1A Total Boiler SystemReprinted with permission from Nalco purpose of a boiler is to produce steam for heating, for plant processes, and for drivingturbines that produce electricity. While boiler systems vary in shape and size, they typicallyconsist of the Boiler and its support systems: Pretreatment, Condensate, and care and control will keep boiler systems operating at peak performance. Commonproblems to avoid are Impurities, Carryover, Corrosion, and Deposits. Find out more aboutNalco total system approach to boiler treatment Boiler TreatmentBillions of pounds of steam are generated each day worldwide using boiler treatmentprograms. Proper water treatment can provide a measurable return on your investmentwith savings in fuel, water, chemicals and boiler treatment reduces utility costs extends the life of boilers improves boiler efficiency cuts downtime lowers maintenance costsNalco addresses water conditions related to hardness, oxygen, silica, iron and more. Inlow pressure boilers internal treatment may be the only treatment necessary becausemuch of the condensate is returned and the raw water is of good quality. Moderate andhigh pressure boilers require both external pretreatment and internal treatment. Depositcontrol is critical in preventing costly boiler tube failures or wasted of Nalco programs such as TRANSPORT PLUS include: boiler cleanliness for optimized heat transfer, lower fuel bills, and fewer tubefailures lower corrosivity for increased boiler reliability and fewer unplanned shutdownsdue to corrosion superior passivation to further protect feedwater and boiler surfaces fromcorrosion and unnecessary repair costs low solids contribution which allows higher cycles and results in less water, Btu'sand chemical blown down the drain ease in feeding and control to help assure optimum resultsTo further optimize your system, learn more about Nalco s treatment feed, monitoringand control:When is internal treatment of boiler feedwater necessary?Chemical treatment of water inside the boiler is essential whether or not the water hasbeen pretreated. Internal treatment, therefore, compliments external treatment bytaking care of any impurities entering the boiler with the feedwater (hardness, oxygen,silica, iron regardless of whether the quantity is large or some cases external treatment of the water supply is not necessary and the watercan be treated by internal methods alone. Internal treatment can constitute the soletreatment when boilers operate at low pressure, much of the condensate is returnedand the raw water is of good quality. However, in moderate and high pressure boilers,external pretreatment of the make-up water is mandatory for good results. With today'shigher heat transfer rates, even a small deposit can cause tube failures or wasted should a good internal water treatment program accomplish?The purposes of an internal treatment program include: to react with incoming feedwater hardness and prevent it from precipitating onthe boiler metal as scale to condition any suspended matter such as hardness sludge in the boiler andmake it nonadherent to the boiler metal to control the causes of boiler water carryover to eliminate oxygen from the feedwater to provide enough alkalinity to prevent boiler corrosionIn addition, a complete treatment program should prevent corrosion and scaling of thefeedwater system and protect against corrosion in the steam-condensate chemicals are used in internal treatment?Today's modern powerhouse uses a wide variety of internal treatment had been the main scale conditioning chemical until development ofchelate and polymer type chemicals. Chelant programs offer superior cleanliness overphosphate programs, however, one weakness is the potential for corrosion if treatment, Nalco Transport Plus, offers cleanliness similar to chelates with lesspotential for boiler corrosion. All internal treatment, whether phosphate, chelant orpolymer, condition the calcium and magnesium in the feedwater. Chelates andpolymers form soluble complexes with the hardness, whereas phosphates precipitatethe conditioners (natural organic materials and synthetic polymers) aid in theconditioning of precipitated hardness. These materials must be effective and stable atboiler operating pressures. Certain synthetic organic materials are antifoam feedwater oxygen scavenging, the chemicals used are sodium sulfite, Nalco SUR-GARD or ELIMIN-OX . Volatile neutralizing amines or filming inhibitors protectcondensate are internal treatment chemicals fed?Common feed methods include the use of chemical solution tanks and proportioningpumps. In general, boiler treatment chemicals (polymers, phosphates, chelate, caustic)are added directly to the feedwater at a point after deaeration but before the entrance tothe boiler drum. Certain phosphates (ortho-type) should be fed into the steam drum ofthe boiler. The chemicals should discharge in the feedwater section of the boilersystem so that reactions occur in the water before it enters the steam generating added to react with dissolved oxygen (sulfite, SUR-GARD , ELIMIN-OX )should be fed continuously into the deaerator neck or below the waterline in thedeaerator storage section. Similarly, chemicals used to prevent scale and corrosion inthe feedwater system (caustic, organics) should be fed continuously. Chemicals usedto prevent condensate system corrosion may be fed directly to the steam, feedwater orboiler, depending on the chemical used. Continuous feeding is always preferred, butintermittent application may suffice in some are chemical dosages controlled?An operator can make manual adjustments based upon routine test results, however,automatic chemical control is preferable. Nalco automated control systems provide areliable method for controlling the chemical treatment takes many forms: chemical addition may be proportioned to feed flow specific ion sensors, interfaced with a computer, can identify the proper treatmentchange and make adjustments a tracer can be used to maintain a product level at a set point or it can beinterfaced with a computer to respond to a dynamic parameter4Proper proportioning and feeding of chemicals is needed to ensure the recommendedamount of treatment is maintained continuously. Automated control systems, such asNalco TRASAR Technology, are becoming more prevalent. Conductivity-basedsystems for blowing down boiler water to reduce the level of suspended solids anddissolved solids are also pretreatment system prepares the raw water (or make-up water) before it goes tothe boiler. It could involve several pretreatment steps, all acting to reduce the dissolvedand suspended solids from the water. Chemical treatment helps you avoid unwantedimpurities. Lime-soda softening Precipitation chemicals are added to react withdissolved minerals and form heavy suspended particles. Filtration Removes such impurities as silt, clay and some organic materials. Ion Exchange Removes dissolved solids by passing the water throughnatural or synthetic resins. The Nalco Resin Rinse program has been proven tocontrol resin fouling and reduce operating costs. (Sodium zeolite softening,Dealkalization and Demineralization are ion exchange processes). Reverse Osmosis(RO) RO utilizes a "cross-flow filtration" method that hasthree streams (feed, permeate and concentrate). This method uses apressurized feed stream that flows parallel to the membrane surface. Nearlypure water passes through the membrane, which is the permeate, leaving behindthe ions and solids in the concentrate. Since there is a continuous flow acrossthe membrane surface, the rejected particles do not accumulate and plug themembrane, but instead are swept away by the concentrate stream. PermaCare International Previously part of the Aquazur Group, PermaCareInternational is now a group in the New Nalco, focused on reverse osmosis (R/O)membrane treatment chemicals. With over 20 years practical experience inmembrane technology throughout the world, PermaCare satisfies customerneeds through an extensive range of products and technical services designed toimprove the performance of membrane separation systems. The productsinclude scale inhibitors, cleaners, and biocides marketed under the trade namesPermaTreat and PermaClean .Condensate TreatmentSteam that has been used in various plant processes condenses and is returned to theboiler. Condensate is another component of feedwater, along with make-up water fromthe pretreatment area of the system. The danger of contamination by plant processmaterials is very great. Some contaminants include oil, chemicals, gases, the condensate system is not properly protected, corrosion can result and lead toleaks and possible shutdown. As corrosion takes place, iron and copper compounds5are washed back into the boiler systems and can plug up deareators and form depositsin the economizer and the proper treatment, you can prevent a decrease in boiler efficiency, and theoverheating and rupture of condensate corrosion inhibitors provide exceptional corrosion protection: increasing equipment life enhancing system reliability minimizing repair and maintenance costsWhat causes corrosion in steam condensate systems?Carbon dioxide and oxygen cause most condensate system corrosion. Carbon dioxide,dissolved in condensed steam, forms corrosive carbonic acid. If oxygen is present withcarbon dioxide, the corrosion rate is much higher and is likely to produce localizedpitting. Ammonia, in combination with oxygen, attacks copper is steam condensate corrosion prevented?The general approach involves removing oxygen from the feedwater mechanically andchemically and providing pretreatment of the make-up water to minimize potentialcarbon dioxide formation in the boiler. Chemical treatment reduces corrosion potentialfurther. Volatile amines neutralize carbonic acid formed when carbon dioxide dissolvesin condensate. Volatile filming inhibitors form a barrier between the metal and thecorrosive do chemical oxygen scavengers help control condensate system corrosion?Deaerators (and feedwater heaters) remove oxygen mechanically. The best-designedand operated deaerators can reduce oxygen to as low as ppm. Since very smallamounts of oxygen can cause corrosion, complete oxygen removal often requireschemical treatment. Sodium sulfite, Nalco ELIMIN-OX and SUR-GARD arechemicals commonly used for this purpose. Catalyzed sodium sulfite can reduceoxygen content of water (at room temperature) from the saturation point to zero in lessthan 30 seconds. Without a catalyst, it takes up to 10 minutes under the sameconditions to reduce the oxygen content by only 30%. Oxygen should be removedbefore the water enters the boiler. Once in the boiler, oxygen leaves with the steam andcauses corrosion problems in the condensate is the basis for choosing between neutralizing and filming inhibitors?The proper choice depends on the boiler system, plant layout, operating conditions andfeedwater composition. In general, volatile amines are best suited to systems with lowmake-up, low feedwater alkalinity and good oxygen control. Filming inhibitors usuallygive more economical protection in systems with high make-up, air in-leakage, highfeedwater alkalinity or intermittent operation. In most cases, a combination of thesetreatments may be the best to combat condensate characteristics should a good condensate corrosion inhibitor have?A good volatile neutralizing amine should have a favorable distribution ratio in steamand condensate so that it protects the entire steam-condensate system. It should haveno insoluble reaction products and should be stable at high temperatures andpressures. A good filming inhibitor should be easy to disperse in water. It should bestable under usage conditions and form a thin, protective film without causing depositsin either the boiler or steam-condensate FeedwaterA boiler's efficiency is directly related to the quality of its feedwater. The feedwatersystem refers to deaerator, feedwater pumps, and the piping to the water enters the boiler, oxygen must be removed or corrosion can occurthroughout the boiler system, forming pits that eat away at the metal. Resulting leakscould lead to a blown boiler tube and ultimately could cause a power plant SUR-GARD is an oxygen scavenger that works rapidly, effectively and safely topassivate deaerators, feedwater systems and boilers. It also reduces feedwater ironlevels and insulating iron deposits on boiler tubes to help minimize fuel ELIMIN-OX has also been used worldwide to eliminate the problems caused byoxygen in boiler is boiler feedwater?Feedwater is water added to a boiler to replace evaporation and blowdown. In manycases, condensed steam returned to the boiler through the condensate systemconstitutes much of the feedwater. Make-up is any water needed to supplement thereturned condensate. The make-up water is usually natural water, either in its raw stateor treated by some process before use. Feedwater composition therefore depends onthe quality of the make-up water and the amount of condensate pure must feedwater be?Feedwater purity is a matter both of quantity of impurities and nature of impurities such as hardness, iron and silica, for example, are of more concernthan sodium salts. Feedwater purity requirements depend on boiler pressure, designand application. Feedwater purity requirements can vary widely. Low pressure, firetubeboilers require less stringent feedwater control than modern high pressure impurities form deposits?Dissolved bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium break down under heat to give offcarbon dioxide and form insoluble carbonates. These carbonates may precipitatedirectly on the boiler metal or form sludge in the boiler water that may deposit on boilersurfaces. Calcium sulfate, upon heating, becomes less soluble. Sulfate and silicagenerally precipitate directly on the boiler metal and ordinarily do not form sludge. Forthis reason they are much harder to condition and may cause more is usually not present in very large quantities in water, but under certain conditionsit can form an exceedingly hard scale. Suspended or dissolved iron coming in with thefeedwater will also deposit on the boiler metal. Oil and other process contaminants canform deposits as well as promote deposition of other impurities. Sodium compounds donot deposit under normal circumstances. Sodium deposits can form under unusualcircumstances: in a starved tube, a stable steam blanket or under existing Impuritites from Boiler WaterWhat is clarification?Clarification is the removal of suspended matter and color from water supplies. Thesuspended matter may consist of large particles that settle out readily. In these cases,clarification equipment merely involves the use of settling basins or filters. Most often,suspended matter in water consists of particles so small that they do not settle out, butinstead pass through filters. The removal of these finely divided or colloidal substancestherefore requires the use of is coagulation? What is flocculation?Coagulation is charge neutralization of finely divided or colloidal impurities. Colloidalparticles have large surface areas that keep them in suspension. In addition, theparticles have negative electrical charges, which cause them to repel each other andresist adhering together. Coagulation requires neutralization of the negative charges,providing an agglomeration point for other suspended particles. Flocculation is thebridging together of the coagulated is chemical precipitation?In precipitation processes, the chemicals added react with dissolved minerals in thewater to produce a relatively insoluble reaction product. Precipitation methods reducedissolved hardness, alkalinity and, in some cases, silica. The most common example ofchemical precipitation in water treatment is lime-soda ExchangeWhat is ion exchange?When minerals dissolve in water, they form electrically charged particles called bicarbonate, for example, forms a calcium ion with positive charges (a cation)and a bicarbonate ion with negative charges (an anion).Certain natural and synthetic materials have the ability to remove mineral ions fromwater in exchange for others. For example, calcium and magnesium ions can beexchanged for sodium ions by simply passing water through a cation are the various types of ion exchange resins?There are two types of ion exchange resins: cation and anion. Cation exchange resinsreact only with positively charged ions such as Ca+2 and Mg+2. Anion exchange resinsreact only with the negatively charged ions such as bicarbonate (HCO3-) and sulfate(SO4-2).Although there are several types of cation exchange resins, they usually operate oneither a sodium or hydrogen "cycle". A "sodium cycle" exchanger replaces cations withsodium; a "hydrogen cycle" exchanger replaces cations with two types of anion resins are: weak base and strong base. Weak base resins willnot take out carbon dioxide or silica (actually carbonic acid and siliceous acid), butremove strong acid anions by a process that is more like adsorption than ion base anion resins, on the other hand, can reduce silica and carbon dioxide aswell as strong acid anions to very low values. Strong base anion resins are generallyoperated on a hydroxide cycle. Dealkalization reduces alkalinity through chloride is ion exchange regeneration?Ion exchange resins have only a limited capacity for removing ions from the ion exchange process, regeneration, returns the resin to its originalcondition. Regeneration involves taking the unit off line and treating it with aconcentrated solution of the regenerant. The ion exchange resin releases ionspreviously removed; these ions are rinsed out of the resin vessel. The ion exchangeunit is then ready for further the case of cation exchangers operating on the sodium cycle, salt (NaCl) replenishesthe sodium capacity or acid (H2SO4 or HCl) replenishes the hydrogen capacity. Anionexchangers are regenerated with caustic (NaOH) or ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) toreplenish the hydroxide ions. Salt (NaCl) may be used to regenerate anion resins in thechloride form for is the purpose of deaeration?Before the feedwater enters the boiler, oxygen must be removed. Feedwaterdeaeration removes dissolved oxygen by heating the water with steam in a deaeratingheater or deaerator. A steam vent transports the oxygen out of the are two basic types of steam deaerators: spray and tray. In the spray deaerator,a jet of steam mixes intimately with the feedwater being sprayed into the unit. In thetray type, the incoming water falls over a series of trays, where it is broken into smalldroplets and mixed with the steam. Tray-type deaerators also increase the residencetime in the deaerator is reverse osmosis?To understand reverse osmosis (RO), one must first understand osmosis. Osmosisuses a semi-permeable membrane that allows ions to pass from a more concentratedsolution to a less concentrated solution without allowing the reverse to osmosis overcomes the osmotic pressure with a higher artificial pressure toreverse the process and concentrate the dissolved solids on one side of the operating pressures are 300 to 900 psi. Reverse osmosis will reduce thedissolved solids of the raw water, making the final effluent ready for furtherpretreatment. Although sometimes expensive, this process can be used on any is boiler water carryover?Boiler water carryover is the contamination of steam with boiler water solids. There areseveral common causes of boiler water carryover: Bubbles form on the surface of the boiler water and leave with the steam. Thisfoaming can be compared to the stable foam of soap suds. Spray or mist is thrown up into the steam space by the bursting of rapidly risingbubbles at the steam release surface. This phenomenon is like the effervescence ofchampagne. No stable foam forms, but droplets of liquid burst from the liquid surface. Priming is a sudden surge of boiler water caused by a rapid change in load.(Uncapping a bottle of charged water produces an effect like this.) Steam contamination may also occur from leakage of water through improperlydesigned or installed steam-separating equipment in a boiler causes foaming?Very high concentrations of soluble or insoluble solids in boiler water will causefoaming. Specific substances such as alkalis, oils, fats, greases and certain types oforganic matter and suspended solids cause is corrosion?Stated simply, general corrosion is the reversion of a metal to its ore form. Iron forexample, reverts to iron oxide as a result of corrosion. The process of corrosion,however, is a complex electro-chemical reaction. Corrosion may produce generalattack over a large metal surface or may result in pinpoint penetration of the corrosion in boilers results primarily from the reaction of oxygen with the , pH conditions and chemical corrosion have an important influence andproduce different forms of is corrosion usually experienced?Corrosion may occur in the feedwater system as a result of low pH water and thepresence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide. On-line boiler corrosion occurs whenboiler water alkalinity is too low or too high. When oxygen-bearing water contactsmetal, often during idle periods, corrosion can occur. High temperatures and stresses10in the boiler metal tend to accelerate the corrosive mechanisms. In the steam andcondensate system, corrosion is generally the result of contamination with carbondioxide and oxygen. Additional contaminants such as ammonia or sulfur-bearing gasesmay increase attack on copper alloys in the other materials can cause boiler corrosion?Excessive chelate residuals (in excess of 20 ppm as CaCO3) or improperly appliedchelate programs may produce boiler system corrosion. Concentrating boiler solids at ahigh heat input area might also produce boiler corrosion. To minimize the chance ofcorrosion, follow the recommendations of your Nalco water treatment problems are caused by corrosion?Corrosion causes difficulty from two respects. The first is deterioration of the metal itselfand the second is deposition of the corrosion products in high heat release areas of theboiler. Uniform corrosion of boiler surfaces is seldom of real concern. All boilersexperience a small amount of general corrosion. Corrosion takes many insidious forms,however, and deep pits resulting in only a minimal total iron loss may cause penetrationand leakage in boiler tubes. Corrosion beneath certain types of boiler deposits can soweaken the metal that tube failure may occur. In steam condensate systems,replacement of lines and equipment due to corrosion can be is boiler corrosion measured?With the trend toward higher heat fluxes in today's modern boilers, corrosion hasbecome an important factor in power plant operation. When iron corrodes, hydrogengas, which can be measured in the steam, is released. Measuring the amount ofhydrogen gas released can detect immediate fluctuations in load, boiler waterconditions or fuel changes. This information when interpreted by an experienced, well-trained engineer can indicate if corrosive conditions exist in an operating measures are taken to prevent boiler system corrosion?The most common methods for prevention of corrosion include: Removing dissolved oxygen from the feedwater Maintaining alkaline conditions in the boiler water Keeping internal surfaces clean Protecting boilers during out-of-service intervals Counteracting corrosive gases in steam and condensate systems with chemicaltreatmentThe selection and control of chemicals for preventing corrosion require a thoroughunderstanding of the causes and corrective measures. Your Nalco representativeprovides this ControlWhen is internal treatment of boiler feedwater necessary?Chemical treatment of water inside the boiler is essential whether or not the water hasbeen pretreated. Internal treatment, therefore, compliments external treatment bytaking care of any impurities entering the boiler with the feedwater (hardness, oxygen,silica, iron) regardless of whether the quantity is large or some cases external treatment of the water supply is not necessary and the watercan be treated by internal methods alone. Internal treatment can constitute the soletreatment when boilers operate at low pressure, much of the condensate is returnedand the raw water is of good quality. However, in moderate and high pressure boilers,external pretreatment of the make-up water is mandatory for good results. With today'shigher heat transfer rates, even a small deposit can cause tube failures or wasted should a good internal water treatment program accomplish?The purpose of an internal treatment program is fivefold: To react with incoming feedwater hardness and prevent it from precipitating onthe boiler metal as scale To condition any suspended matter such as hardness sludge in the boiler andmake it nonadherent to the boiler metal To control the causes of boiler water carryover To eliminate oxygen from the feedwater To provide enough alkalinity to prevent boiler corrosionIn addition, a complete treatment program should prevent corrosion and scaling of thefeedwater system and protect against corrosion in the steam-condensate chemicals are used in internal treatment?Today's modern powerhouse uses a wide variety of internal treatment had been the main scale conditioning chemical until development ofchelate and polymer type chemicals. Chelant programs offer superior cleanliness overphosphate programs, however, one weakness is the potential for corrosion if treatment, Nalco Transport Plus, offers cleanliness similar to chelates with lesspotential for boiler corrosion. All internal treatment, whether phosphate, chelant orpolymer, condition the calcium and magnesium in the feedwater. Chelates andpolymers form soluble complexes with the hardness, whereas phosphates precipitatethe conditioners (natural organic materials and synthetic polymers) aid in theconditioning of precipitated hardness. These materials must be effective and stable atboiler operating pressures. Certain synthetic organic materials are antifoam feedwater oxygen scavenging, the chemicals used are sodium sulfite, Nalco SUR-GARD or ELIMIN-OX . Volatile neutralizing amines or filming inhibitors protectcondensate systems.
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1 A Total Boiler System Reprinted with permission from Nalco Chemicals www.nalco.com The purpose of a boiler is to produce steam for heating, for …
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