isused for catarrhal affections ofthe air passage and inflammationof the urinary tract. Seed diuretic. Root used in menstrualdisorders. Leaves used as a drinkfor inducing fertility in seeds containtrans-ferulyl stig-mastanol andtrans-ferulyl campes-tanol, which form part of an ovulation-inducing drug. Seed extract immu-no-enhancer, used for the preventionof cancer and infections. Seeds exhib-it anti-tumour and anticomplimenta-ry activities. Seeds contain coixeno-lides, a mixed ester of palmitoleic andvaccenic acids, which is an bigger var. of the grass is equat-ed withCoix giganteaKoenig ex Roxb.,also known as Gavedhukaa and The temperate Himalayasfrom Kashmir to Chamba. Majorsupplies of the drug are receivedfrom Hermodactyls, Colchicum,Meadow Saffron, Golden Collyrium(Indian substitute). (C. luteumisa good substitute forC. autumnaleL. which is official in the )Ayurvedic Suranjaan Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, anti-gout (relievesinflammation and pain of acute goutbut does not increase expulsionof uric acid, is used with analkaline diuretic), emetic, , antiphlogistic,inhibitor of mitosis. Highly for external application tolessen inflammation and application In acute goutattack. (German Commission E.)The fresh corms and aerial parts ofa sample from Jammu yielded . %and % of total alkaloids, the ma-jor being colchicine . % and . %respectively. Colchicine analogs decteyl thiocolchicine (DTC), decetyl-methylcolchicine (DMC) and tri-methylcolchicinic acid (TMCA) wereeffective in the treatment of gout; DTCmay elicit binds to tubulin, the pro-tein subunit of microtubules. Its mostimportant biological effect is the in-hibition of processes that depend up-on microtubule function by blockingC166Coleus In preventing micro-tubule formation, colchicine has beenshown to inhibit catecholamine se-cretion from adrenal medulla, iodinesecretion from thyroid gland and pro-lactin secretion from pituitary tumourcells. It inhibits stimulated insulinsecretion from isolated perfused use of Colchicum for long peri-odsisnotrecommendedowingtoitstoxici ty in larger doses (even mg ofcolchicinehascauseddeath)anditsde-pres sant action upon central use ofColchicum autum-nalemay cause agranulocytosis, aplas-tic anaemia and peripheral nerve in-flammation. (Sharon M. Herr.)Coleus C. Native to Indian Pattaa (Bengal).Action Leaf used in urinarydiseases, vaginal discharge, colicand dyspepsia. Stimulates thefunction of liver. Also given inepilepsy and other convulsiveaffections, asthma, bronchitis, coldand chronic cough. Bruised leavesare applied to burns; leaf juice tochapped leaf extract has shown regulato-ry influence on calcium oxalate stoneformation in experimental rats. In folkmedicine, leaves are used internally forexpelling kidney stone (the herb is alsoknown as Paashaanbhedi).Homoeopathic medicine, preparedfrom fresh leaves, is used in the affec-tions of urinary organs, especially indifficult urination or in burning painsduring and after aerial parts from Pakistan yieldan essential oil ( . %) which containsthymol ( . %); whereas in Fijiansample of leaves carvacrol and cam-phor are major constituents. Leavescontain a large amount of oxalaceticacid, flavonoid, cirsimaritin and Leaf ml juice.(CCRAS.)Coleus C. The sub-tropical Himalayasof Kumaon and Nepal; cultivated inAndhra Gandira (AchyranthesaquaticaBr. is also equated withGandira). (Doubtful synonym.)Folk Garmar (Gujarat), Root and leaf spasmolytic,antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, experimental amoebiasis of rats,the root powder and ethanolic extractCColocasia esculenta(Linn.) amoebicidal activity againstEntamoeba alcoholic extract of the roots andessential oil from it, were found to in-hibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis inthe mouse and plant produces the labdanediterpenoid, forskolin in its was discovered duringa screening of medicinal plants byCentral Drug Research Institute, Luc-know, India, in . (Planta Medi-ca, , , .) The screeningrevealed the presence of a hypoten-sive and spasmolytic principle, namedcoleonol (later the name was changedto forskolin). The basic mechanismof forskolin is the activation of anenzyme, adenylate cyclase, which in-creases the amount of cyclic adeno-sine monophosphate (cAMP) in intracellular cAMP level ex-hibits following physiological effects: inhibition of platelet activation anddegranulation; inhibition of mast celldegranualation and histamine release;relaxation of the arteries and othersmooth muscles; increased insulin se-cretion; increased thyroid function;increased , in clinical studies, re-duced intraocular pressure when itwas applied to the eyes for treatingglaucoma. It has been shown to bea direct cerebral vasodilator. It hasalso been studied as a possible bron-chodilator (in thetreatment of asthma)and has been shown to effectively re-verse methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in extrinsic Coleus extracts con-taining forskolin ( % in mg) findapplication in weight-loss program-mes. (Michael T. Murray.)Studies on forskolin and some derivatives of the compound indicatethat the natural product is more activethan the analogs prepared from wild var. is known as vettiveroidesK. C. Native to Sri Lanka. Nowunder cultivation in Kerala andTamil Hrivera, Hiruberaka,Ambu, Ambhas, Udaka, Udichya,Jala, Vaari, Toya, Vaalaka, Baalaa,Baalaka, Baala. (Also equated withPavonia odorataWilld.)Siddha/Tamil Iruveli (Kerala).Action Leaves cooling andcarminative, used for indigestion,dyspepsia, dysentery, also for ulcers,bleeding disorders, zeylanicus(Benth.) Cramer (syn-onymPlectranthus zeylanicusBenth.)has been identified as a source of Ayur-vedic drug Hrivera. The juice of stemand leaves, mixed with honey, is pre-scribed for plant afforded abietane typediterpenoides and a esculenta(Linn.) C. Cultivated Taro, Pindaaluka, Chaembu, Arvi, Juice from petiole styptic,rubefacient. Juice of corn used leaves contain flavones, api-genin and luteolin, also leaves are a source of dietaryfibre for diabetics helping in lower-ing post-prandial blood glucose significant increase in total lipids,total cholesterol and triglyceride levelswasobservedinhypercholesterolaemic rats when fed with dried leaf pressed juice of the petioles isused as an astringent and styptic. Allparts of the plant show an acridity. Theacridity is removed by boiling and byaddition of baking the tubers two dihydroxys-terols, besides beta-sitosterol and stig-masterol, have been isolated. Five nov-el aliphatic compounds have been re-ported. Trypsin inhibitors are isolatedfrom the total amino acids recorded inthetubers range from to mg/ low. Besides starch, the tuberscontain natural polysaccharides with % neutral sugars and % anioniccomponents. Steamed corms contain % starch and % Throughout India in Kanchata, Karnamorata, Kanavazhai, Kenaa (vegetable) (Maharash-tra).Action Emollient, demulcent,laxative, diuretic, rhizomes are starchy and plant containsn-octacosanol,n-triacontanol,n-d otriacontanol. stig-masterol, beta-sitosterol and Throughout Kanchata (var.).Folk Kenaa (vegetable) (Maharash-tra).Action Antidermatosis. The plantis used as a blood diffusaBurm f;C. palu-dosaBlumesynonymC. andC. salicifoliaRoxb. are relat-ed species of Kanchata and are knownas Kenaa (Burseraceae).Refer to Balsamodendron Umbelliferae; North temperate Spotted Hemlock, Khardmaanaa, Sedative, anodyne,antispasmodic. Used for relief inwhooping cough, asthma; paralysis;epilepsy. Antidote to strichninepoisoning and other poisons of thesame class. Highly toxic. Mothertincture of Hemlock is used inhomoeopathy for prevention ofimmature parts of the plant contain alka-loids highest in aerial parts ( . %)and lowest in stems. Gamma-conice-ine is the principal alkaloid in theleaves, whereas N-methylconiine is themajoralkaloid in mature fruits. Besidethe alkaloids, a flavone glycoside, dios-min and chlorogenic acid have been re-ported in the leaves and seeds yield coumarins, bergaptenand xanthotoxin. Experimentally, theplant exhibited teratogenic properties.(Rarely used today.)Berries are toxic at g, leaves at g and coniine at mg. (FrancisBrinker.)Convolvulus Throughout India, up to , m in the Deer s Bhadrabalaa, Hirankhuri, Plant cooling, anticonvul-sant. Root extract hypotensive in cats;raises coronary rate. Alkaloids hy-potensive, without vasodilation. EtOHextract anticonvulsant in rats. Aque-ous extract exhibited muscarinic andmicotinic dried rhizome contains . %resin. The cathartic action of theresinous substance is about one thirdof that of jalap (Ipomoea purgaHayne) parts of the plant contain beta-Me-esculetin; aerial partsn-alkanes,n-alkanols, alpha-amyrin and sterols;roots gave C. Throughout India,ascending to , m in Shankhapushpi,Shankhaahvaa, Kshirapushpi,Maangalya Kusuma (white-flowered). Blue-flowered var.,Vishnukraanti, Vishnukraantaa,Vishnugandhi is equated withEvolvulus Sankhaahuli (blue-flowered)C170Convolvulus Sivakraandi (white-flowered), Vishnukraandi (blue-flowered).Action Plant brain tonic, tran-quilizer used in nervine disorders,mental aberration, anxiety neu-rosis, internal haemorrhages,spermatorrhoea. Also astringent,antidysenteric, antispasmodic,antiphlogistic, febrifuge, styptic, used for uterinebleeding. Leaf antiasthmatic,used in chronic bronchitis. Root used in gastric and duodenal ulcers,uterine affections and for Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndiarecommends the plant for epilep-sy. The plant contains alcoholic ( %) extract of theplant, when administered to rats(through gastric intubation at differ-ent intervals), has shown enhancedneuropeptide synthesis of the induces an increase in brain pro-tein content and increases alsinoidescontains pen-tatriacontane, triacontane and Syrup (a compoundcontainingC. pluricaulis, Centella asi-atica, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nepetahindostana, Nepeta ellipticaandOnos-ma bracteatum), when administeredwith phenytoin, a modern antiepilep-tic drug, reduced not only antiepilepticactivity of phenytoin but also loweredplasma phenytoin Whole plant gpowder. (APIVol. III.)Convolvulus A native to the Mediter-ranean Resin from rhizomes hy-dragogue, Cathartic, administeredin dropsy and of the resin available in Indiais imported from Syria and Asia Minorand is grossly roots contain on an average %resin together with dihydroxy cinnam-ic acid, beta-methyl-esculetin, ipu-ranol, surcose, a reducing sugar andstarch. The resin consists of the glyco-sides and methylpentosides of jalapi-nolic acid and its methyl doses cause acute gastro-in-testinal irritation, and, if absorbed,produce cystitis and Mishmi Hills in ArunachalPradesh. Cultivated commerciallyin Mamira, Maamiraa,Tiktamuulaa. (Pita-muulikaaand Hem-tantu are provisionalsynonyms.)Unani Maamisaa, Titaa (Bengal and Assam).Action Stomachic, antiperiodic,antibacterial, antifungal. PrescribedCCorchorus debility, convalescence, intermit-tent fevers, dyspepsia, dysenteryand intestinal catarrh. Used asa local application in rhizomes contains berberine( %) as the major alkaloid; other alka-loids present are: coptin ( . %), cop-tisin . %) and jatrorrhizine ( . %).Samples from China contained . . % berberine, . . % coptisinand . . % jatrorrhizine. In Chi-na, the herb is used as an antidiabetic;the ethanolic ( %) extract exhibitedhypoglycaemic and hypotensive drug due to berberine and itsrelated alkaloids promoted reticuloen-dothelium to increased phagocytosis ofleucocytes in dog bloodin chinensis(Huang Lian) inhib-ited erythrocyte haemolysis, decreasedlipid peroxidation in brain and kid-ney, decreased generation of super-oxide peroxidation and decreased hy-droxyl radicals in rats. (Life Sci, , ( ), .)Dosage Root g powder.(CCRAS.)Corallocarpus epigaeusBenth. ex Hook. Punjab, Uttar Pradesh,Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh and Shukanaasaa, Nahikaa,Katunaahi, Paataala-garudaa.(Cocculus hirsutusis used asPaataala-garudi).Siddha/Tamil Kollankovai, Laxative. Root used duringlater stages of dysentery and chronicmucous enteritis; also in syphiliticrheumatism. The herb shows noapparent effect on acute root contains a bitter principleallied to C. Throughout the warmerparts of India, as a White Jute. (Tossa Jute isequated withC. olitoriusLinn.).Ayurvedic Chunchu, Chanchu,Chinchaa. (bigger var. is equatedwithC. olitorius; smallar var. withC. capsularis.)Folk Chench shaaka, Titapat(Bengal).Action Seeds and aerial parts stomachic, anti-inflammatory. Usedin seeds contain cardenolides,beta-sitosterol, ceryl alcohol, oligosac-charides. The aerial parts containtriterpenoidal glycosides corchoru-sins. Corchorusins have similar struc-tural similarity with saikosaponins(isolated so far fromBupleurumsp. ofJapan, China and Korea) and someof them exhibit antiviral, anti-inflam-C172Corchorus and plasma-cholesterol lower-ing alcoholic extract of the entireplant was found to have anticancer ac-tivity against epidermal carcinoma ofnasopharynx in tissue culture. Alco-holic extract and glycosides of seedsexhibit cardiotonic activity. Digitox-ose containing glycosides are reportedto be present olitoriusLinn. is known as Jew sMallow (Pattaa Shaaka or Patuaa Shaa-ka).Corchorosid A, reported from theplant, improved cardiac leaf extracts may be used asmoisturizers in skin cosmetics. Theextracts consist of uronic acid contain-ing muco-polysaccharide, Ca, K andP, among others, which act as Throughout warmer partsof India; extensively cultivated inWest White Kaala Naadi shaaka, (Bengal).Action Leaves stomachic,carminative, diuretic, antidysenteric(dried leaves). Seeds contain cardiac include two monosides, helveti-coside and corchoroside A and two po-lar glycosides, erysimoside and olitori-side. Leaves contain beta-sitosterol-glucoside. Corchoroside A exhibitedcardiotonic aqueous/alcoholic extracts,containing polysaccharides, may beused in preparations of skin cosmeticsor hair preparations for their moistur-izing Throughout warmer partsof Chanchuka, Chanchu shaaka, Astringent, spasmolytic,restorative, Seeds yield cardeno-lides including trilocularin. The glyco-sides of the plant were found to be de-void of any effect of its own on smoothmuscle of guinea pig ileum, but pro-ducedspasmolyticeffectagainstacetyl- choline, histamineandbradykinin. Di-rect action of the drug was observedon rabbit intestines. Slight cardiac de-pressant effect was found on isolatedamphibian heart depressus(L.) Christen-sen, found in drier parts of North In-dia, is known as Bhauphali (Delhi).The Plant is used as a cooling medi-cinein fevers; itsmucilageisprescribedin gonorrhoea, also for increasing theviscosity of seminal fluid. An extractCCordia wallichiiG. the plant is applied as a paste plant contains alpha-amyrinderivatives, together with apigenin,luteolin, sitosterol and its of quercetin and plant exhibits antimicrobial andantipyretic myxaRoxb. non C. dichotomaForst. Throughout India, wildand often Sabestan Shleshmaataka, Shelu,Bahuvaara, Bahuvaaraka, Bhutvrk-shak, Uddaalaka Shita, Picchila, Sapistaan, Fruit astringent, de-mulcent, expectorant, diuretic,anthelmintic, mucilaginous. Usedin the diseases of the chest andurinary passage. Bark used indyspepsia and fevers. Kernels externally applied to decoction used in cough ,P ,Zn ,Fe , Mn , Cr . and Cu . mg/ g(Chromium is of therapeutic value indiabetes).Antinutritional factors are phyticacid , phytate phosphorus andoxalic acid mg/ seeds contain alpha-amyrin andtaxifolin- , -dirhamnoside, whichshowed significant anti-inflammatoryactivity. EtOH ( %) of leaves andstems antimicrobial; aerial parts diuretic and rothiiRoem. & Rajasthan, Gujarat, Deccanand Sebestan (smaller var.)Ayurvedic Laghu-shleshmaataka, SeeC. astringent; decoction is usedas a wallichiiG. C. Gujarat, North Kanara Sebestan (bigger var.).Ayurvedic Shleshmaataka(bigger var.), Uddaalaka, Fruit astringent, demul-cent, Umbelliferae; Cultivated chiefly inMadhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, TamilNadu, Karnataka and Dhaanyaka, Kustum-buru,Dhaanyeyaka,Dhanika,Dhanikaa , Dhaanaa, Dhaanya,Dhaniyaa, Kunati, Chhatraa, Stimulant, stomachic,carminative, antispasmodic, di-uretic; also hypoglycaemic andanti-inflammatory. Oil bacterici-dal and larvicidal. Used in Chinaas a remedy for measles, diabetes,aerophagy and application In dyspepticcomplaints, loss of appetite.(German Commission E, BritishHerbal Pharmacopoeia, IndianHerbal Pharmacopoeia.)Coriander contains . % volatileoil, consisting mainly of delta-linalool( %), alpha-pinene and also contains flavonoids, coumarins,phthalides and phenolic acids (includ-ing caffeic and chlorogenic).Aqueous extract of the roasted seedscontains large amounts of acetylcho-lineanditsprecursorcholine. (Cholineis found useful in preventing and cur-ing certain liver disorders.) The extractshows cholinomimetic effects , an antiviral agent, hasbeen synthesized from the aerial plant forms an ingredient of a Pak-istani herbal drug (Intellan) which isconsidered to be a Unani medicine, an infusion offruits is also used in bleeding piles,neuralgia, cephalalgia and Fruit g powder. (APIVol. I.)Corydalis The West Himalayas, fromKashmir to Bhootakeshi (a doubt-ful substitute for Bhootajataa,Nardostachys jatamansiDC.)Species ofSelinumare also used Sedative, spasmolytic,hypotensive, nervine, in cutaneous and scrofulousaffections, chronic fever and roots contain phthalide iso-quinoline alkaloids. In addition, stemsand leaves contain related species,C. solida,indige-nous to Siberia, northern China andJapan, contains alkaloids includingcorydalmine, tetrahydropalmatine,protoberberine-type alkaloid alkaloids are analgesic and sedativeand have been shown to work, at leastin part, by blocking the dopamine re-ceptors in the central nervous powdered rhizome ofCorydalispossesses one-hundredth of the anal-gesic potency of Native to Europe andWestern Asia; common in gardenson hill-station in European Hazel, Funduq, Kernel nutritive, astrin-gent; used as an anabolic tonicand in sexual debility in Unanimedicine. The oil is used to reducecholesterol and as an kernel of the European HazelNut contains protein . %, carbohy-drate . %, fat . % and phosphorus . %. The fatty acid components ofthe kernel oil are : oleic . %, linoleic . %, palmitic . %, stearic . % andmyristic . %.Thestembarkcontainsabiologicallyactive cyanidanol Turkish Hazel Nuts are rich inmono and polysaturated fatty acids oleic % and linoleic %; also Turkish Hazel Nuts are import-ed into India during the winter Western temperateHimalayas from Kashmir toKumaon; common in Turkish Virin (Kashmir). Thangi,Urni (Punjab). Kapaasi, BhotiaaBadaam (Kumaon).Action A mixture of flavonoids,isolated from the leaves, has shownpotent antiperoxidative and oxygenradical scavenging properties. Itexhibits very low toxicity and canbe used as an alternative to the toxicsynthetic antioxidants used for thetreatment of free radical-mediatedinjuries. See alsoC. Hazel, occurring in cen-tral and eastern Himalayas, locallyknown as Curri and Langura, is equat-ed withCorylus South India, particularlyin Western False Pitachandana, Pitasaara,Harichandana, Kaaliyaka, Maramanjal, Root stomachic, diuretic,hypotensive, antidysenteric, an-tibacterial, antifungal, bitter tonicin dyspepsia and alkaloids including berberineC176Costus speciosus(Koenig) Sm. . %andjatorrhizine. Stemscontainceryl palmitic acid and oleic plant is also used against frac-tures; for dressing wounds and ulcersand in cutaneous stems are used in South India asa substitute for Berberis (Daaruhari-draa); alsoasanIndiansubstitutefor True Calumba (Jateorhiza palmataMiers).Dosage Root g powder;decoction ml. (CCRAS.)Costus speciosus(Koenig) Assam, North Bengal,Khasi and Jaintia Hills, subHimalayan tracts of Uttar Pradeshand Himachal Pradesh and Canereed, Wild Kebuka, Krrauvam, MalaiVasambu, Ven Astringent, purgative,depurative, anti-inflammatory(used in gout, rheumatism; bron-chitis, asthma, catarrhal fevers,dysuria), anthelmintic, antivermin,maggoticide, rhizomes contain saponins dioscin, gracillin and beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside. The alkaloids showpapaverine-like smooth-muscle-re-laxant activity, cardiotonic activity likethat of digitalis and antispasmodic,CNS-depressant, diuretic and hydro-choleretic activities. Saponins showsignificant anti-inflammatory and an-tiarthritic seeds also contain saponins andexhibit potent and sustained hypoten-sive and bradycardiac activities in dogswith low toxicity and without anyhaemolytic activity; also weak spas-molytic activity on isolated parts of the plant yield steroidalsapogenin, diogenin (quantity variesfrom . to %).(Not to be confused with KushthaofIndian medicine,Saussurea lappa.)Crataegus The Himalayas fromSutluj to Bhutan at altitudes of , SeeCratageus British and Europeanhedge plant, met with in thetemperate Himalayas of Kashmirand Himachal Pradesh at an altitudeof , , m. (The plant doesnot thrive in the plains of India.)English English Ring, Ringo, Pingyat, Phindak,Ban Sanjli (Punjab hills).CCressa Coronary vasodilator(strengthens heart muscle withoutincreasing the beat in coronaryarteries), antispasmodic, antihyper-tensive, sedative to nervous system, application In cases ofcardiac insufficiency Stage II asdefined by NYHA (New York HeartAssociation). An improvement ofsubjective findings as well as anincrease in cardiac work tolerance,a decrease in pressure/heart rateproduct, an increase in the ejectionfraction and a rise in the anaerobicthreshold have been established inhuman pharmacological studies.(German Commission E, WHO.)The active principles include oligo-meric procyanidins and drug is official inHomoeopathicPharmacopoeia of in low blood pres-sure, chest pain, bleeding herb may interfere with therapeu-tic effect of cardiac drugs. (Sharon ) Preparations based on hydroal-coholic extracts ofCrataegus monogy-naorC. laevigataare used as Hawthornin the Western C. magna(Lour.) Wild as well as cultivatedin gardens all over Varuna, Varana, Barnaa,Setu, Ashmarighna, Kumaarak, Bark diuretic (findsapplication in urinary disorders,including urolithiasis, prostatichypertrophy, neurogenic bladderand urinary infections; uterine andgastro-intestinal problems). Juiceof the bark is given to women afterchildbirth. Extract of root bark,mixed with honey, is applied toscrofulous enlargements of plant powder cholinergicin smooth muscles includingurinary application As antiurolithiatic.(Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The antiurolithic activity of thestem-bark is attributed to the presenceof lupeol. Lupeol not only preventedthe formation of vesical calculi, butalso reduced the size of the preformedstones in the kidneys of calculogenicrats. It also reversed the biochemicalparameters in urine, blood and serumtowards stem bark also exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, and is reportedtostimulatebilesecretion,appetit eandbowel Stem bark g fordecoction. (APIVol. I.)Cressa Costal regions of Rudanti, Rudantikaa, Uppu Expectorant, stomachic,antibilious, , powdered whole plantgaven-octacosanol, scopoletin, um-belliferone, isopimpinellin, beta-sitos-terol and its D(+)-glucoside and Wild as well as cultivatedas an St. John s Lily, Poison Naagadamani, Naa-gapatra, Sudarshana (var.). , is equated Bulb laxative (a substitutefor ipecacuanha), expectorant. Usedin biliousness, and in stranguryand other urinary affections. Alsoused for the treatment of burns,whitlow and carbuncle. Freshroot diaphoretic, emetic. Leaves expectorant; externally, anti-inflammatory (used in skin diseasesand for reducing inflammations).Seed emmenagogue, bark gave sterols and triter-penoids. Seeds contain alkaloids lycorine, crinamine and Wild as well as cultivatedas an Wide-leaved Sudarshana, Sukhadar-shana, Chakraangi, Somvalli, Bulb rubefacient, an-tirheumatic. Also used for piles andtubercular alkaloids, crinafoline and crina-folidine, have been isolated from theplant. These along with crinafolinemethochloride exhibited significanttumour-inhibiting activityin extract in also used in allergiccondition. This activity is attributedto the presence of glucan A and related species,C. zeylanicum,isknown as Milk-and-Wine Leaf, root g paste.(CCRAS.)Crocus Cultivated in Kashmir upto , m and in Chaubattia inUttar Saffron, Kumkuma, Rudhira,Vadrika, Kaashmira, Kaashmiraka,Vaalhika, Agnishikhaa, Ghrusrrn,Rakta, Kshataja. Keshara (usuallyKeshara indicates Naagakeshara,Mesua ferreaLinn.)Unani Kumgumappoo(dried stigma).Action Stigma and style nervinetonic, sedative, antispasmodic ex-pectorant (in dry cough, whoopingcough, bronchitis), stomachic,diaphoretic, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of In-diaindicated the use of the stigma andstyle in migraine, chronic sinusitis, andin urinary obstruction, inflammationof the urinary saffron is used in Chinesemedicine for melancholia, depression,shock and menstrual contains a volatile oil com-posedofterpenes, terpenealcoholsandesters. The herb also contains crocin,picrocrocin, crocetin, carotenoids andriboflavin and evidence suggests thatcrocetin may improved atherosclero-sis by increasing plasma oxygen dif-fusion and decreasing chol

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