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COAL INFORMATION 2018 PRELIMINARY EDITION …

6 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY WORLD files (last updated August 2017) • Countries: 172 countries and regional aggregates (see section Geographical coverage);

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COAL INFORMATION 2018 PRELIMINARY EDITION DATABASE DOCUMENTATION 2 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY This documentation provides support information for the IEA Coal Information database. This document can be found online at: Please address your inquiries to Please note that all IEA data is subject to the following Terms and Conditions found on the IEA s website: COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 3 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. CHANGES FROM LAST EDITION ........................................ ....................................... 4 2. DATABASE STRUCTURE ........................................ ........................................ ........... 5 3. FLOW DEFINITIONS ........................................ ........................................ .................... 7 4. PRODUCT DEFINITIONS ........................................ ........................................ ........... 29 5. GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE ........................................ ........................................ .. 33 6. COUNTRY NOTES AND SOURCES ........................................ .................................. 45 7. UNITS AND CONVERSIONS ........................................ ........................................ ..... 63 8. ABBREVIATIONS ........................................ ........................................ ....................... 67 4 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 1. CHANGES FROM LAST EDITION In the current preliminary release only the files for OECD countries are updated. The World file Coal World was published in August 2017 and include data up to 2015 with preliminary supply data for 2016. This file will be updated in August 2018 with the final release which will include the World data up to 2016 and pre-liminary supply data for 2017. Geographical coverage: Mexico became the 30th IEA Member country in February 2018. Accordingly, starting with the 2018 preliminary edition, Mexico now appears in the list of IEA Members and is included in the IEA zone aggregate for data start-ing in 1971 and for the entire time series. Note that in the World file Coal World Supply, which was published in August 2017, Mexico is included in the list of OECD Members but not IEA Members. Brazil became an Association country in October 2017. Please note that in the World file Coal World Supply, which was published in August 2017, Brazil is not included in the list of the IEA and Accession/Association countries COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 5 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 2. DATABASE STRUCTURE The database Coal information contains six files with the following annual data. OECD files (updated April 2018) Countries: 35 OECD countries and 5 regional aggregates (see section Geographical coverage); Years: 1960-2016 (OECD countries and regions unless otherwise specified.); 1978-2016 (OECD Imports and Exports to partner countries) Coal Balance OECD, Coal Balance. (ktoe, ktce, TJ, Tcal) Full balance data for different types of coal and coal products, including manufactured gases. (17 products; 77 flows; 35 countries + 5 aggregates) Coal NCV OECD, Coal Net Calorific Values. (MJ/tonne) The calorific values used to convert physical tonnes of coal and coal products into energy for the OECD Coal Balance data. (13 products + 2 aggregates; 14 flows; 35 countries). The aggregates, hard coal and brown coal, are included for years prior to 1978 only. Coal Statistics OECD, Coal Supply and Consumption with Full OECD 2016 Data. (kt, TJ) Supply and consumption statistics for different types of coal and coal products, including manufactured gases. (17 products + 3 aggregates; 100 flows; 35 countries + 5 aggregates). The aggregates hard coal, brown coal and steam coal are also included. Coal OECD, Exports by Destination. (kt) Detailed coal export data by country of destination for OECD member states. (11 products + 3 aggregates; 96 flows; 35 countries + 5 aggregates) Coal OECD, Imports by Origin. (kt) Detailed coal import data by country of origin for OECD member states. (11 products + 3 aggregates; 76 flows; 35 countries + 5 aggregates) 6 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY WORLD files (last updated August 2017) Countries: 172 countries and regional aggregates (see section Geographical coverage); Years: 1960-2016 (OECD countries and regions unless otherwise specified.); 1978-2015 (OECD Imports and Exports to partner countries) 1971-2015 (non-OECD countries and regions; world unless otherwise specified.); 2016 (provisional energy supply data). Coal World World Coal Supply (kt, TJ) World supply statistics for different types of coal and coal products, including manufactured gases.(17 products + 3 aggregates; 12 flows; 145 countries + 27 aggregates) Differences may exist for OECD countries and aggregates between this file and the updated preliminary files in shared flows, and the interactive specific information (such as country notes or product definitions) provided for each element. This also means that the information provided in this documentation may supersede the interactive information. Final 2016 data in this database will be provided in the full 2018 release. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 7 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 3. FLOW DEFINITIONS OECD, Coal Statistics (kt,TJ): COAL STATISTICS WORLD, World Coal Supply: COAL WORLD Supply Flow Short name Definition Production INDPROD Refers to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced, calculated after any operation for removal of inert matter or impurities ( sulphur from natural gas). For other hydrocarbons (shown with crude oil), production should include synthetic crude oil (including mineral oil extracted from bituminous minerals such as oil shale and tar sands, etc.). Production of secondary oil products represents the gross refinery output. Secondary coal products and gases represent the output from coke ovens, gas works, blast furnaces and other transformation processes. From other sources coal OSCOAL Refers to both primary energy that has not been accounted for under production and secondary energy that has been accounted for in the production of another fuel. For example, under primary coal: recov-ered slurries, middlings, recuperated coal dust and other low-grade coal products that cannot be classified according to type of coal from which they are obtained; under gas works gas: natural gas, refinery gas, and LPG, that are treated or mixed in gas works ( gas works gas produced from sources other than coal). From other sources natural gas OSNATGAS Refers to both primary energy that has not been accounted for under production and secondary energy that has been accounted for in the production of another fuel. From other sources oil products OSOIL Refers to both primary energy that has not been accounted for under production and secondary energy that has been accounted for in the production of another fuel. For example, under additives: benzol, alcohol and methanol produced from natural gas; under refinery feedstocks: backflows from the petrochemical industry used as re-finery feedstocks; under other hydrocarbons (included with crude oil): liquids obtained from coal liquefaction and GTL plants. 8 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Supply Flow Short name Definition From other sources renewables OSRENEW Refers to both primary energy that has not been accounted for under production and secondary energy that has been accounted for in the production of another fuel. From other sources not elsewhere specified OSNONSPEC Refers to both primary energy that has not been accounted for under production and secondary energy that has been accounted for in the production of another fuel. This flow is used if the source is not known. Imports IMPORTS Comprise the amount of fuels obtained from or supplied to other countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union between the relevant countries. Coal in transit should not be included. Exports EXPORTS Comprise the amount of fuels obtained from or supplied to other countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union be-tween the relevant countries. Coal in transit should not be included. International marine bunkers MARBUNK International marine bunkers covers those quantities delivered to ships of all flags that are engaged in international navigation. The international navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways, and in coastal waters. Consumption by ships engaged in domestic navigation is excluded. The domestic/international split is determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not by the flag or nationality of the ship. Consumption by fishing vessels and by military forces is also excluded. See definitions of transport, fishing, and other non-specified. International marine bunkers are excluded from the supply at the country and regional level, but not for world, where they are includ-ed in transport under World marine bunkers. International aviation bunkers AVBUNK Includes deliveries of aviation fuels to aircraft for international avia-tion. Fuels used by airlines for their road vehicles are excluded. The domestic/international split should be determined on the basis of departure and landing locations and not by the nationality of the air-line. For many countries this incorrectly excludes fuel used by do-mestically owned carriers for their international departures. International aviation bunkers are excluded from the supply at the country and regional level, but not for world, where they are includ-ed in transport under World aviation bunkers. Stock changes STOCKCHA Reflects the difference between opening stock levels on the first day of the year and closing levels on the last day of the year of stocks on national territory held by producers, importers, energy transfor-mation industries and large consumers. Oil and gas stock changes in pipelines are not taken into account. With the exception of large us-ers mentioned above, changes in final users' stocks are not taken into account. A stock build is shown as a negative number, and a stock draw as a positive number. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 9 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Supply Flow Short name Definition Domestic supply DOMSUP Domestic supply is defined as production + from other sources + imports - exports - international marine bunkers stock changes. Note, exports, bunkers and stock changes incorporate the algebraic sign directly in the number. Transfers TRANSFER Comprises interproduct transfers, products transferred and recycled products. Interproduct transfers results from reclassification of products either because their specification has changed or because they are blended into another product, kerosene may be reclassified as gasoil after blending with the latter in order to meet its winter diesel specifica-tion. The net balance of interproduct transfers is zero. Products transferred is intended for oil products imported for fur-ther processing in refineries. For example, fuel oil imported for up-grading in a refinery is transferred to the feedstocks category. Recycled products are finished products which pass a second time through the marketing network, after having been once delivered to final consumers ( used lubricants which are reprocessed). Statistical differences STATDIFF Defined as deliveries to final consumption + use for transformation processes + consumption by energy industry own use + losses - do-mestic supply - transfers. Statistical differences arise because the data for the individual components of supply are often derived from different data sources by the national administration. Furthermore, the inclusion of changes in some large consumers' stocks in the sup-ply part of the balance introduces distortions which also contribute to the statistical differences. 10 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Transformation processes Flow Short name Definition Transformation processes TOTTRANF Transformation processes comprise the conversion of primary forms of energy to secondary and further transformation ( coking coal to coke, crude oil to oil products, and fuel oil to electricity). Main activity producer electricity plants MAINELEC Refers to plants which are designed to produce electricity only. If one or more units of the plant is a CHP unit (and the inputs and outputs cannot be distinguished on a unit basis) then the whole plant is designated as a CHP plant. Main activity producers gener-ate electricity and/or heat for sale to third parties, as their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Note that the sale need not take place through the public grid. Autoproducer electricity plants AUTOELEC Refers to plants which are designed to produce electricity only. If one or more units of the plant is a CHP unit (and the inputs and outputs cannot be distinguished on a unit basis) then the whole plant is designated as a CHP plant. Autoproducer undertakings generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Main activity producer CHP plants MAINCHP Refers to plants which are designed to produce both heat and elec-tricity (sometimes referred to as co-generation power stations). If possible, fuel inputs and electricity/heat outputs are on a unit basis rather than on a plant basis. However, if data are not available on a unit basis, the convention for defining a CHP plant noted above should be adopted. Main activity producers generate electricity and/or heat for sale to third parties, as their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Note that the sale need not take place through the public grid. Autoproducer CHP plants AUTOCHP Refers to plants which are designed to produce both heat and elec-tricity (sometimes referred to as co-generation power stations). If possible, fuel inputs and electricity/heat outputs are on a unit basis rather than on a plant basis. However, if data are not available on a unit basis, the convention for defining a CHP plant noted above should be adopted. Note that for autoproducer's CHP plants, all fuel inputs to electricity production are taken into account, while only the part of fuel inputs to heat sold is shown. Fuel inputs for the pro-duction of heat consumed within the autoproducer's establishment are not included here but are included with figures for the final con-sumption of fuels in the appropriate consuming sector. Auto-producer undertakings generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 11 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Transformation processes Flow Short name Definition Main activity producer heat plants MAINHEAT Refers to plants designed to produce heat only and who sell heat to a third party ( residential, commercial or industrial consumers) under the provisions of a contract. Main activity producers generate electricity and/or heat for sale to third parties, as their primary ac-tivity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Note that the sale need not take place through the public grid. Autoproducer heat plants AUTOHEAT Refers to plants designed to produce heat only and who sell heat to a third party ( residential, commercial or industrial consumers) under the provisions of a contract. Autoproducer undertakings gen-erate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be private-ly or publicly owned. Heat pumps THEAT Includes heat produced by heat pumps in transformation. Heat pumps that are operated within the residential sector where the heat is not sold are not considered a transformation process and are not included here the electricity consumption would appear as resi-dential use. Electric boilers TBOILER Includes electric boilers used to produce heat. Chemical heat for electricity production TELE Includes heat from chemical processes that is used to generate electricity. Blast furnaces TBLASTFUR Blast furnaces covers the quantities of fuels used for the production of blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace The production of pig-iron from iron ore in blast furnaces uses fuels for supporting the blast furnace charge and providing heat and carbon for the re-duction of the iron ore. Accounting for the calorific content of the fuels entering the process is a complex matter as transformation (into blast furnace gas) and consumption (heat of combustion) oc-cur simultaneously. Some carbon is also retained in the pig-iron; almost all of this reappears later in the oxygen steel furnace gas (or converter gas) when the pig-iron is converted to steel. In the 1992/1993 annual questionnaires, Member Countries were asked for the first time to report in the transformation processes the quan-tities of all fuels ( pulverised coal injection [PCI] coal, coke oven coke, natural gas and oil) entering blast furnaces and the quantity of blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas pro-duced. The Secretariat then needed to split these inputs into the transformation and consumption components. The transformation component is shown in the row blast furnaces in the column appro-priate for the fuel, and the consumption component is shown in the row iron and steel, in the column appropriate for the fuel. The sec-retariat decided to assume a transformation efficiency such that the carbon input into the blast furnaces should equal the carbon output. This is roughly equivalent to assuming an energy transformation effi-ciency of 40%. Gas works TGASWKS Includes the manufacture of town gas. 12 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Transformation processes Flow Short name Definition Coke ovens TCOKEOVS Includes the manufacture of coke and coke oven gas. Patent fuel plants TPATFUEL Includes the manufacture of patent fuels. BKB/PB plants TBKB Includes the manufacture of BKB and peat briquettes. Oil refineries TREFINER Includes the manufacture of finished oil products. Petrochemical industry TPETCHEM Covers backflows returned from the petrochemical industry. Note that backflows from oil products that are used for non-energy pur-poses ( white spirit and lubricants) are not included here, but in non-energy use. Coal liquefaction plants TCOALLIQ Includes coal, oil and tar sands used to produce synthetic oil. Gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants TGTL Includes natural gas used as feedstock for the conversion to liquids, the quantities of fuel entering the methanol production process for transformation into methanol. For blended natural gas TBLENDGAS Includes other gases for blending with natural gas. Charcoal production plants TCHARCOAL Includes the transformation of solid biofuels into charcoal. Not elsewhere specified (Transformation) TNONSPEC Includes non-specified transformation. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 13 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Energy industry own use and losses Flow Short name Definition Energy industry own use TOTENGY Energy industry own use covers the amount of fuels used by the energy producing industries ( for heating, lighting and operation of all equip-ment used in the extraction process, for traction and for distribution). It includes energy consumed by energy industries for heating, pump-ing, traction and lighting purposes [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 05, 06, 19 and 35, Group 091 and Classes 0892 and 0721]. Coal mines EMINES Represents the energy which is used directly within the coal industry for hard coal and lignite mining. It excludes coal burned in pithead power stations (included under electricity plants in transformation processes) and free allocations to miners and their families (consid-ered as part of household consumption and therefore included under residential). Oil and gas extraction EOILGASEX Represents the energy which is used for oil and gas extraction. Flared gas is not included. Blast furnaces EBLASTFUR Represents the energy which is used in blast furnaces. Gas works EGASWKS Represents the energy which is used in gas works. Gasification plants for biogas EBIOGAS Represents own consumption of biogas necessary to support tempera-tures needed for anaerobic fermentation. Coke ovens ECOKEOVS Represents the energy used in coke ovens. Patent fuel plants EPATFUEL Represents the energy used in patent fuel plants. BKB/PB plants EBKB Represents the energy used in BKB and peat briquette plants. Oil refineries EREFINER Represents the energy used in oil refineries. Coal liquefaction plants ECOALLIQ Represents the energy used in coal liquefaction plants. Liquefaction (LNG) / regasification plants ELNG Represents the energy used in LNG and regasification plants. Gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants EGTL Represents the energy used in gas-to-liquids plants. Own use in electricity, CHP and heat plants EPOWERPLT Represents the energy used in electricity, CHP and heat plants. Used for pumped storage EPUMPST Represents electricity consumed in hydro-electric plants for pumped storage. Nuclear industry ENUC Represents the energy used in the nuclear industry. Charcoal production plants ECHAR-COAL Represents the energy used in charcoal production plants. Not elsewhere specified (Energy) ENONSPEC Represents use in non-specified energy industries. Losses DISTLOSS Losses in energy distribution, transmission and transport. 14 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Final consumption Flow Short name Definition Final consumption FINCONS Equal to the sum of the consumption in the end-use sectors. Energy used for transformation processes and for own use of the energy pro-ducing industries is excluded. Final consumption reflects for the most part deliveries to consumers (see note on stock changes). Backflows from the petrochemical industry are not included in final consumption (see from other sources under supply and petrochemical plants in transformation processes). Note that international aviation bunkers and international marine bunkers are not included in final consumption except for the world total, where they are reported as World aviation bunkers and World marine bunkers in transport. Starting with the 2009 edition, international aviation bunkers is no longer included in final consumption at the country level. Industry TOTIND Industry consumption is specified as follows: (energy used for transport by industry is not included here but is reported under transport): Iron and steel IRONSTL [ISIC Rev. 4 Group 241 and Class 2431] Chemical and petrochemical CHEMICAL [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 20 and 21] Excluding petrochemical feed-stocks. Non-ferrous metals NONFERR [ISIC Rev. 4 Group 242 and Class 2432] Basic industries. Non-metallic minerals NONMET [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 23] Such as glass, ceramic, cement, etc. Transport equipment TRANSEQ [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 29 and 30] Machinery MACHINE [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 25 to 28] Fabricated metal products, machin-ery and equipment other than transport equipment. Mining and quarrying MINING [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 07 and 08 and Group 099] Mining (excluding fuels) and quarrying. Food and tobacco FOODPRO [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 10 to 12] Paper, pulp and print PAPERPRO [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 17 and 18] Wood and wood products WOODPRO [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 16] Wood and wood products other than pulp and paper. Construction CONSTRUC [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 41 to 43] Textile and leather TEXTILES [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 13 to 15] Not elsewhere specified (Industry) INONSPEC [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 22, 31 and 32] Any manufacturing industry not included above. Note: Most countries have difficulties supplying an industrial breakdown for all fuels. In these cases, the not elsewhere specified industry row has been used. Regional aggregates of indus-trial consumption should therefore be used with caution. Transport TOTTRANS Consumption in transport covers all transport activity (in mobile en-gines) regardless of the economic sector to which it is contributing [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 49 to 51], and is specified as follows: COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 15 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Final consumption Flow Short name Definition Domestic aviation DOMESAIR Includes deliveries of aviation fuels to aircraft for domestic aviation - commercial, private, agricultural, etc. It includes use for purposes other than flying, bench testing of engines, but not airline use of fuel for road transport. The domestic/international split should be determined on the basis of departure and landing locations and not by the nationality of the airline. Note that this may include journeys of considerable length between two airports in a country ( San Fran-cisco to Honolulu). For many countries this incorrectly includes fuel used by domestically owned carriers for outbound international traffic. Road ROAD Includes fuels used in road vehicles as well as agricultural and indus-trial highway use. Excludes military consumption as well as motor gasoline used in stationary engines and diesel oil for use in tractors that are not for highway use. Rail RAIL Includes quantities used in rail traffic, including industrial railways. Pipeline transport PIPELINE Includes energy used in the support and operation of pipelines trans-porting gases, liquids, slurries and other commodities, including the energy used for pump stations and maintenance of the pipeline. Ener-gy for the pipeline distribution of natural or manufactured gas, hot water or steam (ISIC Rev. 4 Division 35) from the distributor to final users is excluded and should be reported in energy industry own use, while the energy used for the final distribution of water (ISIC Rev. 4 Division 36) to household, industrial, commercial and other users should be included in commercial/public services. Losses occurring during the transport between distributor and final users should be re-ported as losses. Domestic navigation DOMESNAV Includes fuels delivered to vessels of all flags not engaged in interna-tional navigation (see international marine bunkers). The domestic/international split should be determined on the basis of port of depar-ture and port of arrival and not by the flag or nationality of the ship. Note that this may include journeys of considerable length between two ports in a country ( San Francisco to Honolulu). Fuel used for ocean, coastal and inland fishing and military consumption are ex-cluded. Not elsewhere specified (Transport) TRNONSPE Includes all transport not elsewhere specified. Note: International marine bunkers and international aviation bunkers are shown in Sup-ply and are not included in transport as part of final consumption. Other TOTOTHER Includes residential, commercial/public services, agriculture/forestry, fishing and non-specified (other). Residential RESIDENT Includes consumption by households, excluding fuels used for transport. Includes households with employed persons [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 97 and 98] which is a small part of total residential con-sumption. Commercial and public services COMMPUB [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 33, 36-39, 45-47, 52, 53, 55-56, 58-66, 68-75, 77-82, 84 (excluding Class 8422), 85-88, 90-96 and 99] 16 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Final consumption Flow Short name Definition Agriculture/forestry AGRICULT Includes deliveries to users classified as agriculture, hunting and for-estry by the ISIC, and therefore includes energy consumed by such users whether for traction (excluding agricultural highway use), pow-er or heating (agricultural and domestic) [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 01 and 02]. Fishing FISHING Includes fuels used for inland, coastal and deep-sea fishing. Fishing covers fuels delivered to ships of all flags that have refuelled in the country (including international fishing) as well as energy used in the fishing industry [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 03]. Not elsewhere specified (Other) ONONSPEC Includes all fuel use not elsewhere specified as well as consumption in the above-designated categories for which separate figures have not been provided. Military fuel use for all mobile and stationary con-sumption is included here ( ships, aircraft, road and energy used in living quarters) regardless of whether the fuel delivered is for the military of that country or for the military of another country. Non-energy use NONENUSE Non-energy use covers those fuels that are used as raw materials in the different sectors and are not consumed as a fuel or transformed into another fuel. Non-energy use is shown separately in final con-sumption under the heading non-energy use. Note that for biomass commodities, only the amounts specifically used for energy purposes (a small part of the total) are included in the energy statistics. Therefore, all non-energy use quantities are null by definition. Non-energy use NEINTREN Non-energy in industry, transformation processes and energy industry own use. Of which: Non-energy use in chemical/ petrochemical industry NECHEM The petrochemical industry includes cracking and reforming process-es for the purpose of producing ethylene, propylene, butylene, syn-thesis gas, aromatics, butadene and other hydrocarbon-based raw ma-terials in processes such as steam cracking, aromatics plants and steam reforming [part of ISIC Rev. 4 Group 201]. Note: this flow was called of which petrochemical feedstocks in previous editions. Non-energy use in transport NETRANS Non-energy use in transport. Non-energy use in other sectors NEOTHER Non-energy use in other sectors such as residential, commer-cial/public services, agriculture/forestry and fishing. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 17 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Electricity output (GWh) Flow Short name Definition Electricity output in GWh ELOUTPUT Shows the total number of GWh generated by thermal power plants separated into electricity plants and CHP plants. Electricity production for hydro pumped storage is also given sepa-rately for main activity producers and autoproducers. Electricity output-main activity producer electricity plants ELMAINE Total electricity generated in main activity producer electricity plants. Electricity output-autoproducer electricity plants ELAUTOE Total electricity generated in autoproducer electricity plants. Electricity output-main activity producer CHP plants ELMAINC Total electricity generated in main activity producer CHP plants. Electricity output-autoproducer CHP plants ELAUTOC Total electricity generated in autoproducer CHP plants. Heat output (TJ) Flow Short name Definition Heat output in TJ HEATOUT Shows the total amount of TJ generated by power plants separated into CHP plants and heat plants. Heat output-main activity producer CHP plants HEMAINC Total heat generated in main activity producer CHP plants. Heat output-autoproducer CHP plants HEAUTOC Total electricity generated in autoproducer CHP plants. Heat output-main activity producer heat plant HEMAINH Total electricity generation in main activity producer heat plants. Heat output-autoproducer heat plants HEAUTOH Total electricity generation in autoproducer heat plants. 18 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY OECD, Coal Balance (ktoe, ktce, TJ, Tcal): COAL BALANCE Supply Flow Short name Definition Production INDPROD Comprises the production of primary energy, hard coal, lig-nite/brown coal, peat, crude oil, NGLs, natural gas, combustible re-newables and waste, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar and the heat from heat pumps that is extracted from the ambient environment. Pro-duction is calculated after removal of impurities ( sulphur from natural gas). Calculation of production of hydro, geothermal, etc. and nuclear electricity is explained in the section Units and conver-sions. Imports IMPORTS Comprise amounts having crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country whether or not customs clearance has taken place. Comprise the amount of fuels obtained from other countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union between the relevant countries. Coal in transit should not be included. Exports EXPORTS Comprise amounts having crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country whether or not customs clearance has taken place. Exports comprise the amount of fuels supplied to other countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union between the relevant countries. Coal in transit should not be included. International marine bunkers MARBUNK Covers those quantities delivered to ships of all flags that are engaged in international navigation. The international navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways, and in coastal waters. Consump-tion by ships engaged in domestic navigation is excluded. The domes-tic/international split is determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not by the flag or nationality of the ship. Consump-tion by fishing vessels and by military forces is also excluded. See do-mestic navigation, fishing and other non-specified. International aviation bunkers AVBUNK Includes deliveries of aviation fuels to aircraft for international avia-tion. Fuels used by airlines for their road vehicles are excluded. The domestic/international split should be determined on the basis of de-parture and landing locations and not by the nationality of the airline. For many countries this incorrectly excludes fuel used by domestical-ly owned carriers for their international departures. Stock changes STOCKCHA Reflects the difference between opening stock levels on the first day of the year and closing levels on the last day of the year of stocks on national territory held by producers, importers, energy transformation industries and large consumers. A stock build is shown as a negative number, and a stock draw as a positive number. Total primary energy supply TPES Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up of production + imports - exports - international marine bunkers - international aviation bunkers stock changes. Note, exports, bunkers and stock changes incorporate the algebraic sign directly in the number. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 19 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Supply Flow Short name Definition Transfers TRANSFER Comprises interproduct transfers, products transferred and recycled products. Interproduct transfers results from reclassification of products either because their specification has changed or because they are blended into another product, kerosene may be reclassified as gasoil after blending with the latter in order to meet its winter diesel specification. The net balance of interproduct transfers is zero. Products transferred is intended for oil products imported for further processing in refineries. For example, fuel oil imported for upgrading in a refinery is transferred to the feedstocks category. Recycled products are finished products which pass a second time through the marketing network, after having been once delivered to final consumers ( used lubricants which are reprocessed). Statistical differences STATDIFF Includes the sum of the unexplained statistical differences for indi-vidual fuels, as they appear in the basic energy statistics. It also in-cludes the statistical differences that arise because of the variety of conversion factors in the coal and oil columns. 20 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Transformation processes Flow Short name Definition Transformation processes TOTTRANF Transformation processes comprises the conversion of primary forms of energy to secondary and further transformation ( coking coal to coke, crude oil to oil products, and fuel oil to electricity). Inputs to transfor-mation processes are shown as negative numbers and output from the process is shown as a positive number. Transformation losses will appear in the total column as negative numbers. Main activity producer electricity plants MAINELEC Refers to plants which are designed to produce electricity only. If one or more units of the plant is a CHP unit (and the inputs and outputs cannot be distinguished on a unit basis) then the whole plant is desig-nated as a CHP plant. Main activity producers generate electricity for sale to third parties, as their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Note that the sale need not take place through the public grid. Autoproducer electricity plants AUTOELEC Refers to plants which are designed to produce electricity only. If one or more units of the plant is a CHP unit (and the inputs and outputs cannot be distinguished on a unit basis) then the whole plant is desig-nated as a CHP plant. Autoproducer undertakings generate electricity wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Main activity producer CHP plants MAINCHP Refers to plants which are designed to produce both heat and electric-ity (sometimes referred to as co-generation power stations). If possi-ble, fuel inputs and electricity/heat outputs are on a unit basis rather than on a plant basis. However, if data are not available on a unit ba-sis, the convention for defining a CHP plant noted above should be adopted. Main activity producers generate electricity and/or heat for sale to third parties, as their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Note that the sale need not take place through the public grid. Autoproducer CHP plants AUTOCHP Refers to plants which are designed to produce both heat and electric-ity (sometimes referred to as co-generation power stations). If possi-ble, fuel inputs and electricity/heat outputs are on a unit basis rather than on a plant basis. However, if data are not available on a unit ba-sis, the convention for defining a CHP plant noted above should be adopted. Note that for autoproducer CHP plants, all fuel inputs to electricity production are taken into account, while only the part of fuel inputs to heat sold is shown. Fuel inputs for the production of heat consumed within the autoproducer's establishment are not in-cluded here but are included with figures for the final consumption of fuels in the appropriate consuming sector. Autoproducer undertak-ings generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 21 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Transformation processes Flow Short name Definition Main activity producer heat plants MAINHEAT Refers to plants (including heat pumps and electric boilers) designed to produce heat only and who sell heat to a third party ( residen-tial, commercial or industrial consumers) under the provisions of a contract. Main activity producers generate heat for sale to third par-ties, as their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Note that the sale need not take place through the public grid. Autoproducer heat plants AUTOHEAT Refers to plants (including heat pumps and electric boilers) designed to produce heat only and who sell heat to a third party ( residen-tial, commercial or industrial consumers) under the provisions of a contract. Autoproducer undertakings generate heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Heat pumps THEAT Includes heat produced by heat pumps in transformation. Heat pumps that are operated within the residential sector where the heat is not sold are not considered a transformation process and are not included here the electricity consumption would appear as residential use. Electric boilers TBOILER Includes electric boilers used to produce heat. Chemical heat for electricity production TELE Includes heat from chemical processes that is used to generate electricity. Blast furnaces TBLASTFUR Blast furnaces covers the quantities of fuels used for the production of blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas. The production of pig-iron from iron ore in blast furnaces uses fuels for supporting the blast furnace charge and providing heat and carbon for the reduction of the iron ore. Accounting for the calorific content of the fuels entering the process is a complex matter as transformation (into blast furnace gas) and consumption (heat of combustion) occur simultaneously. Some car-bon is also retained in the pig-iron; almost all of this reappears later in the oxygen steel furnace gas (or converter gas) when the pig-iron is con-verted to steel. In the 1992/1993 annual questionnaires, Member Coun-tries were asked for the first time to report in transformation processes the quantities of all fuels ( pulverised coal injection [PCI] coal, coke oven coke, natural gas and oil) entering blast furnaces and the quantity of blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas produced. The Secretariat then needed to split these inputs into the transformation and consumption components. The transformation component is shown in the row blast furnaces in the column appropriate for the fuel, and the consumption component is shown in the row iron and steel, in the column appropriate for the fuel. The Secretariat decided to assume a transformation efficien-cy such that the carbon input into the blast furnaces should equal the carbon output. This is roughly equivalent to assuming an energy trans-formation efficiency of 40%. Gas works TGASWKS Includes the manufacture of town gas. Note: in the summary balanc-es this item also includes other gases blended with natural gas (TBLENDGAS). 22 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Transformation processes Flow Short name Definition Coke ovens TCOKEOVS Includes the manufacture of coke and coke oven gas. Patent fuel plants TPATFUEL Includes the manufacture of patent fuels. BKB/PB plants TBKB Includes the manufacture of BKB and peat products. Oil refineries TREFINER Includes the manufacture of finished oil products. Petrochemical plants TPETCHEM Covers backflows returned from the petrochemical industry. Note that backflows from oil products that are used for non-energy pur-poses ( white spirit and lubricants) are not included here, but in non-energy use. Coal liquefaction plants TCOALLIQ Includes coal, oil and tar sands used to produce synthetic oil. Gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants TGTL Includes natural gas used as feedstock for the conversion to liquids, the quantities of fuel entering the methanol product process for transformation into methanol. For blended natural gas TBLENDGAS Includes other gases that are blended with natural gas. Charcoal production plants TCHARCOAL Includes the transformation of solid biofuels into charcoal. Not elsewhere specified (Transformation) TNONSPEC Includes other non-specified transformation. Energy industry own use and losses Flow Short name Definition Energy industry TOTENGY Energy industry own use covers the amount of fuels used by the en-ergy producing industries ( for heating, lighting and operation of all equipment used in the extraction process, for traction and for distribution). It includes energy consumed by energy industries for heating, pump-ing, traction and lighting purposes [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 05, 06, 19 and 35, Group 091 and Classes 0892 and 0721]. Coal mines EMINES Represents the energy which is used directly within the coal industry for hard coal and lignite mining. It excludes coal burned in pithead power stations (included under electricity plants in transformation processes) and free allocations to miners and their families (consid-ered as part of household consumption and therefore included under residential). Oil and gas extraction EOILGASEX Represents the energy which is used for oil and gas extraction. Flared gas is not included. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 23 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Energy industry own use and losses Flow Short name Definition Blast furnaces EBLASTFUR Represents the energy which is used in blast furnaces. Gas works EGASWKS Represents the energy which is used in gas works. Gasification plants for biogases EBIOGAS Represents own consumption of biogases necessary to support tem-peratures needed for anaerobic fermentation. Coke ovens ECOKEOVS Represents the energy used in coke ovens. Patent fuel plants EPATFUEL Represents the energy used in patent fuel plants. BKB plants EBKB Represents the energy used in BKB plants. Oil refineries EREFINER Represents the energy used in oil refineries. Coal liquefaction plants ECOALLIQ Represents the energy used in coal liquefaction plants. Liquefaction (LNG) / regasification plants ELNG Represents the energy used in LNG and regasification plants. Gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants EGTL Represents the energy used in gas-to-liquids plants. Own use in electricity, CHP and heat plants EPOWERPLT Represents the energy used in main activity producer electricity, CHP and heat plants. Used for pumped storage EPUMPST Represents electricity consumed in hydro-electric plants for pumped storage. Nuclear industry ENUC Represents the energy used in the nuclear industry. Charcoal production plants ECHARCOAL Represents the energy used in charcoal production plants. Non-specified (energy) ENONSPEC Represents use in non-specified energy sector. Losses DISTLOSS Losses in energy distribution, transmission and transport. 24 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Final consumption Flow Short name Definition Total final consumption TFC Equal to the sum of the consumption in the end-use sectors. Energy used for transformation processes and for own use of the energy producing industries is excluded. Final consumption reflects for the most part deliveries to consumers (see note on stock changes). Backflows from the petrochemical industry are not included in final consumption (see from other sources under supply and petrochemi-cal plants in transformation). Starting with the 2009 edition, international aviation bunkers is no longer included in final consumption at the country level. Industry TOTIND Industry consumption is specified as follows: (energy used for transport by industry is not included here but is reported under transport): Iron and steel IRONSTL [ISIC Rev. 4 Group 241 and Class 2431] Chemical and petrochemical CHEMICAL [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 20 and 21] Excluding petrochemical feedstocks. Non-ferrous metals NONFERR [ISIC Rev. 4 Group 242 and Class 2432] Basic industries. Non-metallic minerals NONMET [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 23] Such as glass, ceramic, cement, etc. Transport equipment TRANSEQ [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 29 and 30] Machinery MACHINE [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 25 to 28] Fabricated metal products, machin-ery and equipment other than transport equipment. Mining and quarrying MINING [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 07 and 08 and Group 099] Mining (excluding fuels) and quarrying. Food and tobacco FOODPRO [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 10 to 12] Paper, pulp and print PAPERPRO [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 17 and 18] Wood and wood products WOODPRO [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 16] Wood and wood products other than pulp and paper. Construction CONSTRUC [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 41 to 43] Textile and leather TEXTILES [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 13 to 15] Not elsewhere specified (Industry) INONSPEC [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 22, 31 and 32] Any manufacturing industry not included above. Note: Most countries have difficulties supplying an industrial breakdown for all fuels. In these cases, the not else-where specified industry row has been used. Regional aggregates of industrial consumption should therefore be used with caution. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 25 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Final consumption Flow Short name Definition Transport TOTTRANS Consumption in transport covers all transport activity (in mobile engines) regardless of the economic sector to which it is contributing [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 49 to 51], and is specified as follows: Domestic aviation DOMESAIR Includes deliveries of aviation fuels to aircraft for domestic aviation - commercial, private, agricultural, etc. It includes use for purposes oth-er than flying, bench testing of engines, but not airline use of fuel for road transport. The domestic/international split should be deter-mined on the basis of departure and landing locations and not by the nationality of the airline. Note that this may include journeys of con-siderable length between two airports in a country ( San Francisco to Honolulu). For many countries this incorrectly includes fuel used by domestically owned carriers for outbound international traffic. Road ROAD Includes fuels used in road vehicles as well as agricultural and in-dustrial highway use. Excludes military consumption as well as mo-tor gasoline used in stationary engines and diesel oil for use in trac-tors that are not for highway use. Rail RAIL Includes quantities used in rail traffic, including industrial railways. Pipeline transport PIPELINE Includes energy used in the support and operation of pipelines transport-ing gases, liquids, slurries and other commodities, including the energy used for pump stations and maintenance of the pipeline. Energy for the pipeline distribution of natural or manufactured gas, hot water or steam (ISIC Rev. 4 Division 35) from the distributor to final users is excluded and should be reported in energy industry own use, while the energy used for the final distribution of water (ISIC Rev. 4 Division 36) to household, industrial, commercial and other users should be included in commercial/public services. Losses occurring during the transport be-tween distributor and final users should be reported as losses. Domestic navigation DOMESNAV Includes fuels delivered to vessels of all flags not engaged in inter-national navigation (see international marine bunkers). The domes-tic/international split should be determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival and not by the flag or nationality of the ship. Note that this may include journeys of considerable length be-tween two ports in a country ( San Francisco to Honolulu). Fuel used for ocean, coastal and inland fishing and military consumption are excluded. Not elsewhere specified (Transport) TRNONSPE Includes all transport not elsewhere specified. Note: International marine bunkers and international aviation bunkers are shown in Supply and are not included in the transport sector as part of final consumption. Other TOTOTHER Includes residential, commercial/public services, agriculture/forestry, fishing and non-specified (other). Residential RESIDENT Includes consumption by households, excluding fuels used for transport. Includes households with employed persons [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 97] which is a small part of total residential consumption. 26 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Final consumption Flow Short name Definition Commercial and public services COMMPUB [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 33, 36-39, 45-47, 52, 53, 55-56, 58-66, 68-75, 77-82, 84 (excluding Class 8422), 85-88, 90-96 and 99] Agriculture/forestry AGRICULT Includes deliveries to users classified as agriculture, hunting and forestry by the ISIC, and therefore includes energy consumed by such users whether for traction (excluding agricultural highway use), power or heating (agricultural and domestic) [ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 01 and 02]. Fishing FISHING Includes fuels used for inland, coastal and deep-sea fishing. Fishing covers fuels delivered to ships of all flags that have refuelled in the country (including international fishing) as well as energy used in the fishing industry [ISIC Rev. 4 Division 03]. Not elsewhere specified (Other) ONONSPEC Includes all fuel use not elsewhere specified as well as consumption in the above-designated categories for which separate figures have not been provided. Military fuel use for all mobile and stationary consumption is included here ( ships, aircraft, road and energy used in living quarters) regardless of whether the fuel delivered is for the military of that country or for the military of another country. Non-energy use NONENUSE Non-energy use covers those fuels that are used as raw materials in the different sectors and are not consumed as a fuel or transformed into an-other fuel. Non-energy use is shown separately in final consumption under the heading non-energy use. Note that for biomass commodities, only the amounts specifically used for energy purposes (a small part of the total) are included in the energy statistics. Therefore, the non-energy use of biomass is not taken into consideration and the quantities are null by definition. Non-energy use industry/ transformation/ energy NEINTREN Non-energy in industry, transformation processes and energy indus-try own use. Of which: Non-energy use in chemical/ petro-chemical industry NECHEM The petrochemical industry includes cracking and reforming pro-cesses for the purpose of producing ethylene, propylene, butylene, synthesis gas, aromatics, butadene and other hydrocarbon-based raw materials in processes such as steam cracking, aromatics plants and steam reforming [part of ISIC Rev. 4 Group 201]. Non-energy use in transport NETRANS Non-energy use in transport. Non-energy use in other NEOTHER Non-energy use in other sectors such as residential, commercial/public services, agriculture/forestry and fishing. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 27 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Electricity output (GWh) Flow Short name Definition Electricity output in GWh ELOUTPUT Shows the total number of GWh generated by power plants separated into electricity plants and CHP plants. Contrary to the Basic Energy Statistics, electricity production for hydro pumped storage is excluded. Electricity output-main activity producer electricity plants ELMAINE Shows the total number of GWh generated by main activity producer electricity plants. Electricity output-autoproducer electricity plants ELAUTOE Shows the total number of GWh generated by autoproducer electrici-ty plants. Electricity output-main activity producer CHP plants ELMAINC Shows the total number of GWh generated by main activity producer CHP plants. Electricity output-autoproducer CHP plants ELAUTOC Shows the total number of GWh generated by autoproducer CHP plants. Heat output (TJ) Flow Short name Definition Heat output in TJ HEATOUT Shows the total heat generated by plants separated into CHP plants and heat plants. Heat output-main activity producer CHP plants HEMAINC Shows the total number of TJ generated by main activity producer CHP plants. Heat output-autoproducer CHP plants HEAUTOC Shows the total number of TJ generated by autoproducer CHP plants. Heat output-main activity producer heat plant HEMAINH Shows the total number of TJ generated by activity producer heat plant. Heat output-autoproducer heat plants HEAUTOH Shows the total number of TJ generated by autoproducer heat plants. 28 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY OECD, Coal Net Calorific Values (MJ/tonne): COAL NCV Net calorific values Expressed in Megajoules / tonne or kilojoules / kilogramme Flow Short name Definition Average NCV of supply NAVERAGE Weighted average of production, imports and exports. NCV of production NINDPROD NCV of imports NIMPORTS NCV of exports NEXPORTS NCV of coke ovens NCOKEOVS Weighted net calorific value of transformation inputs to coke ovens and energy support, for each specific fuel. NCV of blast furnaces NBLAST As per coke ovens, but for blast furnaces. NCV in main activity producer electricity plants NMAIN NCV in autoproducer electricity plants NAUTOELEC NCV in main activity CHP plants NMAINCHP NCV in autoproducer CHP plants NAUTOCHP NCV in main activity heat plants NMAINHEAT NCV in autoproducer heat plants NAUTOHEAT NCV in industry NIND NCV for other uses NOTHER Energy values for aggregated totals should be the sum of their components multiplied by the specific calorific value for each component, rather than using the aggre-gated total and this flow. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 29 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 4. PRODUCT DEFINITIONS Coal and coal products With the exception of the coal gases, the fuels in this section are expressed in thousand tonnes. The coal gases are expressed in terajoules on a gross calorific value basis. Flow Short name Definition Coal and coal products COAL (For balances only.) This is the sum of all primary coals (not peat, peat products or oil shale and oil sands) and all derived coal prod-ucts (cokes, gases, tars, briquettes etc). Hard coal HARDCOAL Hard coal refers to coal of gross calorific value greater than 24 MJ/kg (~5 732 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis and with a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of at least Hard coal may include coals with a GCV greater than or equal to 24 MJ/kg and a mean Rr < Hard coal is the sum of anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal and for some countries, prior to 1978 (see Note on Coal Classification above), hard coal includes sub-bituminous coal. Brown coal BROWN Brown coal is the sum of lignite and sub-bituminous coal. For some countries prior to 1978 (see Note on Coal Classification above), brown coal excludes sub-bituminous coal. Steam coal STEAMCOAL Steam coal is coal used for steam raising and space heating purpos-es and includes all anthracite and bituminous coals not included under coking coal and for all countries; steam coal also includes sub-bituminous coal. Anthracite ANTCOAL A high rank coal used for industrial and residential applications. It is generally less than 10% volatile matter and a high carbon content (about 90% fixed carbon). Its gross calorific value is greater than 24 MJ/kg (~5 732 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis. It has a vitrinite mean random reflectance greater than or equal to 2% and is non-agglomerating. Coking coal COKCOAL Coal with a quality that allows the production of a coke suitable to support a blast furnace charge. Its gross calorific value is greater than 24 MJ/kg (~5 732 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis. 30 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Coal and coal products With the exception of the coal gases, the fuels in this section are expressed in thousand tonnes. The coal gases are expressed in terajoules on a gross calorific value basis. Flow Short name Definition Other bituminous coal BITCOAL Other bituminous coal is used for steam raising and space heating purposes and includes all bituminous coal that is not included under coking coal. It usually contains more than 10% volatile matter and relatively high carbon content (less than 90% fixed carbon). Its gross calorific value is greater than 24 MJ/kg (~5 732 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis and can include parabituminous andorthobituminous coals. Sub-bituminous coal SUBCOAL Non-agglomerating coals with a gross calorific value between 20 MJ/kg (~4 777 kcal/kg) and 24 MJ/kg (~5 732 kcal/kg) on a moist but ash free basis, and containing more than 31 per cent vola-tile matter on an ash-free but moist basis. Lignite LIGNITE Non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value of less than 20 MJ/kg (4 777 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis. Patent fuel PATFUEL A composition fuel manufactured from hard coal fines with the ad-dition of a binding agent. The amount of patent fuel produced there-fore can be slightly higher than the actual amount of coal consumed in the transformation process. Coke oven coke OVENCOKE The solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal, princi-pally coking coal, at high temperature. It is low in moisture content and volatile matter. Also included are semi-coke, a solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal at a low temperature, lignite coke, semi-coke made from lignite/brown coal, coke breeze and foundry coke. Cokes obtained from other sources such as process residues or flue gas precipitation may also be shown here. Gas coke GASCOKE A by-product of hard coal used for the production of town gas in gas works. Gas coke is used for heating purposes. Coal tar COALTAR Coal tar is a result of the destructive distillation of bituminous coal. Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke in the coke oven process. Coal tar can be further distilled into different organic products ( benzene, toluene, naphthalene), which normally would be reported as a feedstock to the petro-chemical industry. Brown coal briquettes BKB Composition fuels manufactured from lignite/brown coal, produced by briquetting under high pressure. These figures include dried lig-nite fines and dust. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 31 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Coal and coal products With the exception of the coal gases, the fuels in this section are expressed in thousand tonnes. The coal gases are expressed in terajoules on a gross calorific value basis. Flow Short name Definition Gas works gas GASWKSGS Covers all types of gas produced in public utility or private plants, whose main purpose is the manufacture, transport and distribution of gas. It includes gas produced by carbonisation (including gas produced by coke ovens and transferred to gas works), by total gasi-fication (with or without enrichment with oil products), by cracking of natural gas, and by reforming and simple mixing of gases and/or air. This heading also includes substitute natural gas, which is a high calorific value gas manufactured by chemical conversion of a hydrocarbon fossil fuel. Coal seam gas is reported on the natural gas questionnaire as col-liery gas, as most likely will be the case for underground coal gasi-fication (UGC). Coke oven gas COKEOVGS Coke oven gas is obtained as a by-product of solid fuel carbonisa-tion and gasification operations carried out by coke producers and iron and steel plants. It is calorifically rich, and when cleaned is predominantly H2. Blast furnace gas BLFURGS Produced during the combustion of coke in blast furnaces in the iron and steel industry. It is recovered and used as a fuel partly within the plant and partly in other steel industry processes or in power stations equipped to burn it. It is mainly nitrogen (N2), with roughly equal amounts of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, and will contain other trace gases. Off gases from direct reduced iron and other similar processes may also be reported here. Other recovered gases OGASES Other recovered gases were previously known as oxygen steel fur-nace gas, which is most commonly obtained as a by-product of the production of steel in an oxygen-fired furnace; it is recovered upon leaving the furnace. The gas is also known as converter gas, LD gas or BOS gas. Other gases of similar nature are also reported in this category, hence the change of name to be intrinsically more inclusive. Peat PEAT Combustible soft, porous or compressed, fossil sedimentary deposit of plant origin with high water content (up to 90 per cent in the raw state), easily cut, of light to dark brown colour. Peat used for non-energy purposes is not included. Peat products PEATPROD Peat products include peat briquettes and peat pellets. Milled peat is included in peat, not peat 32 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Coal and coal products With the exception of the coal gases, the fuels in this section are expressed in thousand tonnes. The coal gases are expressed in terajoules on a gross calorific value basis. Flow Short name Definition Oil shale and oil sands OILSHALE Oil shale should not be confused with shale oil. Shale oil (often ob-tained by in situ thermally enhanced mining practices) is reported as an oil product. Oil shale is a sedimentary rock which contains organic matter in the form of kerogen a waxy hydrocarbon-rich material regarded as a precursor of petroleum. In solid form, it contains more inert matter than coal, while the sand in oil sands may often be in the form of sandstone. Oil shale may be burned directly, or retorted to extract shale oil, the process of which is reported as coal liquefaction transformation. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 33 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 5. GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Australia AUSTRALI Excludes the overseas territories. Austria AUSTRIA Belgium BELGIUM Canada CANADA Chile CHILE Czech Republic CZECH Denmark DENMARK Excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Estonia ESTONIA Finland FINLAND France FRANCE Includes Monaco and excludes the following overseas departments: Guadeloupe; French Guiana; Martinique; Mayotte; and R union; and collectivities: New Caledonia; French Polynesia; Saint Barth lemy; Saint Martin; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; and Wallis and Futuna. Germany GERMANY Includes the new federal states of Germany from 1970 onwards. Greece GREECE Hungary HUNGARY Iceland ICELAND Ireland IRELAND Israel ISRAEL The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. Data start in 1971. 34 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Italy ITALY Includes San Marino and the Holy See. Japan JAPAN Includes Okinawa. Korea KOREA Data start in 1971. Latvia LATVIA Data are included starting in 1990. Prior to 1990, data for Latvia are included in Former Soviet Union. Luxembourg LUXEMBOU Mexico MEXICO Data start in 1971. Mexico appears in the list of IEA Members and is included in the IEA aggregates ONLY in the files which have been updated for this edition: Coal Balance, Coal NCV, Coal Statistics, Coal Exports and Coal Imports. Mexico was not an IEA Member at the time of the preparation of the World data. Accordingly, in the files Coal World Supply, Mexico is included in the list of OECD Members but not IEA Members. Netherlands NETHLAND Excludes Suriname, Aruba and the other former Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire, Cura ao1, Saba, Saint Eustatius and Sint Maarten1). New Zealand NZ Norway NORWAY Poland POLAND Portugal PORTUGAL Includes the Azores and Madeira. Slovak Republic SLOVAKIA Data start in 1971. Slovenia SLOVENIA Data start in 1990. Prior to that, they are included within Former Yugoslavia. Spain SPAIN Includes the Canary Islands. Sweden SWEDEN Switzerland SWITLAND Does not include Liechtenstein. Turkey TURKEY 1. Netherlands Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010, resulting in two new constituent countries, Cura ao and Sint Maarten, with the remaining islands joining the Netherlands as special municipalities. From 2012 onwards, data now account for the energy statistics of Cura ao Island only. Prior to 2012, data remain unchanged and still cover the entire territory of the former Netherlands Antilles. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 35 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition United Kingdom UK Shipments of coal and oil to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man from the United Kingdom are not classed as exports. Supplies of coal and oil to these islands are, therefore, included as part of UK supply. Exports of natural gas to the Isle of Man are included with the exports to Ireland. United States USA Includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but generally excludes all territories, and all trade between the and its territories. Trade statistics for coal include international trade to and from Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands. OECD Total OECDTOT Includes Australia; Austria; Belgium; Canada; Chile; the Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Israel2; Italy; Japan; Korea; Latvia Luxembourg; Mexico; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Portugal; the Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; the United Kingdom and the United States. Estonia, Latvia and Slovenia are included starting in 1990. Prior to 1990, data for Estonia and Latvia are included in Former Soviet Union and data for Slovenia in Former Yugoslavia. OECD Americas OECDAM Includes Canada; Chile; Mexico and the United States. OECD Europe OECDEUR Includes Austria; Belgium; the Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Luxembourg; the Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; the Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey and the United Kingdom. Estonia, Latvia and Slovenia are included starting in 1990. Prior to 1990, data for Estonia and Latvia are included in Former Soviet Union and data for Slovenia in Former Yugoslavia. OECD Asia Oceania OECDAO Includes Australia; Israel2; Japan; Korea and New Zealand. 2. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. 36 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition IEA Total IEATOT Includes Australia; Austria; Belgium; Canada; the Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Korea; Luxembourg; Mexico; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Portugal; the Slovak Republic; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; the United Kingdom and the United States. Estonia is included starting in 1990. Prior to 1990, data for Estonia are included in Former Soviet Union. Mexico became the 30th IEA Member country in February 2018. Accordingly, starting with the 2018 preliminary edition, Mexico now appears in the list of IEA Members and is included in the IEA zone aggregate for data starting in 1971 and for the entire time series. Note that in the World file Coal World Supply, which was published in August 2017, Mexico is included in the list of OECD Members but not IEA Members. The IEA and Accession/Association countries IEAFAMILY Includes: IEA member countries: Australia; Austria; Belgium; Canada; the Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Korea; Luxembourg; Mexico; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Portugal,; the Slovak Republic; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; the United Kingdom and the United States; Accession countries: Chile; Association countries: Brazil, the People s Republic of China; India; Indonesia; Morocco; Singapore; Thailand. Please note that Brazil became an Association country in October 2017. Please note that in the World file Coal World Supply, which was published in August 2017, Brazil is not included in the list of IEA and Accession/Association countries. Algeria ALGERIA Angola ANGOLA Benin BENIN Botswana BOTSWANA Data for Botswana are available from 1981. Prior to that, they are included in Other Africa. Cameroon CAMEROON Congo CONGO Democratic Rep. of Congo CONGOREP Cote d'Ivoire COTEIVOIRE COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 37 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Egypt EGYPT Data for Egypt are reported on a fiscal year basis. Data for 2011 are for 1 July 2011 - 30 June 2012. Eritrea ERITREA Data for Eritrea are available from 1992. Prior to that, they are included in Ethiopia. Ethiopia ETHIOPIA Ethiopia includes Eritrea prior to 1992. Gabon GABON Ghana GHANA Kenya KENYA Libya LIBYA Mauritius MAURITIUS Morocco MOROCCO Mozambique MOZAMBIQUE Namibia NAMIBIA Data for Namibia are available starting in 1991. Prior to that, data are included in Other Africa. Niger NIGER Data for Niger begin in 2000. Prior to that, data are included in Other Africa. Nigeria NIGERIA Senegal SENEGAL South Africa SOUTHAFRIC Sudan SUDAN South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, and has data from 2012 onwards. Prior to that, data are reported for a combined Sudan. South Sudan SSUDAN South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, and has data from 2012 onwards. United Republic of Tanzania TANZANIA Togo TOGO Tunisia TUNISIA Zambia ZAMBIA Zimbabwe ZIMBABWE 38 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Other Africa OTHERAFRIC Includes Botswana (until 1980); Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Comoros; Djibouti; Equatorial Guinea; Gambia; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Namibia (until 1990); Niger (until 1999) R union; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Swaziland; and Uganda. Argentina ARGENTINA Bolivia BOLIVIA Brazil BRAZIL Brazil became an Association country in October 2017. Please note that in the World file Coal World Supply, which was published in August 2017, Brazil is not included in the list of IEA and Accession/Association countries. Colombia COLOMBIA Costa Rica COSTARICA Cuba CUBA Cura ao CURACAO The Netherlands Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010, resulting in two new constituent countries, Cura ao and Sint Maarten, with the remaining islands joining the Netherlands as special municipalities. From 2012 onwards, data now account for the energy statistics of Cura ao Island only. Prior to 2012, data remain unchanged and still cover the entire territory of the former Netherlands Antilles. Dominican Republic DOMINICANR Ecuador ECUADOR El Salvador ELSALVADOR Guatemala GUATEMALA Haiti HAITI Honduras HONDURAS Jamaica JAMAICA Nicaragua NICARAGUA Panama PANAMA Paraguay PARAGUAY Peru PERU COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 39 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Suriname SURINAME Data for Suriname are available starting in 2000. Prior to that, they are included in Other Non-OECD Americas. Trinidad and Tobago TRINIDAD Uruguay URUGUAY Venezuela VENEZUELA Other Non-OECD Americas OTHERLATIN Includes Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; British Virgin Islands; Cayman Islands; Dominica; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guyana; Martinique; Montserrat; Puerto Rico[9] (for natural gas and electricity); Saba (from 2012); Saint Eustatius (from 2012); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (from 2012); Suriname (until 1999); and the Turks and Caicos Islands. Bangladesh BANGLADESH Data for Bangladesh are reported on a fiscal year basis. Data for 2015 are for 1 July 201 - 30 June 2016. Brunei Darussalam BRUNEI Cambodia CAMBODIA Data for Cambodia are available starting in 1995. Prior to that, they are included in Other Asia. DPR of Korea KOREADPR India INDIA Data for India are reported on a fiscal year basis. Data for 2015 are for 1 April 2015 - 31 March 2016. Indonesia INDONESIA Malaysia MALAYSIA Mongolia MONGOLIA Data for Mongolia are available starting in 1985. Prior to that, they are included in Other Asia. Myanmar MYANMAR Nepal NEPAL Data for Nepal are reported on a fiscal year basis. Pakistan PAKISTAN Philippines PHILIPPINE Singapore SINGAPORE Sri Lanka SRILANKA Chinese Taipei TAIPEI Thailand THAILAND Viet Nam VIETNAM 40 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Other Asia OTHERASIA Includes Afghanistan; Bhutan; Cambodia (until 1994); Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Kiribati; Lao People s Democratic Republic; Macau, China; the Maldives; Mongolia (until 1984); New Caledonia; Palau (from 1994); Papua New Guinea; Samoa; the Solomon Islands; Timor-Leste; Tonga; Vanuatu. Hong Kong (China) HONGKONG People's Republic of China CHINA Albania ALBANIA Armenia ARMENIA Data for Armenia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan AZERBAIJAN Data for Azerbaijan are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Belarus BELARUS Data for Belarus are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Bosnia and Herzegovina BOSNIAHERZ Data for Bosnia and Herzegovina are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Yugoslavia. Bulgaria BULGARIA Croatia CROATIA Data for Croatia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Yugoslavia. Cyprus CYPRUS Note by Turkey: The information in this document with reference to Cyprus relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the Cyprus issue . Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union: The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this report relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia FYROM Data for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Yugoslavia. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 41 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Georgia GEORGIA Data for Georgia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Gibraltar GIBRALTAR Kazakhstan KAZAKHSTAN Data for Kazakhstan are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Kosovo KOSOVO Data for Kosovo are available starting in 2000. Between 1990 and 1999, data for Kosovo are included in Serbia. Prior to 1990, they are included in Former Yugoslavia. Kyrgyzstan KYRGYZSTAN Data for Kyrgyzstan are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Lithuania LITHUANIA Data for Lithuania are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Malta MALTA Republic of Moldova MOLDOVA Data for Moldova are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Montenegro MONTENEGRO Data for Montenegro are available starting in 2005. Between 1990 and 2004, data for Montenegro are included in Serbia. Prior to 1990, they are included in Former Yugoslavia. Romania ROMANIA Russia RUSSIA Data for Russia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Serbia SERBIA Data for Serbia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Yugoslavia. Serbia includes Montenegro until 2004 and Kosovo until 1999. Tajikistan TAJIKISTAN Data for Tajikistan are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Turkmenistan TURKMENIST Data for Turkmenistan are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Ukraine UKRAINE Data for Ukraine are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Uzbekistan UZBEKISTAN Data for Uzbekistan are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union. Former Soviet Union (if no detail) FSUND Before 1990, comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. 42 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Former Yugoslavia (if no detail) YUGOND Before 1990, comprises Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia and Serbia. Bahrain BAHRAIN Islamic Republic of Iran IRAN Data are reported according to the Iranian calendar year. Data for 2016 correspond to 20 March 2016 19 March 2017. Iraq IRAQ Jordan JORDAN Kuwait KUWAIT Lebanon LEBANON Oman OMAN Qatar QATAR Saudi Arabia SAUDIARABI Syria SYRIA United Arab Emirates UAE Yemen YEMEN Africa AFRICA Includes Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana (from 1981); Cameroon; the Republic of the Congo (Congo) ; C te d Ivoire; the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Ghana; Kenya; Libya; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia (from 1991); Niger (from 2000); Nigeria; Senegal; South Africa; South Sudan (from 2012), Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania (Tanzania); Togo; Tunisia; Zambia; Zimbabwe and Other Africa. Asia excluding China ASIA Includes Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia (from 1995); Democratic People s Republic of Korea; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Mongolia (from 1985); Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Chinese Taipei; Thailand; Viet Nam and Other Asia. China Region CHINAREG China Region includes the People s Republic of China and Hong Kong, China. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 43 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia EURASIA Includes Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); Gibraltar; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lithuania; Malta; Republic of Moldova; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Former Soviet Union; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan and Former Yugoslavia. Middle East MIDDLEEAST Includes Bahrain; Islamic Republic of Iran; Iraq; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Syrian Arab Republic; United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Non-OECD Americas LATINAMERI Includes Argentina; Plurinational State of Bolivia (Bolivia); Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Cura ao3; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname (from 2000); Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Venezuela) and Other Non-OECD Americas. Non-OECD Total NONOECDTOT Includes Africa; Asia (excluding China); China ( of China and Hong Kong, China); Non-OECD Americas; Middle East and Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia. World marine bunkers WORLDMAR World WORLD Includes OECD Total, non-OECD Total, World marine bunkers and World aviation bunkers. This also same as sum of the five UN aggregates [Africa (UN), Americas (UN), Asia (UN), Europe (UN) and Oceania (UN)], World marine bunkers and World aviation bunkers. Africa (UN) AFRICATOT Includes Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Comoros; the Republic of the Congo (Congo); C te d Ivoire; the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; R union; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; the Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan (from 2012), Sudan; Swaziland; the United Republic of Tanzania (Tanzania); Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe. 3. Netherlands Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010, resulting in two new constituent countries, Cura ao and Sint Maarten, with the remaining islands joining the Netherlands as special municipalities. From 2012 onwards, data now account for the energy statistics of Cura ao Island only. Prior to 2012, data remain unchanged and still cover the entire territory of the former Netherlands Antilles. 44 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Countries and regions This document is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, country refers to country or territory, as case may be. Data start in 1960 for OECD countries and regions, and in 1971 for non-OECD countries and regions, unless otherwise specified. Flow Short name Definition Americas (UN) AMERICAS Includes Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; the Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Bolivia); Bonaire (from 2012); the British Virgin Islands; Brazil; Canada; the Cayman Islands; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Cura ao; Dominica; the Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; the Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Guatemala; the French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico (for natural gas and electricity); Saba (from 2012); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Eustatius (from 2012); Sint Maarten (from 2012); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; the Turks and Caicos Islands; the United States; Uruguay; the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Venezuela). Asia (UN) ASIATOT Includes Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; the People s Republic of China; Cyprus; Georgia; Hong Kong, China; India; Indonesia; the Islamic Republic of Iran; Iraq; Israel; Japan; Jordan; the Democratic People s Republic of Korea; Korea; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People s Democratic Republic; Lebanon; Macau, China; Malaysia; the Maldives; Mongolia; Myanmar; Nepal; Oman; Pakistan; the Philippines; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Sri Lanka; the Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Chinese Taipei; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Turkey; Turkmenistan; the United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; and Yemen. Europe (UN) EUROPE Includes Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; the Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Kosovo4; Latvia5; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Malta; the Republic of Moldova (Moldova); Montenegro; the Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; the Russian Federation; Serbia; the Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; the United Kingdom. Oceania (UN) OCEANIA Includes Australia; New Zealand; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Kiribati; New Caledonia; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Samoa; the Solomon Islands; Tonga; Vanuatu. 4. This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99 and the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on Kosovo s declaration of independence. 5. Latvia is included starting in 1990. Prior to 1990, data for Latvia are included in Former Soviet Union. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 45 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 6. COUNTRY NOTES AND SOURCES GENERAL NOTES Energy data for OECD countries are submitted to the IEA secretariat in a common reporting format and method-ology to allow for international comparisons to be made. In the current preliminary release only the files for OECD countries in the online data service are updated (Coal Balance, Coal NCV, Coal Statistics, Coal Ex-ports and Coal Imports). The World file (Coal World Supply) was published in August 2017 and include data up to 2015 with preliminary supply data for 2016. These files will be updated in August 2018 with the final release which will include World data up to 2016 and preliminary supply data for 2017. Additional information on methodologies and report-ing conventions are included in the notes in World Energy Balances 2017 edition and World Energy Statistics 2017 edition. People s Republic of China Revisions of China s 2000 - 2010 energy data In early 2016, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) of the People s Republic of China (China) supplied the IEA with detailed energy balances for 2000 to 2010 and the IEA revised its data accordingly. In September 2015, the NBS published China s ener-gy statistics for 2013, as well as revised statistics for the years 2011 and 2012. These have already been taken into account by the IEA in the Special data release with revisions for the People's Republic of China in November 2015. All revisions show significant changes both on the supply and demand side for a number of energy prod-ucts, resulting in breaks in time series between 1999 and 2000. Most importantly, the previously significant statistical difference for coal has now been allocated in industrial consumption based on findings from a national economic census. Methodology Net calorific values (NCV) for coal inputs to power generation from 2000 are estimated by applying as-sumptions used by China on the average thermal effi-ciency of coal-fired power stations in these years. NCVs are also estimated for bituminous coal pro-duction from 2000 as well as for inputs to main activi-ty heat plants from 2008. A collaborative effort between NBS and IEA con-tinues, with the objective of providing additional detail on energy production, transformation and consumption of all five different types of coal ( anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite). At the moment NBS only provides quantities of raw coal and washed coal in their energy balances and the IEA Secretariat has attributed these quantities to cok-ing coal and other bituminous coal. It is expected that the continuing work to provide disaggregated data on the five different coals will result in greater detail in future editions. Since 2000, imports and exports of cleaned coal are no longer reported in the national energy balance of China. The IEA Secretariat has used secondary sources of information to report this coking coal trade and corresponding quantities have been removed from bituminous coal trade. Consumption of this coking coal is assumed to be in coke ovens. The IEA data of coal stocks for the years 1985 and 1990 as well as coal production for the years 1997-1999 are estimates and do not represent official data released by the Chinese government. Those esti-mates were based on the assumption that coal con-sumption statistics are more reliable than coal produc-tion statistics and that the production-consumption relationship should maintain a balance over time. 46 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Observations In recent years, China has reported large increases in stocks for crude oil, oil products and for different types of coal. These stock increases are seen as con-sistent with trends in economic growth and develop-ment in China; however, information is currently lacking on the scale of the infrastructure available for this magnitude of stock increases. Starting with 2010 data, NBS increased the level of detail of the national energy balance regarding oil products and coal gases. Breaks in time series may occur between 2009 and 2010. Data for coal trade in this publication may not match data from secondary sources of information. Sources 1990 to 2014: China Energy Statistical Yearbook, National Bu-reau of Statistics, Beijing, various editions up to 2016. Direct communication with the China National Renewable Energy Centre (CNREC), National Energy Administration (NEA), Beijing. China Electricity Council, online statistics, various editions up to 2014. Zhang G., Report on China s Energy Development 2010, China s National Energy Administration, Beijing, editions 2009 to 2011. IEA Secretariat estimates. Sources up to 1990: Electric Industry in China in 1987, Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power, Department of Planning, Beijing, 1988. Outline of Rational Utilization and Conservation of Energy in China, Bureau of Energy Conservation State Planning Commission, Beijing, June 1987. China Coal Industry Yearbook, Ministry of Coal Industry, People's Republic of China, Beijing, 1983, 1984, 1985 and 2000. Energy in China 1989, Ministry of Energy, Peo-ple's Republic of China, Beijing, 1990. China: A Statistics Survey 1975-1984, State Statis-tical Bureau, Beijing, 1985. Almanac of China's Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, The Editorial Board of the Almanac, Beijing, 1986. Other sources Quarterly energy statistics Readers who are interested in more recent data should consult the OECD/IEA publication Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity Quarterly Statistics which is published in January, April, July and October each year. This book provides current, accurate and detailed sta-tistics on quarterly production, supply and demand and trade of the major energy forms mainly in, but not limited to, the OECD area. Coal quarterly data include World steam and coking coal, and lignite production; World steam coal and coking coal trade; and Coking coal and steam coal imports and exports for major OECD countries. OECD Main Economic Indicators OECD Main Economic Indicators is a monthly com-pilation of a range of indicators on recent economic developments for the 35 OECD member countries. Please refer to this publication for detailed notes re-garding the selected indicators. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 47 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY COUNTRY NOTES In many cases, data submitted by Member countries to the Secretariat do not conform to the standard report-ing methodology or have other particular characteris-tics. Information set out below will assist readers to interpret data for particular countries and aid in the comparison of data among countries. The notes given below refer to data for the years 1960 to 2016 and cover the summary tables at the back of the book, as well as the information on CD-ROM and the on-line data service. In general, more detailed notes are available for data since 1990. Data for anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal and lignite are available separately from 1978. Prior to 1978, only data for hard coal (anthracite + coking coal + other bituminous coal) and brown coal (lignite + sub-bituminous coal) are available. In prior editions to Coal Information 2014, sub-bituminous coal was included under hard coal for the following countries, namely; Australia, Belgium, Chile, Finland, France, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal and the United States. While this is no longer the case since 1978, data earli-er than this were aggregated into either hard coal or brown coal, and unless specified, there has been no attempt to reclassify portions of data from hard coal to brown coal in this period. In 1996, the IEA Secretariat extensively revised data on coal and coke use in blast furnaces, and in the iron and steel industry (for those countries with blast furnaces), based on data provided to the OECD Steel Committee and other sources. Where necessary, the quantities of fuels transformed into blast furnace gas have been estimated by the IEA Secretariat based on its blast furnace model. Australia Source Department of Environment and Energy, Canberra. General notes All data refer to the fiscal year ( July 2015 to June 2016 for 2016). In the 2013 edition and following, data for Australia were revised back to 2003 due to the adoption of the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting (NGER) as the main energy consumption data source for the Australian Energy Statistics. As a result, there are breaks in the time series for many data between 2002 and 2003. The revisions have also introduced some methodological issues, including identifying inputs and outputs to certain transformation pro-cesses such as gas works plants, electricity plants and CHP plants. Energy industry own use and in-puts to the transformation processes are sometimes not reported separately in the correct categories. In the 2017 edition, the Australian administration revised data on coal tar back to 2010 resulting in breaks in time series between 2009 and 2010. In the 2016 edition, extensive revisions were made to 2010 to 2013 data for many primary and manu-factured products causing breaks in production, trade and consumption between 2009 and 2010. Series which begin in 2010 may be reported in other flows until 2009. 2014 data were reported on the same basis as 2010 to 2013. In the 2015 edition, increases of production and consumption of other bituminous coal for 2013 are due to both new mine capacity and improved classification data. In the 2016 edition, these revi-sions were extended back to 2010. Apparent switching between sub-bituminous coal and oth-er bituminous coal between 2009 and 2010 sug-gests that some other bituminous coal was re-ported as sub-bituminous coal prior to this, across several flows. In the 2013 edition, production data for all manu-factured gases were revised downwards as part of the new national methodology, leading to signifi-cant statistical differences. Reclassification of some coal types in the 2013 edition were calculated on an energy basis and re-sulted in a net increase of quantities of primary coal from 2003 to 2011. Breaks in the time series for gas works gas be-tween 2008 and 2009 are due to a change of sur-vey, while reduced production and consumption between 2006 and 2008 are due to the removal of some natural gas inputs. Data on blast furnace gas for electricity produc-tion by autoproducers begins in 1986. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Supply Only anthracite exports are reported separately; the remainder that is consumed domestically is in-cluded with other bituminous coal. 48 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Export trade in coke oven coke between 2005 and 2011 exists, but data are unavailable for reasons of confidentiality. Transformation In 2015 a new plant within the mining sector start-ed its operations increasing the consumption of coke oven coke. The one company producing BKB closed its oper-ation during 2015. As such, production and con-sumption declined significantly. For 2003 to 2012, Coke oven gas reported as en-ergy industry own-use in electricity or CHP plants is used for generation purposes, while natural gas used for own-use plant support is reported in the transformation sector. Natural gas consumed to fuel the distribution of natural gas in natural gas networks is reported as transformation for gas works gas production until 2005. The drop in BKB production in 2004 was due to a fire in the main production plant. Consumption In the 2016 edition, revisions for 2010 onwards have increased the quantities of sub-bituminous coal and decreased the quantities of other bitumi-nous coal being used in the non-metallic minerals industry as more accurate information has become available. Consumption in wood and wood products is includ-ed in paper, pulp and print from 2001 onwards. Austria Source Bundesanstalt Statistik sterreich, Vienna. General notes Starting with the 2016 edition and following, wide-spread data revisions were received due to enhanced reporting from 2005 onwards as a consequence of improved Austrian Final Energy Consumption surveys. For some time series, these revisions were extrapolated back to 1990. As a consequence, there may be breaks between 2004 and 2005, and 1989 and 1990. In the 2017 edition, revisions concerning the iron and steel industry were received for data since 2005. The revisions impacted the energy sector for coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. In the 2016 edition, revisions concerning the iron and steel industry were received for data since 1990. The following flows were impacted by these revisions: inputs to blast furnaces, the breakdown between transformation and own-use energy sup-port, and calorific values. The last lignite mine closed in the second quarter of 2004 and lignite use for power generation ceased in 2006. Since 1996, gas works gas data are reported with natural gas because it is distributed in the same network. The amount of gas works gas is negligi-ble and it is mostly consumed by households. Trockenkohle is included with BKB because of its high calorific value. LD gas, which should normally be reported as other recovered gases, is reported with blast fur-nace gas. Source Observatoire de l'Energie, Brussels. General notes In the 2016 Edition, improved data collection has led to some breaks in time series. These revisions include hard coal classifications, products and pro-cesses in integrated iron and steel manufacture and may be extended further back in future editions. Data for anthracite prior to 2014 may include a small portion of other bituminous coal. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Other bituminous coal and sub-bituminous coal data reported in from other sources refer to coal recuperated from coal dumps. Supply Supply-side data are obtained through surveying questionnaires instead of customs data. Conventional production of other bituminous coal ceased on 31 August 1992. Transformation In 2015, the decrease of coke oven gas inputs to autoproducer CHP plants is due to a power plant closure in 2015. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 49 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY In 2014 and 2015, coking coal inputs to coke ov-ens decreased due to a coke oven closure in June 2014. In 2014, the decrease of other bituminous coal in-puts to main activity producer electricity plants is due to a power plant closure in 2014. Consumption The decrease of other bituminous coal and coke oven coke in the iron and steel industry in 2002 is due to the closure of several plants. The use of coke oven gas in chemical and petro-chemical activities ceased in 1996. Belgium Source Observatoire de l'Energie, Brussels. General notes In the 2016 Edition, improved data collection has led to some breaks in time series. These revisions include hard coal classifications, products and pro-cesses in integrated iron and steel manufacture and may be extended further back in future editions. Data for anthracite prior to 2014 may include a small portion of other bituminous coal. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Other bituminous coal and sub-bituminous coal data reported in from other sources refer to coal recuperated from coal dumps. Supply Supply-side data are obtained through surveying questionnaires instead of customs data. Conventional production of other bituminous coal ceased on 31 August 1992. Transformation In 2015, the decrease of coke oven gas inputs to autoproducer CHP plants is due to a power plant closure in 2015. In 2014 and 2015, coking coal inputs to coke ov-ens decreased due to a coke oven closure in June 2014. In 2014, the decrease of other bituminous coal in-puts to main activity producer electricity plants is due to a power plant closure in 2014. Consumption In the 2018 edition, industrial consumption for the period 2013 through 2015 was revised for coking coal and anthracite, as more accurate consumption data became available. Data for coking coal prior to 2013 may include a small portion of anthracite. The decrease of other bituminous coal and coke oven coke in the iron and steel industry in 2002 is due to the closure of several plants. The use of coke oven gas in chemical and petro-chemical activities ceased in 1996. Canada Source Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa. General notes In the 2018 edition, data for Canada were revised back to 2005 following a ten year revision of the Report on Energy Supply and Demand (RESD), the main set of Canadian annual data. The revision standardizes the methodology used for the IEA da-ta submission and has mainly affected the demand side. Additional details are given under each fuel. Due to the extensive revisions of the Report on Energy Supply and Demand (RESD), significant statistical differences can be observed for several coal products for the period 2005-2015. This issue is under investigation and further improvements are expected in future editions. In the 2016 and 2017 edition, extensive revisions for the period 2005 to 2015 were received as more data became available due to improvements in data collection. In the 2014 and 2015 editions, some revisions to the 2004 to 2006 data were received in addition to some time series and products for 2007 to 2011. The Canadian administration is planning to further refine its reporting. From the 2014 edition, the Canadian administration revised time series back to 2005, using additional data from the Annual Industrial Consumption of 50 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Energy, the Annual Survey of Secondary Distribu-tors, the Report on Energy Supply and Demand and the Natural Resources Canada Office of Energy Ef-ficiency. Breaks in time series also between appear 1989 and 1990, due to changes in methodology, in-corporated in 2002. Due to a Canadian confidentiality law, it is not pos-sible for the Canadian administration to submit disaggregated series for all of the coal types. Be-tween 2002 and 2006, the IEA Secretariat has esti-mated some of the missing series. The data for 2007 onwards are given directly as reported, however da-ta may be present in non-representative products, and additionally these ad hoc reclassification meth-odologies contribute significantly to larger than normal statistical differences across products. At this point in time, oil shale and oil sands data are not submitted, and this energy source is deemed to enter the supply stream as shale oil (other hydrocarbons). Supply Due to confidentiality constraints, from 2014 the breakdown of production by type of coal is esti-mated by the Canadian administration, while stock changes and statistical differences are estimated since 2001. Transformation Injection of pulverised coal into blast furnaces (PCI) occurs, but is not available for confidentiali-ty reasons. Coals consumed in this manner are re-ported in the iron and steel industry along with other consumption. Before 1978, lignite inputs to main activity pro-ducer heat plants are included in final consump-tion. Starting in 1979, these inputs are included in main activity producer electricity plants. Consumption Since 2001 consumption of anthracite in non-energy use is estimated by the Canadian admin-istration. Statistical differences include consump-tion in iron and steel. Due to the unavailability of data, non-energy use of coke oven coke and hard coal is included with final consumption sectors prior to 1978 and 1980, respectively. Chile Source Energ a Abierta, Comisi n Nacional de Energ a, Ministerio de Energ a, Santiago. General notes Data are available starting in 1971. Other bituminous coal data includes sub-bituminous coal for all years, if present. In the 2017 edition, data for 2014 and 2015 were revised to replace figures previously estimated by the Secretariat. From 1990, consumption in paper and pulp in-cludes forestry and consumption in agriculture is included in non-specified industry. In general, a new methodology has been applied for data since 1990, leading to other breaks in series between 1989 and 1990. Czech Republic Source Czech Statistical Office, Prague. General notes Data are available starting in 1971. Other bituminous coal data includes sub-bituminous coal for all years, if present. In the 2018 edition, data for the Czech Republic were revised back to 2010 based on administrative data causing breaks in time series between 2009 and 2010. These revisions impacted mainly indus-trial consumption for lignite, BKB and other re-covered gases. In the 2017 edition, coal consumption in the resi-dential sector has been revised back to 2010 due to a new survey in households made by Czech Statis-tical Office, creating breaks in time series between 2009 and 2010. Increased production and consumption of other recovered gases in 2014 is due to improved track-ing of by-products from various transformation processes. Tail gases from the production of car-bon black from coal tar are reported here, as are off gases from the manufacture and cleaning of syngas from lignite for an IGCC plant. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 51 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Coal which had been previously classified as sub-bituminous coal until the 2008 edition is now re-ported under lignite for all years. Revisions by the Czech administration have resulted in some breaks in series between 2001 and 2002. Data for 1990 to 1995 were estimated based on the Czech publication Energy Economy Year Book. In 1995, town gas production (included in gas works gas) ceased. Supply Other recovered gases are combustible gases ob-tained during the production of gas works gas and as a result of chemical processes. Production from other sources of other bitumi-nous coal is from coal slurries. A portion of other bituminous coal reported un-der from other sources for the period 2010-2015 correspond to reclassified coking coal. Statistical differences for coking coal for the peri-od 2010-2015 are partly due to the reclassification of coking coal to other bituminous coal. Consumption In the 2015 edition, improved reporting enabled revisions to be made for some primary coal con-sumption flows between 2010 and 2012. In the 2014 edition, residential consumption for the period 1990 through 2011 was revised for other bituminous coal, lignite, coke oven coke and BKB, as more accurate consumption data became available. Due to economic restructuring in consumption in the late 1990s (big state enterprises subdividing and/or privatising and the utilisation of new tech-nologies by businesses), there may be breaks in time series in these sectors. Denmark Source Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen. General note In the 2004 edition, major revisions were made by the Danish administration for the 1990 to 2001 da-ta, which may cause breaks in time series between 1989 and 1990. Supply A large increase of steam coal imports in 2003 was related to a drought in Scandinavia. Thermal pow-er plants were operated more intensively to replace hydro-generated electricity that was consumed in the country. Additionally, more coal-generated elec-tricity was exported to other countries in the region. Significant fluctuations in demand are also evident for other years for similar reasons, including 2006 and 2013, but exist to a lesser extent. Declines in stocks of steam coal stem from extensive deployment of renewable generation technologies and policy to further reduce Denmark s utilisation of coal-fired power and implement co-firing with re-newable fuels as a part of their Energy Strategy 2050. Estonia Source Statistics Estonia, Tallinn. General notes Fuels reported as coke oven coke and gas works gas are the solid and gaseous by-products of oil shale liquefaction. Inputs of oil shale to gas works , coke ovens and for coal liquefaction plants, while reported separately, combined, are the inputs for retorting in liquefaction plants. In the 2013 edition, data for oil shale production for the period 1991 to 1997 were revised to match Estonian GHG National Inventory values. Con-sumption data remained unchanged. Data for Estonia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union in World Energy Statistics. Supply Indigenous production of peat products stopped in 2016. Finland Source Statistics Finland, Helsinki. 52 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY General notes Coal tar used for non-energy purposes or exported is not reported in either production or consumption. In the 2015 edition, revisions were received for some consumption flows of other bituminous coal and coke oven coke, while other recovered gases (from ferrochromium manufacture) were re-ported separately for the first time, with revisions back to 2000. Prior to 2000, off-gases from ferro-chromium manufacture are included in blast fur-nace gas, and inputs of coke oven coke for ferro-chromium manufacture in inputs to blast furnaces instead of non-specified transformation. In 2014, a new survey system and a reclassifica-tion of the data lead to breaks in the time series be-tween 1999 and 2000 for most products and sec-tors. The new survey system is more detailed and has better product coverage, especially in electricity, CHP and heat production, as well as in industry. Prior to 2008, peat products are included with peat data. A large increase of steam coal imports in 2003 is related to a drought in Scandinavia. Thermal power plants were operated more intensively to replace hydro-generated electricity that is consumed in the country. Additionally, more coal-generated electric-ity was exported to other countries in the region. The increase of other bituminous coal inputs into main activity producer electricity plants from 1993 to 1994 was due to coal replacing imported electricity and hydro power. Production of gas works gas ceased in April 1994. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Transformation In the 2017 edition, fuel inputs and heat produc-tion from peat main activity heat plants have been revised from 2000 as a result of new data access for smaller peat heat plant units. The significant increases and decreases of other bituminous coal inputs into main activity prod-ucer electricity plants from year to year are due to coal replacing imported electricity and hydro power. Likewise, peat production is highly dependent upon favourable weather conditions and the pricing of other fuels. The decrease in peat and other bituminous coal usage in main activity electricity plants in 2008 was due to record elec-tricity generation from hydro plants. A similar cir-cumstance occurred in 2012. The first coking plant started operation in 1987, hence imports of coking coal and production of coke oven coke and coke oven gas started in that year. France Source Minist re de la Transition cologique et Solidaire, Paris. General notes In the 2018 edition, data for France were revised back to 2011 following changes in methodology and procedures used by the energy statistics sub-department (SDSE) within the Ministry for the ecological and inclusive transition. As a result, the revisions, to bring the reporting more in line with the international standards, impacted all fuels. Ad-ditional details are given under each fuel. In 2018 edition, the calorific value of coking coal has been revised in agreement with Eurostat and the IEA. The revision was made for the period 1990 to 2016. In the 2017 edition, the French administration un-dertook comprehensive revisions on sectoral coal consumption back to 2011. Starting this edition, new information became available for anthracite, BKB and other recovered gases. Breaks in time series for coke oven gas and blast furnace gas consumption between 2010 and 2011 are due to a change in the methodology, impacting significant-ly consumption in the iron and steel sector. From 2012, the energy consumption is more de-tailed due to a more precise national survey. Prior to 2011, other manufactured gases (oxygen steel furnace gas) are included in blast furnace gas. For 1989 to 1998, the IEA Secretariat has estimat-ed industry consumption based on Consommations d Energie dans l Industrie, SESSI. Prior to 1985, consumption of colliery gas is included with the use of coke oven gas by autoproducers. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 53 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Transformation In 2016 the company that consumed blast furnace gas for electricity and heat generation ceased its activity. Consumption In the 2018 edition, the split of energy consump-tion between the residential sector and the com-merce and public services sector has been revised back to 1990 by the French Administration for other bituminous coal, lignite, coke oven coke, BKB and patent fuel. Blast furnace gas and coke oven gas used for energy purposes in blast furnaces are no longer re-ported under the iron and steel industry. As of the 2018 edition these quantities are reported under the energy sector. Final consumption in industry is estimated by the secretariat from 1986 to 2001 for some products. Germany Source Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, Berlin. General notes Data start in 1960. German data include the new federal states of Germany from 1970 onwards. Comprehensive official data are only collected for the aggregate of hard coal. Due to the unavailabil-ity of detailed data, the split into anthracite, cok-ing coal and other bituminous coal is partly esti-mated by the National administration. In the 2014 edition, significant revisions were submitted for all primary coal types, derived prod-ucts and manufactured gases for the period 2003 to 2011 as previous estimations were updated with more accurate information. Revisions primarily af-fected consumption, including industry and other sectors; but also supply, statistical differences and weighted calorific values. Up to 2002, other bituminous coal includes anthracite. The German administration has changed the meth-odology for reporting heat over time: o Starting in 2007, more information is available on main activity heat plants and additional in-puts started to be reported for this category. This causes breaks in series between 2006 and 2007. o Between 2003 and 2006, autoproducer heat output was provided, but no inputs. o Between 2002 and 2003 and between 2003 and 2004, breaks in series occur, due to the imple-mentation of the Energy Statistics Act, collec-tion concerning heat produced in heat plants and district heating plants became more effi-cient and more complete. Between 1998 and 2005, breaks in series may oc-cur for coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. Between 1990 and 1992, breaks in series may oc-cur due to earlier reclassification of several sectors by the German administration; this particularly af-fects BKB, lignite and coke oven coke. Transformation Breaks in time series between 2014 and 2015 for coke oven gas and blast furnace gas are due to a reclassification of main activity producers and autoproducers. In 1997, BKB inputs to gas works plants stopped. Consumption Consumption of non-renewable municipal waste and other solid biofuels as a reductant occurs in German blast furnaces, but is not currently quanti-fied. Likewise, coal tar is a by-product of coke ovens, but not currently reported. Greece Source Ministry for Environment and Energy, Athens. Hungary Source Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Budapest. 54 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY General notes Data are available starting in 1965. From 1992, the production of sub-bituminous coal has been included with lignite due to the low quali-ty of the coal. For 1990 to 1999, the use of this do-mestic coal in main activity producer electricity and CHP plants has also been reclassified to lignite. Transformation Autoproducer heat and power plants using coke oven gas and blast furnace gas were reclassified in 1998 as main activity power plants. Iceland Source National Energy Authority, Reyjkavik General notes The industrial classifications used by the Icelandic administration were changed in 1987. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal Prior to 1970, final consumption includes inputs and outputs to heat production. Consumption Final consumption increased in 2000 as a new iron and steel plant came on-line. Ireland Sources Department of Communications, Energy and Natu-ral Resources, Dublin. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, Cork. General notes Due to confidentiality reasons, inputs of anthra-cite, other bituminous coal and peat briquettes for patent fuel transformation are reported with residential consumption, while production and consumption of patent fuel is not reported. Prior to 1990, any imports of BKB, were included with imports of peat products, as is the case for consumption. Supply Rainfall in 2012 led to the lowest peat harvest since IEA records began in 1960, requiring large stock drawdown and increased use of biofuels for elec-tricity generation. In 2013, production targets were met before the end of the year however production continued in order to further build stocks to allevi-ate the potential impacts of future weather events. Low production of peat in 1985 was due to a poor harvest due to an unusually wet summer. Production data for peat products (briquettes) are available from 1975. Transformation A reclassification caused a break in the series for peat consumption in the energy industry own use in BKB/peat product plants from 1989 to 1990. The production of gas works gas ceased in 1987 due to fuel switching to natural gas. Other bituminous coal inputs to main activity producer electricity plants increased from 1986 due to three new generating units at Moneypoint coming on-line. Israel Source Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. General notes Due to confidentiality constraints, imports of oth-er bituminous coal have been estimated by the IEA Secretariat for 2016. Data are available starting in 1971. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and un-der the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authori-ties. The use of such data by the OECD and/or the IEA is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. Italy Sources Ministry of Economic Development, Rome. Terna, Rome. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 55 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY General notes The increase in production of coke oven gas in 2012 was the consequence of improvements in scope of reporting. As such, coke oven gas data in prior years should be viewed as under-representing production and consumption, and coke oven effi-ciencies will likewise appear lower than actual. A change in methodology lead to breaks in series for industry and transformation between 2003 and 2004. Due to a change in the survey system, breaks in series may occur between 1997 and 1998 for final consumption. From 1986 onwards, figures from lignite are given using the same methodology as in the Bilancio Energetico Nazionale. Supply In the 2018 edition, production of coke oven coke, coke oven gas, coal tar and other recovered gas-es was revised back to 2014 due to new available information. The revisions increased efficiencies of coke ovens and blast furnaces and led to breaks between 2013 and 2014. Other bituminous coal production ceased in 2016 due to the closure of the one coal mine in 2015. Transformation Breaks in the time series between 2014 and 2015 for coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and other recovered gases are due to a reclassification of main activity producers and autoproducers. Prior to 2009, sub-bituminous coal used in main activity electricity plants was included with other bituminous coal. For data since 2001, calorific values for imports of other bituminous coal and sub-bituminous coal are derived from inputs to main activity electricity generation. Consumption In 1991, all industrial activities were reclassified on the basis of ISTAT/NACE 91. This has implied some transfers of activities which may result in some anomalies between 1991 and earlier years. Japan Source The Institute of Energy Economics Japan, Tokyo. General notes From 1990, data are reported on a fiscal year basis ( April 2015 to March 2016 for 2015). Other bituminous coal includes sub-bituminous coal. The net calorific values for coal and coal products have been recalculated by the IEA Secretariat based upon gross values submitted by Japan. In the 2018 edition, imports of other bituminous coal and coking coal by partner country - have been estimated by the IEA Secretariat for data from 1990 to 2016, based on customs data and to-tal imports by coal type. In the 2018 edition, Japan revised their data back to 1990 based on new methodology in all questionnaires. Consumption data for commercial/public services may include consumption in small and medium-size industries. The Japanese administration ex-pects that this shortcoming will be corrected in the near future. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Supply Statistical differences for hard coal include stock changes since 2001. Large positive differences for several years since 2004 are partly due to stock build by final consumers. Transformation The inputs of coke oven coke to blast furnaces as well as the final consumption of coke oven coke in the iron and steel industry have been estimated by the IEA Secretariat since 1990. From 1998, inputs of coke oven gas, blast fur-nace gas and other recovered gases into autopro-ducer electricity plants include the amount used to produce electricity with TRT technology (Top pressure Recovery Turbines) which was previous-ly included in industry. Inputs of manufactured gases (coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and other recovered gases) to main activity electricity and heat plants are calcu-lated based on outputs and using efficiencies of main activity producers from other fuels. For auto-producers, the specific inputs are known, however the specific electricity production by each gas is estimated based on a pro-rata of the total electrici-ty generation from all gas types. 56 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Coal injected in blast furnaces (PCI) is classified as coking coal in order to be consistent with Japa-nese trade statistics. Korea Source Korea Energy Economics Institute, Ulsan. General notes Data are available from 1971. Coal tar production data prior to 2007 are not available at this time. Data for 2002 onwards have been reported on a different basis, causing breaks in series between 2001 and 2002, especially for inputs and outputs to electricity generation and consumption in the iron and steel industry. The Korean administration is planning to revise the historical series as time and resources allow. Data for coal and coal products from 1971 to 2001 are based on information provided by the Korean administration, as well as information from the Yearbook of Energy Statistics 2002, the Yearbook of Coal Statistics 2001 (both from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy), and Statistics of Electric Power in Korea 2001 (from the Korea Electric Power Corporation). During this period, import data by coal type were estimat-ed by the IEA Secretariat, based on statistics of the exporting countries. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Transformation Statistical differences for manufactured gases in 2012 are partly the result of classification issues. The national administration is working to improve report-ing of coal-derived gases production and consumption. Consumption Data on blast furnace gas used for energy purpos-es in blast furnaces prior to 2007 are reported in the iron and steel industry. Consumption of imported coke oven coke starting in 2002 is reported under non-specified industry. Consumption of manufactured gases in the iron and steel industry starting in 2002 includes the consumption in blast furnaces, oxygen steel fur-naces and other iron and steel processing plants. Latvia Source Central Statistical Bureau, Riga General note Data for Latvia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union in the publication World Energy Statistics. Supply The increase of distribution losses for peat in 2003 is due to a fire in one of the warehouses. Consumption The fall in the iron and steel industry in 2014 is due to the bankruptcy of the major company in the market. Luxembourg Source STATEC, Institut national de la statistique et des tudes conomiques du Grand-Duch du Luxembourg, Luxembourg. General notes For the 2011 edition, the Luxembourgian admin-istration revised the time series from 2000 for most coal and coal products. Time series for BKB con-sumption were revised from 1990. Prior to 1978, some sub-bituminous coal may be included in hard coal. Steel production from blast furnaces ceased at the end of 1997. Mexico Source Ministry of Energy (SENER), Mexico City. General notes Data are available starting in 1971. The Mexican administration submitted data directly by ques-tionnaire for the first time with 1992 data. As a COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 57 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY result, some breaks in series may occur between 1991 and 1992. For prior years, data are partly estimated based on the publication Balance Nacional - Energ a. In the 2016 edition, the Mexican administration completed a major work on revisions of the time series back to 1990. The Mexican administration is currently under-taking major work on revisions of the time series back to 1990. For several products, only revisions back to 2003 have been provided. Some of these revisions could not be implemented in the 2016 edition. Further revisions to historical data are pending. Revisions for some products include reporting of new consumption flows, increased quantities of coal and higher calorific values, resulting in increases of total primary energy supply. Prior to 2003, other bituminous coal is either reported as coking coal or sub-bituminous coal, depending upon usage, while anthracite and in-digenously produced lignite were included with sub-bituminous coal. Calorific values currently in use may not accurately reflect any of this. The time series for blast furnace gas and inputs of coke oven coke to blast furnaces start in 1991. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Consumption Use of pulverised coal injection in blast furnaces occurs in Mexico, but is not currently reported. Oxygen steel furnace gas production and produc-tion of other other recovered gases occur as by-products of heavy industry, but are not reported. IEA Estimations For coking coal, amounts reported for consump-tion in main activity electricity generation and as-sociated imports for the years 2003 to 2016 have been reallocated to other bituminous coal by the IEA Secretariat. Imports by country of origin for other bituminous coal and coking coal for 2016 have been estimated by the IEA Secretariat, based on partner data. Blast furnace gas production and consumption have been estimated by the IEA for 1990 to 2016 based on inputs of coke oven coke to blast furnaces. Coke oven coke production was estimated by the IEA for some years between 1999 and 2012 based off historical and commodities data, as were inputs of coking coal to coke ovens between 1990 and 2012. Current Mexican methodology estimates produc-tion of coal tar and coke oven gas using coke ov-en coke production as a guide. This was extended for 1990 to 2001 and for years where coke oven coke production was estimated by the IEA. Netherlands Source Statistics Netherlands, The Hague. General notes The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics has conducted reviews and revisions of their energy balance three times; in 2005, 2011 and 2015. The 2005 revisions were to improve basic energy sta-tistics, particularly with respect to carbon and CO2 reporting, while the 2011 revisions were part of a harmonization program with international energy statistics. The 2015 revisions were the result of in-creased data collection, availability of new source information, and further alignment with interna-tional energy definitions. More details are availa-ble here: Following revisions made in the previous edition to data for 1995 onwards, this edition includes fur-ther revisions made by the Dutch administration for the period 1990 to 1994. These revisions are the result of increased data collection, availability of new source information, and further alignment with international energy. In the national statistical system of the Netherlands, use of fuel in manufacturing industries for CHP production is considered to be consumption in transformation. However, in IEA statistics, this own use for heat production (autoproduced heat) is reported under the relevant industry sub-sector, based on estimates provided by the Central Bureau of Statistics. International trade into and through the hub ports of Amsterdam and Rotterdam is complicated by the capacity to purchase coal directly at these points. The majority of coal passing through these ports is intended for consumption in European 58 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY countries other than the Netherlands, which is nei-ther the country of origin or destination, therefore these data have been removed where possible. Supply From 2013 onwards, trade reported by the Central Bureau of Statistics includes coal in transit, to align more closely with gross trade data. In the 2013 edition, non-specified exports for 2011 were estimated by the Central Bureau of Statistics due to a lack of information from key market players. For data prior to 2011, stock changes for primary coal types were estimated by the Dutch admin-istration based on trade and consumption data. For 1984 to 1986, production from other sources of other bituminous coal represents a stock of smalls washed for re-use. Transformation At the end of 2015 three low-efficiency plants run-ning on bituminous coal input closed down. These closures were part of the so-called Agreement on Energy for Sustainable Growth in The Netherlands ( ) agreed upon by the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands (SER) and more than forty repre-sentative organisations and stakeholders. Consumption Prior to 1989, non-energy use is included with industry consumption. New Zealand Source Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington. General notes Prior to 1994, data refer to fiscal year (April 1993 to March 1994 for 1993). From 1994, data refer to calendar year. Peat, although produced in New Zealand, is not used as a fuel, and is used for agricultural purposes only. In the 2014 edition, the definition of hard coal was aligned with the International Recommenda-tions for Energy Statistics. Prior to this, hard coal for New Zealand from 1960 to 1977 had contained sub-bituminous coal. The portion of sub-bituminous coal production and residential con-sumption has been estimated by the IEA Secretari-at for this period and moved to brown coal. In the 2011 edition, the New Zealand administra-tion has revised some of the coal, natural gas, oil, renewable and electricity time series back to 1990. Supply Breakdown of exports of coking coal by country of destination for 2016 has been estimated by the IEA Secretariat, based on partner data. The decrease of other bituminous coal production in 2015 is due to a temporary shutdown in one of the coal mines at the beginning of 2015 and anoth-er one at the end of 2015. A detailed breakdown of exports of coking coal by country of destination between 2001 and 2011 is estimated by the IEA, based on secondary sources and partner data. Transformation Sub-bituminous coal inputs into coke ovens refers to coal that is merged with iron sands and limestone to form the inputs for the multi-hearth-furnaces, kilns and melters that produce direct reduced iron (Glenbrook Steel Site), with off-gases and supple-mental and natural gas driving CHP plants. This method, while not the typical iron and steel process, produces similar by-products. The sub-bituminous coal inputs are reported under coke oven coke trans-formation and the resulting off-gases are reported as production of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. Blast furnace gas production and distribution losses prior to 1998 are IEA Secretariat estimates. Portions of this gas will have been used for energy purposes in the multi-hearth furnaces or elsewhere in the plant. Some transformation efficiencies will appear higher than normal due to non-reporting of certain inputs, including some confidential data. Consumption In final consumption, some industry data are re-ported in non-specified industry for confidentiality reasons. In 2014, the increase in consumption of sub-bituminous coal in mines included the combus-tion of some unsold coal fines for safety reasons. Prior to 2010, the construction sector is included with commercial/public services. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 59 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Prior to 2009, mining and quarrying is included in agriculture. Norway Source Statistics Norway, Oslo. General notes Other bituminous coal includes lignite. In the 2018 edition, data for Norway were revised back to 2010, following the introduction of a new system for energy balances and energy accounts. Breaks in series may appear between 2009 and 2010 as a result. For more detailed information re-garding the methodological changes, please refer to the documentation of statistics production since statistics year 2010 on the Statistics Norway web-site. At the time of writing, the document was available in Norwegian as Dokumentasjon av statistikkproduksjonen fra statistikk r 2010 og fremover . Production of coking coal, coke oven coke and coke oven gas ceased in the late Supply The decrease of other bituminous coal production in 2015 is due to a temporary shutdown in one of the coal mines. The decrease of other bituminous coal production in 2005 is due to a fire in one of the coal mines; this entailed a break in the production for a large part of the year. Poland Source Central Statistical Office, Warsaw. General note Other recovered gases which appear in the bal-ances as output from blast furnaces also include off-gases from zinc and copper smelting, ceramics kilns and steel production, thus artificially increas-ing the overall efficiency of blast furnaces when calculated. Prior to 2016 data, other bituminous coal in-cludes anthracite. Transformation In the past two editions, the Central Statistical Of-fice has revised their methodology which accounts for sold heat produced from autoproducer heat plants using coking coal and other bituminous coal, resulting in lower, but more accurate data for 2007 onwards. Consumption Consumption in agriculture/forestry for BKB, and own use in power stations for lignite are residual flows, so may contain statistical differences and other consumption not reported elsewhere. As a consequence, changes in these time series may not be wholly representative of the activities shown. Prior to 2010, own use in coal mines included workers take home allowance, which should be included in residential consumption. Portugal Source Direc o-Geral de Energia e Geologia, Lisbon. General note Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Consumption Between 1997 and 2001 gas works gas was grad-ually replaced by natural gas in the commercial/public service and residential sectors. The production of pig iron ceased in the first quar-ter of 2001, leading to decreases in supply and consumption of coking coal, coke oven coke, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas in 2001. Slovak Republic Source Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava. General notes Data are available starting in 1971. The Slovak Republic became a separate state in 1993 and harmonised its statistics to EU standards in 2000. These two facts lead to several breaks in 60 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY time series between 1992 and 1993, and between 2000 and 2001. Data for anthracite, patent fuel and coal tar all begin in 2005. Prior to this, anthracite was in-cluded with other hard coals, and patent fuel and coal tar data were not reported. Since 2005, data for coal tar and patent fuel are based solely on trade receipts. Production of coal tar which is consumed within the national bounda-ry is not reported. Consumption of patent fuel adopts the residual methodology for statistical dif-ferences described above. Breaks in time series may exist between 2000 and 2001 as the result of the implementation of a new survey system. Commercial/public services also includes statisti-cal differences for other bituminous coal, lignite, patent fuel and coke oven coke from 1980 on-wards and BKB from 1989 onwards. Slovenia Source Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana. General notes Data for Slovenia are available starting in 1990. Prior to that, they are included in Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries in Former Yugoslavia. A new energy data collection system was imple-mented in January 2001, causing some breaks in time series between 1999 and 2000. Transformation In 2015, a main activity electricity plant burning lignite ceased its operations. Spain Source Ministerio de Energ a, Turismo y Agenda Digital, Madrid. General note The calorific values for sub-bituminous coal are correct on an as received basis, and comply with definitions of sub-bituminous coal on a moist, but ash free basis. Supply Lignite mining ceased in 2008. Transformation In the 2018 edition, a reclassification of plants from autoproducer to main activity has led to breaks between 2015 and Sweden Sources Statistics Sweden, rebro. Swedish Energy Agency, Energimyndigheten, Eskilstuna. General notes Peat products data may be reported under the category of peat, particularly for imports. Autoproducer inputs to waste heat production that are sold are reported in the respective final con-sumption sectors and not in transformation. Some mixture of LNG with air to form a lower calo-rie product is reported as gas works gas production replacing traditional gas works gas manufacture. Supply Other bituminous coal production until 1992 is coal recovered during the quarrying of clay. Switzerland Sources Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), Ittigen. Carbura, Swiss Organisation for Stockholding of Oil Products, Zurich. General notes From 1999, data on consumption result from a new survey and are not comparable with data for previous years. Calorific values for anthracite, other bituminous coal and coke oven coke are taken from a com-mon default figure. Lignite calorific values are al-so default data, but are based on dried lignite fines which have a higher calorific value. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 61 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Consumption From 1985, industrial consumption of gas works gas is reported in non-specified industry to prevent the disclosure of commercially confidential data. Allocation of consumption data between certain coal types is estimated by the Swiss administration. Turkey Sources Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanl ), Ankara. Petrol leri Genel M d rl , Ankara. General notes In the 2018 edition, revisions were conducted by the Turkish administration back to 1990 impacting the transformation and industrial sector. The revi-sions in the transformation sector were the result of new data submitted by the Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TECT). In the 2017 edition, historical revisions on coal tar data were conducted by the Turkish administration due to new available information. Data from 2012 onwards utilised the latest census data, causing breaks in time series between 2011 and 2012. Data from 2008 are provided from the results of an improved questionnaire. Significant changes occur in consumption patterns within the iron and steel industry, coal mining as well as across industry, residential and commercial/public services for other bituminous coal. Calorific values for fuels consumed in electricity, CHP and heat plants are obtained from data submit-ted to the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) by the Turkish Electricity Transmission Company, and these values may differ significantly from production and import values provided by MENR, causing imbalances for some years. Production of gas works gas declined in 1989 due to plant closures; the last plant closed in 1994. Use of gas coke and gas works gas ceased in 1994. Due to government regulations in industry and residential, in particular, there has been a shift from the use of domestically produced coal to im-ported coal and natural gas. Transformation In the middle of 2014, most autoproducer plants in Turkey were reclassified as main activity producer due to a change in the legislation. Although the li-cences of these plants changed, the Administration decided to restore the affected plants classification back to autoproducer in 2017 to harmonise with plant definitions in the IEA questionnaire. Consumption In the 2018 edition, revisions on industrial coal con-sumption were conducted by the Turkish admin-istration back to 2010 due to new available information. Privatisation of state owned coke ovens in recent years results in incomplete information on coke oven gas distribution. In 2017 edition, consumption of sub-bituminous coal in construction has been reclassified by the Turkish administration as consumption in the non-metallic minerals industry. In 2015, a new survey was introduced by the Turk-ish administration to collect more detailed indus-trial consumption data, resulting in breaks in time series between 2014 and 2015. United Kingdom Source Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, London. General notes Oxygen steel furnace gas data are reported with blast furnace gas rather than as other recovered gases. In the 2017 edition, calorific values of other bi-tuminous coal were revised for the period 2002-2015 due to a change in the methodology, impact-ing all flows. Prior to 1994, the consumption of substitute natu-ral gas is included with natural gas while its pro-duction is included with gas works gas. Supply Underground production of other bituminous coal in 2016 decreased due to the closure of Hat-field, Thoresby and Kellingley mines. 62 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Transformation The consumption of solid biofuels has increased in 2015, as the largest power station in the UK converted a further unit from coal to biomass midyear, and the previously converted unit had a full year of operation in 2015 rather than just the last few months of 2014. The market decline in use of other bituminous coal from 2013 onwards for autoproducer elec-tricity generation was due to a plant being sold to a dedicated main-activity electricity producer. Consumption Consumption data shown for the commercial/public services includes consumption of some of other non-specified. United States Source Energy Information administration, Washington, DC. General notes Since the Energy Information administration (EIA) and the US Department of Commerce do not col-lect separate data on patent fuel exports by coun-try, total exports data of patent fuel are included in the exports of other bituminous coal. End-use energy consumption data for the United States present a break in series with historical data due to a change in methodology in 2014. The break in series occurs between 2011 and 2012 for oil; and between 2001 and 2002 for electricity and natural gas. The new methodology is based on the last historical year of the most recent Annual En-ergy Outlook (AEO) publication. Changes occur primarily in reported end-use energy consumption in the industrial sector and its subsectors, including the non-manufacturing industries of mining, con-struction and agriculture. Historical revisions are pending. Due to other changes in reporting meth-odologies, there are numerous breaks in series for the US data, particularly in 1992, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2013. Care should be taken when evalu-ating consumption by sector since inputs of fuel to autoproducers are included in final consumption for some years. Coal tar as a by-product of coke ovens is not cur-rently reported. In 2002, the United States reported synfuel pro-duction as patent fuel for the first time. Prior to 2002, the consumption of this fuel was reported with other bituminous coal. Production ceased in 2007 for economic reasons. Hard coal data prior to 1978 may include sub-bituminous coal. Supply Other sources coal production represents coal pro-duction that does not have a Mine Health and Safety administration (MSHA) identifier. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 63 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 7. UNITS AND CONVERSIONS General conversion factors for energy To: TJ Gcal Mtoe MBtu GWh From: multiply by: TJ 1 x 10-5 Gcal x 10-3 1 10-7 x 10-3 Mtoe x 104 107 1 x 107 11630 MBtu x 10-3 x 10-8 1 x 10-4 GWh 860 x 10-5 3412 1 Conversion factors for mass To: kg t lt st lb From: multiply by: kilogramme (kg) 1 x 10-4 x 10-3 tonne (t) 1000 1 long ton (lt) 1016 1 2240 short ton (st) 1 2000 pound (lb) x 10-4 x 10-4 x 10-4 1 Conversion factors for volume To: gal gal bbl ft3 l m3 From: multiply by: gallon (gal) 1 gallon (gal) 1 Barrel (bbl) 1 Cubic foot (ft3) 1 Litre (l) 1 Cubic metre (m3) 1 64 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Decimal prefixes 101 deca (da) 10-1 deci (d) 102 hecto (h) 10-2 centi (c) 103 kilo (k) 10-3 milli (m) 106 mega (M) 10-6 micro ( ) 109 giga (G) 10-9 nano (n) 1012 tera (T) 10-12 pico (p) 1015 peta (P) 10-15 femto (f) 1018 exa (E) 10-18 atto (a) The conversion factors shown above are available online with greater precision at: COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 65 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 2016 COUNTRY SPECIFIC AVERAGE NET CALORIFIC VALUES [kJ/kg] Anthracite Coking coal Other bituminous coal Sub-bituminous coal Lignite / Oil shale and oil sands1 Peat Patent fuels Coke oven coke Coal tar BKB / Peat products2 Australia 26 700 28 500 25 700 18 478 9 800 - - 27 000 35 714 21 951 Austria 26 700 28 661 27 559 22 054 9 900 - 31 000 28 876 37 030 19 800 Belgium 28 425 29 250 26 261 - - - 30 480 29 308 37 654 20 682 Canada 26 381 25 002 27 302 17 897 14 019 - - 27 457 - - Chile - 28 638 22 121 - - - - 30 145 38 841 - Czech Republic 28 064 28 598 26 254 - 12 625 - - 28 494 35 681 21 453 Denmark - - 23 318 - - - - 29 300 - - Estonia - - 27 150 - 8 3461 11 426 - 28 500 - - Finland 27 550 29 300 25 478 - - 9 950 - 29 300 37 000 - France 32 322 29 500 26 000 - 17 000 - 32 000 28 000 37 883 16 920 Germany 29 700 29 000 27 051 - 9 004 - 31 400 28 650 - 21 473 Greece - - 25 542 - 5 096 - - - - - Hungary - 31 711 26 781 18 920 6 717 - - 29 880 38 000 19 005 Iceland 28 050 - - - - - - 26 670 - - Ireland 30 117 - 24 848 - - 8 922 - - - 19 816 - - - - - - - - - 18 5482 Israel - - 24 875 - 3 970 - - - - - Italy - 30 984 24 985 18 832 10 468 - - 28 800 35 950 - Japan 27 246 28 076 24 386 - - - - 29 181 35 393 - Korea 20 135 28 219 24 660 21 353 - - 18 631 28 889 37 000 - Latvia 27 433 - 23 720 - - 10 050 - - - - Luxembourg 26 700 - 24 400 - - - - 28 500 - 22 200 Mexico 26 685 29 299 25 875 20 134 11 346 - - 28 383 37 970 18 000 Netherlands 29 259 28 627 24 969 - 19 999 - - 28 498 41 876 20 000 New Zealand - 30 282 25 967 20 299 14 508 - - 29 500 - - Norway - - 28 100 - - - - 28 500 - - Poland 25 043 29 500 23 039 - 8 116 - 23 188 28 000 37 720 17 503 Portugal 27 875 - 24 743 - - - - 30 427 - - Slovak Republic 26 263 29 810 26 336 - 10 993 - 28 000 28 102 33 490 17 245 Slovenia - - 27 256 19 376 11 767 - - 29 985 - - Spain 24 078 29 200 23 015 13 520 - - - 26 795 38 519 - Sweden - 30 000 27 400 - - 12 552 - 28 080 - - Switzerland 25 500 - 25 500 - 23 600 - - 25 500 - - Turkey - 29 750 26 035 20 908 8 353 - - 27 000 37 681 - United Kingdom - 30 250 25 368 - - - 28 310 29 800 35 016 - United States 29 349 28 350 26 614 19 047 13 945 - - 28 865 - - Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics Data are weighted averages of supply side statistics, on a net as received (NAR) basis. 66 - COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Coal classification The definitions of products presented are based on those of the Joint IEA/Eurostat/UNECE annual energy questionnaires, and on the United Nations International Recommendations on Energy Statistics. The IEA collects statistics on coal production, trade and consumption according to a technically precise classification based on the quality of coal as follows: Anthracite is a high rank, non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value not less than 24 000 kJ/kg (5 732 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis and with a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of at least ; Coking coal is hard coal suitable for the production of coke that can support a blast furnace charge; Other bituminous coal is an agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value not less than 24 000 kJ/kg (5 732 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis and with a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of at least ; Sub-bituminous coal is a non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value between 24 000 kJ/kg (5 732 kcal/kg) and 20 000 kJ/kg (4 777 kcal/kg and with a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of less than ; and Lignite is a non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value less than 20 000 kJ/kg (4 777 kcal/kg). However, when publishing these data, the IEA sometimes adopts a simplified classification of hard coal, steam coal and brown coal. The correspondence is as follows: Total coal is the sum of hard coal and brown coal; Hard coal is the sum of coking coal, anthracite and other bituminous coal for all countries, plus, prior to 1978, may include sub-bituminous coal for Australia, Belgium, Chile, Finland, France, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal and the United States; Brown coal contains lignite and sub-bituminous coal for all countries barring the exceptions prior to 1978 above; and Steam coal consists of anthracite, other bituminous coal and sub-bituminous coal. The term total coal also refers to the sum of hard coal and brown coal after conversion to a common energy unit (tonne of coal equivalent - tce). The conversion is done by multiplying the calorific value of the coal in question (the conversion fac-tors are submitted by national administrations to the IEA Secretariat each year) by the total volume of hard and brown coal used, measured in physical units, in tonnes. One tce has an energy content of Gigajoules (GJ) or 7 000 kcal and corresponds to tonnes of oil equivalent (toe). Defining coal consumption Energy statistics are compiled and presented to take account of the complexity in the way fuels are used and to avoid dou-ble counting. Misunderstandings can arise when statistics on coal consumption are used because of the particular terminol-ogy used by energy statisticians. Coal is used in four possible ways: As a primary input to produce electricity or a secondary/tertiary fuel that is used elsewhere or sold - this is referred to as use in transformation processes; coking coal used to produce coke in a coke oven or steam coal used to produce electricity. As a fuel used to support a transformation process - this is referred to as energy industry own use; coke oven gas used to heat the coke oven or steam coal used to operate the power plant. As a fuel consumed in manufacturing, industry, mining and construction, in transport, in agriculture, in commercial and public services and in households - this is referred to as use in the final consumption sectors; steam coal used to produce heat in cement kilns, steam coal used to produce industrial process steam. As a raw material - this is referred to as non-energy use; coal tar used as a chemical feedstock. In the wider community, the term consumption is commonly understood to include all of the above end-uses. In Parts IV and V of this book, the term consumption refers only to use in the final consumption sectors ( in the third item above). In Parts II and III, consumption , unless otherwise specified, refers to Total Primary Energy Supply as defined in the sec-tion in Flows: energy balance in Part I Definitions. COAL INFORMATION: DATABASE DOCUMENTATION (2018 preliminary edition) - 67 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 8. ABBREVIATIONS Units and technical abbreviations t : metric ton = tonne = 1000 kg kt : thousand tonnes Mt : million tonnes toe : tonne of oil equivalent Mtoe : million tonnes of oil equivalent tce : tonne of coal equivalent (= toe) Mtce : million tonnes of coal equivalent kcal : kilocalories (103 calories) MBtu : million British thermal units GWh : million kilowatt hours USD : US dollars GDP : Gross Domestic Product GCV : gross calorific value PCI : coals for pulverised injection TPES : Total primary energy supply EU : European Union FSU : Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics/Soviet Union OECD : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development UN : United Nations UNECE : United Nations Economic Commission for Europe 0 or : negligible c : confidential e : estimated .. : not available - : nil x : not applicable

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