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CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS - iccsafe.org

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS SECTION BC 901 GENERAL 901.1Scope.Theprovisionsofthischaptershallspecifywhere fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the

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Text of CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS - iccsafe.org

CHAPTER 9FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMSSECTION BC provisions of this chapter shall specify wherefire protection systems are required and shall apply to thedesign, installation and operation of fire protection Referenced this code makes ref-erence to the nationally recognized standards NFPA 13,NFPA 13D, NFPA 13R, NFPA 14, or NFPA 72, such stan-dard shall be as modified for New York City in accordancewith Appendix Fire protection protection systems shallbe installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordancewith this code and theNew York City Fire Code. Any fire pro-tection system for which an exception or reduction to the provi-sions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be arequired :Any fire protection system or portion thereofnot required by this code shall be permitted to be installedprovided that such system meets the requirements of person shall remove or modify anyfire protection system installed or maintained under the provi-sions of this code or theNew York City Fire Codewithoutapproval by the provided for Fire Department connec-tions to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or anyother fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connec-tions used by the Fire Acceptance protection systems shall be testedin accordance with the requirements of this code and the NewYork City Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be con-ducted in the presence of the department or an approvedagency. Tests required by this code, theNew York City FireCodeand the standards listed in this code shall be conducted atthe expense of the owner or the owner's representative. It shallbe unlawful to occupy portions of a structure until the requiredfire protection systems within that portion of the structure havebeen tested and Supervisory required, fire protectionsystems shall be monitored by an approved supervising stationin accordance with NFPA Automatic sprinkler sprin-kler systems shall be monitored by an approved :1. A supervising station is not required for automaticsprinkler systems protecting one- and Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than20 sprinkler Fire alarm alarm systems requiredby the provisions of Section of this code and theNewYork City Fire Codeshall be monitored by an approvedsupervising station in accordance with Section :1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms andcarbon monoxide alarms required by Smoke detectors in Group I-3 Supervisory service is not required for automaticsprinkler systems in one- and two-family Group fire alarm, automatic fire-extin-guishing and emergency alarm systems in Group H occu-pancies shall be monitored by an approved Fire buildings, or portions thereof, aredivided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits establishedfor requiring a fire protection system in accordance with thischapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers hav-ing a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined inaccordance with Section BC following words and terms shall, for thepurposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code,have the meanings shown NOTIFICATION fire alarm sys-tem component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text dis-play that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or anycombination signal indicating an emergency requir-ing immediate action, such as a signal indicative of unit containing one or more indicatorlamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means inwhich each indication provides status information about a cir-cuit, condition or ALARM NOTIFICATION appliance that alerts by the sense of applied to fire protection devices, anydevice, equipment, or system that initiates a system function asa result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of tempera-ture rise or combustion products, without the necessity forhuman FIRE-EXTINGUISHING system of devices and equipment that automaticallydetects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishingagent onto or in the area of a NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE173 :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:13 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenAUTOMATIC SPRINKLER automaticfire-extinguishing system utilizing water, designed in accor-dance with fire protection engineering standards. The systemincludes a suitable water supply and a network of speciallysized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure orarea, generally overhead, to which automatic sprinklers areconnected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually acti-vated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire AMBIENT SOUND root meansquare, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a24-hour DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING fire-extinguishing system supplying carbon dioxide(CO2) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and noz-zles. The system includes a manual- or MONOXIDE single- or multiple-sta-tion alarm responsive to carbon monoxide and not connected toa MONOXIDE listed device thatsenses carbon MONOXIDE PRODUCING furnace, boiler, water heater, fireplace, cooking appliance,gas clothes dryer, apparatus, appliance or device that burnscoal, kerosene, oil, wood, fuel gases and other petroleum prod-ucts including, but not limited to, methane, natural gas, lique-fied natural gas and manufactured fuel maximum concentration of anair-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed, as pub-lished in DOL 29 CFR Part facility that receives alarm signalsfrom a protected premise and/or retransmits such alarm signalsto a Fire Department communication nonconducting, volatile or gas-eous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon COOKING system consist-ing of commercial cooking equipment, exhaust hood, filters,exhaust duct system, fire suppression system and other relatedappurtenances designed to capture grease-laden cookingvapors and exhaust them safely to the ATTENDED designatedlocation at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continu-ous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored andfacilities are provided for notification of the Fire Department orother emergency SPRINKLER sprinkler systememploying open sprinklers attached to a piping system con-nected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by theoperation of a detection system installed in the same areas asthe sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the pip-ing system and discharges from all sprinklers attached , fire detector that senses heat pro-duced by burning substances. Heat is the energy produced bycombustion that causes substances to rise in EXTINGUISHING fire-extinguishing system designed to discharge a powder com-posed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potas-sium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate,potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with addedparticulate material supplemented by special treatment to pro-vide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption(caking) and the proper flow ALARM system to provideindication and warning of an emergency condition involvinghazardous VOICE/ALARM manual or automatic facilities for originating anddistributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuationsignals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of ALARM BOX, Manual Fire AlarmBox. FIRE ALARM CONTROL system componentthat receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarmdevices and is capable of supplying power to detection devicesand transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The controlpanel is capable of providing a transfer of power to the notifica-tion appliances and transfer of condition to relays or ALARM signal initiated by a firealarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, auto-matic fire detector, water flow switch, or other device whoseactivation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire ALARM system or portion of a combina-tion system consisting of components and circuits arranged tomonitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisorysignal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriateresponse to those COMMAND principal attended orunattended location where the status of detection, alarm com-munications and control systems is displayed, and from whichthe system(s) can be manually DETECTOR, device designed todetect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate PROTECTION devices, equip-ment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect afire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control ormanage smoke and products of a fire or any SAFETY and fire controlfunctions that are intended to increase the level of life safety foroccupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of fire-extinguishingsystem designed to discharge a foam made from concentrates,either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be EXTINGUISHING auto-matic fire-extinguishing system using one or more of the fol-lowing halogen elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:14 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenINITIATING system component that originatestransmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smokedetector, manual fire alarm box or supervisory AREA SPRINKLER automaticsprinkler system serving fewer than 20 sprinkler heads on anysingle Chapter 1 of Title 28 of theAdministrative FIRE ALARM manually operated deviceused to initiate an alarm ALARM or moresingle-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnectionsuch that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audiblealarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarmdevice having connections to other detectors or to a manual firealarm SMOKE or moresingle-station smoke alarm devices that are capable of inter-connection such that actuation of one causes all integral or sep-arate audible alarms to fire alarm system having a featurethat allows initial fire alarm signals to sound in a constantlyattended central location and for which a human action is sub-sequently required to achieve a general alarm, or a feature thatallows the control equipment to delay the general alarm bymore than 1 minute after the start of the alarm ( as builts ) that docu-ment the location of all devices, appliances, wiring sequences,wiring methods and connections of the components of a firealarm system as SMOKE assembly incor-porating the detector, the control equipment and thealarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup-ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of single- or multiple-station alarmresponsive to smoke and not connected to a listed device that senses visible orinvisible particles of exit stairway designedand constructed so that the movement of the products of com-bustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the buildinginto the enclosure is installed in a building orstructure that serves to transfer water from a water supply tohose connections at one or more locations in a building orstructure for fire-fighting purposes, including the followingtypes of systems:Automatic dry standpipe system, normally filledwith pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of adevice, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the sys-tem piping automatically upon the opening of a hose water supply for an automatic dry standpipe systemshall be capable of supplying the system wet standpipe system that has a watersupply that is capable of supplying the system demand dry standpipe system that does not have apermanent water supply attached to the system. Manual drystandpipe systems require water from a Fire Departmentpumper to be pumped into the system through the FireDepartment connection in order to meet the system wet standpipe system connected to a watersupply for the purpose of maintaining water within the sys-tem but that does not have a water supply capable of deliver-ing the system demand attached to the system. Manual-wetstandpipe systems require water from a Fire Departmentpumper to be pumped into the system in order to meet thesystem dry standpipe system that isarranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve,to admit water into the system piping upon activation of aremote control device located at a hose connection. Aremote control activation device shall be provided at eachhose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic drystandpipe system shall be capable of supplying the SYSTEM, CLASSES classesare as follows:Class I system providing 21/2-inch (64 mm) hoseconnections to supply water for use by the Fire Departmentand those trained in handling heavy fire II system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm)hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the build-ing occupants or by the Fire Department during III system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm)hose stations to supply water for use by building occupantsand 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a largervolume of water for use by the Fire Department and thosetrained in handling heavy fire facility that receives signalsand at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respondto these service required to monitorperformance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixedsuppression systems or other systems for the protection of lifeand signal indicating the need foraction in connection with the supervision of guard tours, firesuppression systems or equipment, fire alarm systems, or themaintenance features of related SIGNAL-INITIATING ini-tiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, water-levelindicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinklersystem, whose change of state signals an off-normal conditionand its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safetysystem, or a need for action in connection with the supervisionof guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment, firealarm systems, or the maintenance features of related , BULK STORAGE of tires where thearea available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3).2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE175FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:14 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenTROUBLE signal initiated by the fire alarm sys-tem or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or ALARM NOTIFICATION appliance that alerts by the sense of EXTINGUISHING solu-tion of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potas-sium-acetate-based chemicalor a combination thereof,forming an extinguishing PROTECTION system or a partof a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aidof defined area within the protected premises. A zonecan define an area from which a signal can be received, an areato which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of con-trol can be BC 903AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER sprinkler systems shall complywith this section. Installation of automatic sprinkler systemsshall comply with the special inspection requirements of Chap-ter Alternative the discharge ofwater would be hazardous, alternative automatic fire-extin-guishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be per-mitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection whererecognized by the applicable standard and approved by Construction docu-ments for automatic sprinkler systems shall contain plansthat include the following data and information:1. The location and size of water supplies and the loca-tion, spacing, number, and type of sprinkler heads tobe used, with approximate location and size of all feedmains, valves and other essential features of the sys-tem. For hydraulically calculated systems, hydraulicdata substantiating pipe sizes shown shall be submit-ted and hydraulic reference points and areas must beindicated on the A diagram showing the proposed sprinkler system inrelation to principal construction features of thebuilding, such as its size, walls, columns, and parti-tions; and such other information as may be necessaryfor the evaluation of the The location, number, and type of any electrical orautomatic devices or alarms to be used in the In buildings where a new separate fire sprinkler sys-tem is required, the available water pressure at the topand bottom floors of each zone shall be shown on theriser For street pressure-fed systems and fire pumps, astatement from the New York City Department ofEnvironmental Protection, giving the minimum waterpressure in the main serving the Where automatic sprinkler sys-tems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in thelocations described in this :Sprinklers shall not be required in electricalequipment rooms where all of the following conditions aremet:1. The room is dedicated to electrical equipment Only dry-type electrical equipment is Equipment is installed in a 2-hour fire-rated enclosureincluding protection for No combustible storage is permitted to be stored inthe Group automatic sprinkler system shall beprovided throughout buildings and portions thereof used asGroup A occupancies as provided in this section. The auto-matic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout thefloor area where the Group A occupancy is located, and inall floors between the Group A occupancy and the level ofexit discharge. In all Group A occupancies providing liveentertainment, dressing rooms and property rooms used inconjunction with such assembly occupancy shall be pro-vided with an automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall com-ply with Section Group automatic sprinkler systemshall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where anyone of the following conditions exists:1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115m2).2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or The aggregate occupant load of all fire areas occu-pied by Group A, located on any given floor otherthan the level of exit discharge, is 300 or The fire area contains a multitheater Group automatic sprinkler systemshall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where anyone of the following conditions exists:1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet ( m2).2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or The aggregate occupant load of all fire areas occu-pied by Group A, located on any given floor otherthan the level of exit discharge, is 300 or The A-2 occupancy is used as a Group automatic sprinkler systemshall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where anyone of the following conditions exists:1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115m2).2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:14 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screen3. The aggregate occupant load of all fire areas occu-pied by Group A, located on any given floor otherthan the level of exit discharge, is 300 or :Areas used exclusively as partici-pant sports areas where the main floor area islocated at the same level as the level of exit dis-charge of the main entrance and Group automatic sprinkler systemshall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where anyone of the following conditions exists:1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115m2).2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or The aggregate occupant load of all fire areas occu-pied by Group A, located on any given floor otherthan the level of exit discharge, is 300 or :Areas used exclusively as participantsports areas where the main floor area is located at thesame level as the level of exit discharge of the mainentrance and Group automatic sprinkler systemshall be provided in all enclosed areas of the structure,including but not limited to the concession concourse,concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and otheraccessory occupancies, in excess of 1,000 square feet (93m2). Group automatic sprinkler system shall beprovided for Group E occupancies as follows:1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 20,000square feet (1858 m2) in Throughout every portion of educational buildingsbelow the level of exit :An automatic sprinkler system is notrequired in any fire area or area below the level ofexit discharge where every classroom throughoutthe building has at least one exterior exit door atground level without intervening corridors, pas-sageways, or exit Group automatic sprinkler system shall beprovided throughout all buildings containing a Group Foccupancy where any one of the following conditionsexists:1. Where a Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 squarefeet (1115 m2);2. Where a Group F-1 fire area is located more than threestories above grade; or3. Where the combined area of all Group F-1 fire areason all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds24,000 square feet (2230 m2); or4. Where required by Section 280 of theNew York StateLabor Lawfor factory buildings defined in Section2 of such Woodworking automaticsprinkler system shall be provided throughout any GroupF-1 occupancy fire area that contains wood workingoperations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in areathat generate finely divided combustible waste or usefinely divided combustible Repair automatic sprinkler sys-tem shall be provided throughout all buildings used asrepair garages in accordance with Section 406, as fol-lows:1. Buildings two or more stories in height, includingbasements, with a fire area containing a repairgarage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).2. One-story buildings with a fire area containing arepair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115m2).3. Buildings with a repair garage servicing vehiclesparked in the Group F-1 fire automatic sprinklersystem shall be provided throughout any Group F-1occupancy fire area where any one of the following con-ditions exists:1. The fire area exceeds 7,500 square feet (697 m2).2. The fire area of any size is located more than threestories above Group sprinkler systems shall beprovided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sec-tions through and theNew York CityFire automatic sprinkler system shallbe installed in Group H occupancies. An automaticsprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildingswith a main use or dominant occupancy of Group Group automatic sprinkler systemshall be installed throughout buildings containing GroupH-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler systemshall not be less than that required by this code for theoccupancy hazard classifications in accordance withTable Where the design area of the sprinklersystem consists of a corridor protected by one row ofsprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers requiredto be calculated is 13.[F] TABLE H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIALOCATIONOCCUPANCY HAZARDCLASSIFICATIONFabrication areasOrdinary Hazard Group 2Service corridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2Storage rooms without dispensingOrdinary Hazard Group 2Storage rooms with dispensingExtra Hazard Group 2CorridorsOrdinary Hazard Group Pyroxylin automatic sprinklersystem shall be provided in buildings, or portionsthereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plasticsare manufactured, stored or handled in quantitiesexceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE177FIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:15 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default Group automatic sprinkler system shall beprovided in Group I occupancies. An automatic sprinklersystem shall be installed throughout buildings with a mainuse or dominant occupancy of Group :An automatic sprinkler system installed inaccordance with Section or shall beallowed in Group I-1 Group automatic sprinkler system shall beprovided throughout buildings containing a Group M occu-pancy where any one of the following conditions exists:1. Where a Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 squarefeet (1115 m2);2. Where the combined area of all Group M fire areas onall floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000square feet (2230 m2). High-piled automatic sprinklersystem shall be provided in accordance with theNewYork City Fire Codein all buildings of Group M wherestorage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack Group M fire automatic sprinklersystem shall be provided throughout any Group M occu-pancy fire area where any one of the following condi-tions exists:1. The fire area exceeds 7,500 square feet (697 m2).2. The fire area of any size is located more than 3 sto-ries above The fire area of any size is located in a The fire area of any size contains an unenclosedstair or escalator connecting two or more Group automatic sprinkler system shall beinstalled in Group R fire areas. An automatic sprinkler sys-tem shall be installed throughout buildings with a main useor dominant occupancy of Group :An automatic sprinkler system shall not berequired in detached one- and two-family dwellings andmultiple single-family dwellings (townhouses), pro-vided that such structures are not more than three storiesabove grade plane in height and have separate means Group automatic sprinkler system shall beprovided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1occupancy where any one of the following conditionsexists:1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet(1115 m2);2. The building is greater than 1,000 square feet ( ) in area and the main use or dominant occupancy isGroup S-1; or3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on allfloors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000square feet (2230 m2). Group S-1 fire automatic sprinklersystem shall be provided throughout any Group S-1occupancy fire area where any one of the following con-ditions exists:1. The fire area exceeds 500 square feet (46 m2).2. The fire area of any size is located more than 3 sto-ries above Bulk storage of and structureswhere the area for the storage of tires exceeds 500 squarefeet (47 m2) or 7,500 cubic feet (212 m3) shall be equip-ped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system inaccordance with Section Group automatic sprinkler system shall beinstalled throughout buildings greater than 5,000 squarefeet (465 m2) in area where the main use or dominant occu-pancy is Group Commercial parking automaticsprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildingsused for storage of commercial trucks or buses where thefire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (465 m2). Group S-2 fire automatic sprinklersystem shall be provided throughout any Group S-2occupancy fire area greater than 5,000 square feet (465m2). Parking automatic sprinkler sys-tem shall be provided throughout buildings classified asenclosed parking garages in accordance with or where an open or enclosed parking garage islocated beneath other occupancy :Parking garages located beneath GroupR-3 All automatic sprinkler systemshall be installed in the locations set forth in through Above- or below-grade auto-matic sprinkler system shall be installed throughoutevery above- or below-grade story of all buildings wherethe floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet ( m2) andwhere there is not provided at least one of the followingtypes of exterior wall openings:1. Openings below grade that lead directly to groundlevel by an exterior stairway complying with Sec-tion 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Sec-tion 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, ofexterior walls facing onto a street, public way orfrontage space, in the story on at least one Openings entirely above the adjoining groundlevel totaling at least 20 square feet ( m2)ineach 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fractionthereof, of exterior walls facing onto a street, pub-lic way or frontage space, in the story on at leastone Opening dimensions and shall have a minimum dimension of not less1782008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:15 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenthan 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall beaccessible to the Fire Department from the exteriorand shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fight-ing or rescue cannot be accomplished from the Openings on one side suchopenings in a story are provided on only one side andthe opposite wall of such story is more than 100 feet(30 480 mm) from such openings, the story shall beequipped throughout with an approved automaticsprinkler system, or openings as specified above shallbe provided on at least two sides of the Below-grade any por-tion of a below-grade story is located more than 75feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by , the below-grade story shall be equippedthroughout with an approved automatic sprinkler Rubbish and linen automaticsprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbishand linen chutes, in chute access rooms, and in their ter-minal rooms. Chutes extending through three or morefloors shall have additional sprinkler heads installedwithin such chutes at alternate floors. Chute sprinklersshall be accessible for Buildings over 55 feet in auto-matic sprinkler system shall be installed throughoutbuildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or moreabove the lowest level of fire department vehicle Steel-plated and vault-like automatic sprinkler system shall be installedthroughout all steel-plated or similarly reinforced orsecured vault-like occupancies regardless of Refuse collection and disposal sprinkler system shall be installed throughoutall areas used for the storage and sorting of refuse Laundry drying automatic sprin-kler system shall be installed in spaces in which two ormore clothes drying machines are installed. Sprinklerheads shall be spaced to cover the areas 5 feet (1524 mm)on all sides of the drying During sprinkler sys-tems required during construction, alteration and demoli-tion operations shall be provided in accordance withChapter 33 and theNew York City Fire Other sprinkler protectionshall be provided for the hazards indicated in and Ducts conveying hazardous required by theNew York City Mechanical Code,automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts convey-ing hazardous exhaust, or flammable or :Ducts in which the largest cross-sectionaldiameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm). Commercial cooking auto-matic sprinkler system shall not be installed in a com-mercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system. Fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in commercialcooking systems in accordance with Section Other buildings, occupancies and to the requirements of Section , the provi-sions indicated in Table also require the installa-tion of a suppression system for certain buildings and systems shall also be required as provided forin other sections of this code, theNew York City Fuel GasCode, and theNew York City Mechanical Code.[F] TABLE REQUIRED SUPPRESSION , amusement rooms507Unlimited area buildingsNYCFCNFPA-13 as modified for Installation sprinkler sys-tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec-tions through systems shall be designedand installed in accordance with Section , or NFPA 13 sprinkler the pro-visions of this code require that a building or portionthereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin-kler system in accordance with Section , sprin-klers shall be installed throughout in accordance withNFPA 13 as modified in Appendix Q except as providedin Section Exempt locations protected by sprinklers shall not be required inthe following rooms or areas where such rooms orareas are protected with an approved automatic firedetection system in accordance with Section will respond to visible or invisible particles ofcombustion and an alternative extinguishing system2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE179FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:15 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenin accordance with Section 904. Sprinklers shall notbe omitted from any room merely because it is damp,of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains elec-trical Any room where the application of water, orflame and water, constitutes a serious life or Any room or space where sprinklers are consid-ered undesirable because of the nature of thecontents, when approved by the Generator and transformer rooms separatedfrom the remainder of the building by walls andfloor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies havinga fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 NFPA 13R sprinkler in buildings of Group R, up to and including sixstories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall beinstalled throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R asmodified in Appendix protection shall beprovided for exterior balconies and ground-floorpatios of dwelling units where the building is of TypeV construction and automatic sprinkler protection isrequired for the Group R occupancy. Side wall sprin-klers that are used to protect such areas shall be per-mitted to be located such that their deflectors arewithin 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below thestructural members, and a maximum distance of 14inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balco-nies that are constructed of open wood joist NFPA 13D sprinkler , automatic sprinkler systems in one- andtwo-family dwellings shall be installed throughout inaccordance with NFPA 13D as Quick-response and residential automatic sprinkler systems are required by thiscode, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklersshall be installed in the following areas in accordance withSection and their listings:1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartmentcontaining patient dwelling units in Group I-2 inaccordance with this Dwelling units in Group R and I-1 Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA Obstructed sprinklers shallbe installed with due regard to obstructions that will delayactivation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Auto-matic sprinklers shall be installed in or under coveredkiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipmentthat exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained betweenautomatic sprinklers and the top of piles of :Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoodsprotected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordancewith Section sprinkler systems shall beautomatically actuated unless otherwise specifically pro-vided in this Water supplies for automaticsprinkler systems shall comply with this section and thestandards referenced in Section The potable watersupply shall be protected against back flow in accordancewith the requirements of this section, theNew York CityPlumbing Code, and Rules of the New York City Depart-ment of Environmental Domestic the domestic ser-vice provides the water supply for the automatic sprin-kler system, the supply shall be in accordance withNFPA Limited area sprinkler area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20sprinklers on any single connection are permitted tobe connected to the domestic service where a wetautomatic standpipe is not available. Limited areasprinkler systems connected to domestic water sup-plies shall comply with NFPA domestic service shall be capable of supplyingthe simultaneous domestic demand and the sprinklerdemand required to be hydraulically calculated byNFPA 13, NFPA 13R or NFPA Residential combination combination water supply shall be permitted inaccordance with NFPA Secondary water secondary on-sitewater supply equal to the hydraulically calculated sprin-kler demand, including the hose stream requirement,shall be provided for high-rise buildings in SeismicDesign Category C or D as determined by this code, andin any high-rise building greater than 300 feet (91 440mm) in height. The secondary water supply shall have aduration not less than 30 minutes as determined by theoccupancy hazard classification in accordance withNFPA Hose hose threads used in connectionwith automatic sprinkler systems shall be approved andcompatible with Fire Department hose Fire Department location ofFire Department connections shall be installed in accor-dance with Section 905 of this Sprinkler system monitoring and valvescontrolling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems,pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pres-1802008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:16 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screensures and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall beelectrically supervised by the fire alarm :1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- andtwo-family Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordancewith NFPA 13R where a common supply main is usedto supply both domestic water and the automaticsprinkler systems and a separate shutoff valve for theautomatic sprinkler system is not Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or lockedin the open Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paintspray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked inthe open Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pumpengines that are sealed or locked in the open Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction anddeluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked inthe open , supervisory and trouble signalsshall be distinctly different and automatically transmitted toan approved central station, remote supervising station orproprietary supervising station as defined in NFPA 72 or,when approved by the commissioner, shall sound an audiblesignal at a constantly attended :1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxesprovided by the city or a public utility are notrequired to be Back flow prevention device test valves, located inlimited area sprinkler system supply piping, shallbe locked in the open position. In occupanciesrequired to be equipped with a fire alarm system,the back flow preventer valves shall be electricallysupervised by a tamper switch installed in accor-dance with NFPA 72 and separately audible devices shall be con-nected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinklerwater-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flowequivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallestorifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall beprovided on the exterior of the building in an approved loca-tion. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of theautomatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building firealarm Floor control supervised indi-cating control valves shall be provided at the point of con-nection to the riser on each floor in high-rise Testing and systems shall betested and maintained in accordance with theNew York CityFire BC 904ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC fire-extinguishing systems, otherthan automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed,inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provi-sions of this section, theNew York City Fire Code, and theapplicable referenced Construction docu-ments for alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systemsshall be approved by the Fire Department and shall containplans that include at least the following data and informa-tion:1. Commercial kitchen suppression Location of all surface, plenum and duct noz-zles; surface dimensions and location of allcooking appliances; the location of automaticfuel shutoff and statement as to type (gas orelectric); location and distance of the remotecontrol or manual pull station; Identification of the grease filters to be used inany kitchen hood; the dimensions of all hoodsand all related ducts, including termination ofduct at the exterior of the building; Identification of the fire suppression pipingsystem; the make and model of the system; thetype of extinguishing agent and number andsize of agent containers; size, length, and typeof all piping that will be used; the number andlocation of all fusible links or detectors andthe temperature setting; any surface, plenumand duct For extinguishing agent systems, the plan should alsoinclude type and concentration of the extinguishingagent, the method of providing power supply tosmoke or heat detectors, fire rating of partitions, loca-tion of all audible/visible alarms within and outsidethe location involved and the details of constructionof the room to contain the extinguishing agent. If thearea is not sprinklered, the following information The size and location of the reserve supply,and3. The plans must note whether the proposed system isconnected to the building s fire alarm :For that portion of a fire suppression pipingsystem within an approved preengineered system, aschematic isometric diagram shall be acceptable in lieuof full plans, provided that the location and method ofpressure relief must be indicated with areas and volumesto where said relief is Where fire-extinguishing systemsinstalled as an alternative to the required automatic sprinklersystems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE181FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:16 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenalternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions per-mitted by other requirements of this :Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installedin Group H occupancies as an alternative to the requiredautomatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall beapproved by the fire Hood system required com-mercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required bytheNew York City Fire Codeor theNew York City Mechani-cal Codeto have a Type I hood shall be protected with anapproved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed inaccordance with this fire-extinguishing systems shallbe installed in accordance with this Electrical wiring shall be inaccordance with theNew York City Electrical fire-extinguishing systemsshall be automatically actuated and provided with a manualmeans of actuation in accordance with Section System equipment inter-locks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers,window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat ventsand other features necessary for proper operation of thefire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required bythe design and installation standard utilized for the Alarms and warning alarms arerequired to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin-guishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms andwarning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agentdischarge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishingagents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required toensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge,a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occu-pants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shallbe in accordance with Section a building fire alarm system isinstalled, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall bemonitored by the building fire alarm system in accordancewith NFPA Inspection and fire-extinguishingsystems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with theprovisions of this section prior to to conducting final acceptancetests, the following items shall be inspected:1. Hazard specification for consistency with design Type, location and spacing of automatic- and man-ual-initiating Size, placement and position of nozzles or Location and identification of audible and visiblealarm Identification of devices with proper Operating Alarm appliances, connec-tions to fire alarm systems and connections to approvedsupervising stations shall be tested in accordance with thissection and Section 907 to verify proper Audible and visible audibilityand visibility of notification appliances signaling agentdischarge or system operation, where required, shall Monitor to protected pre-mises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall betested to verify proper identification and retransmission ofalarms from automatic fire-extinguishing Wet-chemical extinguishingsystems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspectedand tested in accordance with theNew York City Fire Dry-chemical extinguishingsystems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspectedand tested in accordance with theNew York City Fire dry-chemical extinguishing systems are not permitted forthe protection of kitchen Foam systems shall beinstalled, maintained, periodically inspected and tested inaccordance with theNew York City Fire Carbon dioxide dioxide extinguishingsystems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspectedand tested in accordance with theNew York City Fire Halon extinguishing systemsshall not be permitted. However, existing systems shall bemaintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordancewith theNew York City Fire Clean-agent fire-extinguishingsystems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspectedand tested in accordance with theNew York City Fire Commercial cooking automaticfire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systemsshall be of a type recognized for protection of commercialcooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type andarrangement protected. Pre-engineered automatic wet-chemi-cal extinguishing systems shall be approved by the fire com-missioner, tested in accordance with UL 300, and listed andlabeled for the intended application. The protected area shallinclude the area under the hood and over the cooking equip-ment, the area above or behind the filters and the opening of thehood into the branch duct. Where a preengineered system isinstalled and the size of the protected area exceeds that allowedfor a single preengineered system, additional preengineeredsystems arranged for simultaneous operation shall be pro-vided. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systemsshall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection forcommercial cooking operations. The system shall be installedin accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer'sinstallation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systemsof the following types shall be installed in accordance with the1822008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:16 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenNew York City Fire Codeand the referenced standard indicated,as shown:1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, in accordancewith theNew York City Fire Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, in accordancewith theNew York City Fire Manual system manual actuationdevice shall be located at or near a means of egress from thecooking areas, a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maxi-mum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust manual activation device shall be located at a minimumof 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1219mm) above the floor at its center. The manual actuationdevice shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N)and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuatethe fire suppression :Automatic sprinkler systems shall not berequired to be equipped with manual actuation System actuation of the firesuppression system shall automatically shut down the fuelor electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. Thefuel and electrical supply reset shall be Carbon dioxide carbon dioxidesystems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ven-tilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetricallyarranged to give uniform distribution shall be installedwithin vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and hori-zontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shallbe installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct andshall be arranged to operate automatically upon activationof the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper isinstalled at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be imme-diately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxidefire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to pro-tect against all hazards venting through a common Ventilation cook-ing equipment protected by an automatic carbon diox-ide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off theventilation system upon Water-mist fire-extinguishingsystems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspectedand tested in accordance with theNew York City Fire BC 905STANDPIPE systems shall be provided in build-ings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hosethreads used in connection with standpipe systems shall beapproved by the fire commissioner. The location of FireDepartment hose connections shall be approved by the firecommissioner. Standpipe systems in buildings used forhigh-piled combustible storage shall be in accordance with theNew York City Fire Code. Installation of standpipe systemsshall comply with the special inspection requirements of Chap-ter space or room that contains equipment of such naturethat the use of water would be ineffective in fighting a firetherein, or would be otherwise hazardous, shall have a conspic-uous sign on each door opening on such space or room statingthe nature of the use and the warning: IN CASE OF FIRE,USE NO WATER. Construction docu-ments for standpipe systems shall contain plans that includeat least the following data and information:1. The locations and sizes of all risers, cross-connec-tions, hose racks, valves, siamese connections,sources of water supply, piping, and other essentialfeatures of the system;2. A floor plan for each group of floors that have typicalriser locations and no special features within suchgroup of floor levels, with the indication in title blockof such plan indicating clearly the floors to which thearrangement is applicable;3. A riser diagram showing the essential features of thesystem, including the risers, cross-connections,valves, siamese connections, tanks, pumps, sourcesof water supply, pipe sizes, capacities, floor heights,zone pressures, and other essential data and featuresof the system; and4. The available water pressure at the top and bottomfloors of each zone, and at each floor where theweight pipe fittings change, shall be shown on theriser diagram;5. For street pressure-fed systems and fire pumps, astatement from the New York City Department ofEnvironmental Protection, giving the minimum waterpressure in the main serving the Installation systems shall beinstalled in accordance with this section and NFPA 14 as modi-fied in Appendix Required systems shall beinstalled where required by Sections through in the locations indicated in Sections , Standpipe systems are permitted to be combined withautomatic sprinkler :Standpipe systems are not required in buildingsoccupied entirely by Group III standpipe systems shall beinstalled throughout the following buildings:1. In buildings two stories or more in height with floorarea of 10,000 square feet (929 m2) or greater on anystory;2. In buildings three stories or more in height with floorarea of 7,500 square feet (697 m2) or greater on anystory;3. In buildings of any area with a floor level having anoccupant load of 30 or more that is located 55 feet (16764 mm) or more above the lowest level of FireDepartment vehicle access;2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE183FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:17 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screen4. In buildings of any area, constructed in accordancewith Section 403, with occupied floors located 75 feet(22 860 mm) or more above the lowest level of FireDepartment vehicle :The following exceptions are allowed as analternative to the requirement of a Class III standpipesystem:1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildingsequipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem in accordance with Section provided that the following additionalrequirements are A locked storage cabinet shall be provided onthe main entrance floor in a location approvedby the Fire Commissioner near the standpiperiser enclosure. Such cabinet shall contain atleast three open nozzles, two (38mm) spanner wrenches, two (64mm) spanner wrenches, two (64mm) by inch (38 mm) nonswivel reducingcouplings, and 375 feet (114 m) of inch(38 mm) hose. However, the hose may beomitted when serving Group R-2 A key for unlocking the storage cabi-net shall be kept in a location where itis readily available to authorized per-sons, but not available to the generalpublic. A sign shall be placed on thestorage cabinet indicating the locationof such An additional labeled key shall bekept in a locked receptacle near thestorage cabinet openable by a FireDepartment standard key. Such recep-tacle shall be labeled, FOR FIREDEPARTMENT USE ONLY. A metal sign shall be placed in eachstair enclosure on the main entrancefloor stating clearly where the storagecabinet is Hose valves are capped with a hose valve capfastened to the valve with a Class I manual standpipes are allowed in openparking garages where the highest floor is locatednot more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the low-est level of fire department vehicle Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in openparking garages that are subject to freezing tem-peratures, provided that the hose connections arelocated as required for Class II standpipes in accor-dance with Section Class I standpipes are allowed in below-grade sto-ries equipped throughout with an automatic sprin-kler Standpipe outlets may be omitted in portions offirst floors or basements that are completely sepa-rated from the entrance hall or enclosed stairwaysleading to the upper floors, provided that portablefire extinguishers are installed, subject to theapproval of the fire Group I automatic wet standpipes shall beprovided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having anoccupant load exceeding 1,000 :1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic drystandpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowedin buildings where the highest floor surface usedfor human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) orless above the lowest level of fire department vehi-cle access. Dry standpipes are permitted onlywhere subject to freezing Covered mall mall buildingsand buildings connected thereto shall be equipped through-out with a Class I automatic wet standpipe system, except aspermitted by Sections through Covered-mall building where the highest occupied floor level islocated not more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the low-est level of the Fire Department vehicle access shall bepermitted to be provided with Class I hose connectionsconnected to the mall sprinkler system in accordancewith Section of NFPA 13 regarding hose con-nections for Fire Department use and under the follow-ing conditions:1. Any individual outlet shall be capable of deliver-ing water flow at a rate of 250 gallons per minute(946 L/m) while concurrently supplying the mallsprinkler demand; and2. Each of the two most hydraulically remote outletsshall be capable of concurrently delivering 250gallons per minute (946 L/m) at a pressure of 100pounds per square inch ( kPa) with no mallsprinkler demand, based on a supply pressure atthe system Fire Department connection of notmore than 175 pounds per square inch (1207 kPa).Adequacy of the water supply available to the FireDepartment to meet the hydraulic calculationsshall be demonstrated by the registered design Location of hose connec-tions shall be provided in accordance with Section at each of the following locations:1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit pas-sageway or At each floor-level landing within enclosed stair-ways opening directly on the At exterior public entrances to the NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:17 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default Installation as provided inSections and , the Class I hose con-nections and Fire Department connections shall bedesigned in conformance with NFPA greater than 1,000 square feet in area(93 m2) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe sys-tem with and (38 mm and 64 mm) hoseconnections on each side of the :Where the building or area is equippedthroughout with an automatic sprinkler system, the hoseconnections are allowed to be supplied from the auto-matic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 Sec-tion and shall have a flow rate of not less thanthat required by NFPA 14 for Class III Hose and (38 mm)hose connections shall be equipped with sufficientlengths of (38 mm) hose to provide fire pro-tection for the stage area. Hose connections shall beequipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle andbe mounted in a cabinet or on a Underground buildingsshall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet ormanual wet standpipe Helistops and with a helistopor heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall extendthe standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop or heli-port is located in accordance with theNew York City FireCode. All portions of the helistop and heliport area shall bewithin 150 feet (45 720 mm) of a 21/2-inch (64 mm) outlet ona Class I or III standpipe, in accordance with theNew YorkCity Fire Location of Class I standpipe hose standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the fol-lowing locations:1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall beprovided for each floor level above or below grade. Hoseconnections shall be readily accessible and located at theriser on each floor-level landing and on the entrancefloor above the standpipe riser control enclosed stairways are not required to havehose connections. Stairways without hose connectionsshall have a sign on the door to the stairway stating, Nostandpipe connections in stairway. 2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of ahorizontal In every exit passageway at the entrance from the exitpassageway to the other areas of a In covered mall buildings, in accordance with Where the roof has a slope of less than four units verticalin 12 units horizontal ( slope), eachstandpipe shall be provided with a hose connectionlocated either on the roof or at the highest landing ofstairways with stair access to the roof. An additional hoseconnection shall be provided at the top of the mosthydraulically remote standpipe for testing Where the most remote portion of a floor or story is morethan 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection, addi-tional hose connections shall be provided in approvedlocations. For the purposes of this section, a penthousewith an occupant load greater than 10 shall be considereda and laterals of Class I standpipesystems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressur-ized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resis-tance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in thebuilding in which they are located. No standpipe riser shallbe placed in any shaft containing a gas or fuel :In buildings equipped throughout with anapproved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are notlocated within an enclosed stairway or pressurizedenclosure are not required to be enclosed in fire-resis-tance-rated buildings where more than onestandpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon-nected in accordance with NFPA Location of Class II standpipe hose II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible andlocated so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet(9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) Groups A-1 and Group A-1 and A-2 occu-pancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose con-nections shall be located on each side of any protection of ris-ers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not Location of Class III standpipe hose III standpipe systems shall have hose connectionslocated as required for Class I standpipes in Section andshall have Class II hose connections as required in and laterals of Class IIIstandpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class Isystems in accordance with Section buildings where more than onestandpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon-nected in accordance with NFPA containing fire-fighting equipmentsuch as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or Fire Depart-ment valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured Cabinet equipment shallbe identified in an approved manner by a permanentlyattached sign with white letters not less than 2 inches (51mm) high and a red background color, indicating the equip-ment contained :Doors that have either an approved visualidentification clear glass panel or a complete glass doorpanel are not required to be NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE185FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:18 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default Locking cabinet shall :1. Visual identification panels of glass or otherapproved transparent frangible material that is eas-ily broken and allows Approved locking Locking of cabinets shall be permitted in Dry standpipes shall not be :Where subject to freezing and in accordancewith NFPA Valve controlling water suppliesshall be supervised in the open position so that a change in thenormal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signalat the supervising station required by Section Where afire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmittedto the control :1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadwayboxes provided by the city or a public utility do notrequire Valves locked in the normal position and inspected asprovided in this code in buildings not equipped with afire alarm During systems required dur-ing construction, alteration and demolition operations shall beprovided in accordance with Section BC 906PORTABLE FIRE fire extinguishers shall be provided inoccupancies and locations as required by theNew York CityFire BC 907FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION section covers the application, installa-tion, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems andtheir components. Systems shall be designed and installed inaccordance with NFPA 72 as modified in Appendix Q and theNew York City Electrical Construction docu-ments for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for reviewand approval to the department and the Fire Departmentprior to system installation. Construction documents shallinclude, but not be limited to, all of the following:1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all Locations of alarm-initiating and notification Alarm control and trouble signaling Power Fire alarm riser diagram and all fire alarm devicesindicated on the floor plans. Quantities of devices onthe floor plans shall match the quantities indicatedon the riser Copies of any variances granted by the departmentor the Fire Legend of all fire alarm symbols and Design criteria for fire alarm audibility in variousoccupancies indicated on Fire alarm sequence of operation for the fire alarmcontrol panel and the central station The interface of fire safety control and their components shall belisted for the purpose for which they are Where approved manual, automatic ormanual and automatic fire alarm system shall be provided inaccordance with Sections through Whereautomatic sprinkler protection, installed in accordance withSection or , is provided and connected tothe building fire alarm system, automatic heat detectionrequired by this section shall not be required. An approvedautomatic fire detection system shall be installed in accordancewith the provisions of this code, theNew York City MechanicalCode, and NFPA 72. Devices, combinations of devices, appli-ances and equipment shall comply with Section Theautomatic fire detectors shall be smoke detectors, except thatan approved alternative type of detector shall be installed inspaces such as boiler rooms where, during normal operation,products of combustion are present in sufficient quantity toactuate a smoke detector. All initiating devices related to fire orlife safety, other than smoke alarms, shall be connected to thefire alarm all occupancies where an automatic fire alarm system isrequired by this section, selective coverage smoke detectorsshall be located as follows, unless partial or total coverage auto-matic detection is In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer,telephone equipment or similar room, in elevatormachine rooms, and in elevator In air distribution systems in accordance with Section606 of theNew York City Mechanical Group manual and automatic fire alarm sys-tem shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72 in GroupA occupancies having an occupant load of 300 or more. Por-tions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly pur-poses shall be provided with a fire alarm system as requiredfor the Group E :1. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where thebuilding is equipped throughout with an automaticsprinkler system and the notification applianceswill activate upon sprinkler water flow. This1862008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:18 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenexception shall not apply to Group A-2 occupan-cies used as a A Group A-2 occupancy used as a cabaret with anoccupant load of 75 or more, including associatedstages, dressing rooms, and property rooms, shallbe equipped with a manual fire alarm system. Sucha Group A-2 occupancy with an occupant load of300 or more shall also be equipped with an auto-matic fire alarm System initiation in Group A of the fire alarm in Group A-1 occupancieswith an occupant load of 300 or more, and in all otherGroup A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 ormore, shall initiate a presignal system at a constantlyattended location from which the Fire Department shallbe notified and live voice evacuation instructions shall beinitiated using an emergency voice/alarm communica-tions system in accordance with NFPA Emergency voice/alarmcommunications systems where required by shall be provided with an approved emergencypower source and shall be designed and installed inaccordance with NFPA 72 and theNew York City Electri-cal Group manual and automatic fire alarm sys-tem shall be installed in Group B occupancies having anoccupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 per-sons above or below the lowest level of exit such occupancies are not protected by an automaticsprinkler system, a manual fire alarm and partial coverageautomatic smoke detection or automatic heat detection sys-tem shall be installed in accordance with NFPA High-rise and large-area buildings constructed in accordance with Sec-tion 403, Group B occupied floors located more than 75feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of Fire Depart-ment vehicle access or having a total gross area exceed-ing 100,000 square feet (9290 m2) shall comply with therequirements of Section Group manual and automatic fire alarm sys-tem shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When auto-matic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed,such systems or detectors shall be connected to the buildingfire alarm Group manual and automatic fire alarm sys-tem shall be installed in Group F occupancies that are two ormore stories in height and have an occupant load of 100 ormore, or when 25 persons or more are above or below thelowest level of exit Group manual and automatic fire alarm sys-tem shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and inoccupancies used for the manufacture of organic addition to the automatic fire alarm system requirementsof Section , an automatic smoke detection system shallbe installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides andoxidizers in accordance with theNew York City Fire Code,and shall be connected to a central :A smoke detection system shall not berequired in detached storage buildings equippedthroughout with an approved automatic fire-extinguish-ing system and used only to store the following:1. Organic Liquid or solid Group manual and automatic fire alarm systemand an automatic fire detection system shall be installed inGroup I occupancies. An electrically supervised, automaticsmoke detection system shall be provided in waiting areasthat are open to Group in nursing homes (bothintermediate-care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxi-fication facilities and spaces open to the corridors shallbe equipped with an automatic fire detection Group I-3 occupancies shall beequipped with a manual and automatic fire alarm systeminstalled for alerting System of an auto-matic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarmbox or a fire detector shall initiate an approved alarmsignal that automatically notifies staff. Presignal sys-tems shall not be Manual fire alarm firealarm boxes are not required to be located in accor-dance with Section where the fire alarm boxesare provided at staff-attended locations having directsupervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxeshave been omitted. Manual fire alarm boxes shall bepermitted to be locked in areas occupied by detainees,provided that staff members are present within thesubject area and have keys readily available to operatethe manual fire alarm Smoke approved auto-matic smoke detection system shall be installedthroughout resident housing areas, including sleepingareas and contiguous day rooms, group activityspaces and other common spaces normally accessibleto :1. Other approved smoke detection arrange-ments providing equivalent protectionincluding, but not limited to, placing detec-tors in exhaust ducts from cells or behindprotective guards listed for the purpose areallowed when necessary to prevent damageor Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and Smoke detectors are not required in sleepingunits with four or fewer occupants in smokecompartments that are equipped throughout2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE187FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:18 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenwith an approved automatic sprinkler Group manual and automatic fire alarm sys-tem shall be installed in Group M occupancies where anyone of the following conditions exists:1. Where a Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 squarefeet (1115 m2);2. Where a Group M fire area is located more than threestories above grade;3. Where the combined area of all Group M fire areas onall floors, including mezzanines, exceeds 24,000square feet (2230 m2); or4. Where a Group M fire area in a below-grade storyexceeds 1,500 square feet (139 m2).Where such occupancies are not protected by an auto-matic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm and partial cov-erage automatic smoke detection or automatic heatdetection system shall be installed in accordance with Group alarm systems shall be installed inGroup R-1 occupancies as required in Sections Manual fire alarm manual firealarm system shall be installed in Group R-1 :A manual fire alarm system is notrequired in buildings not over two stories in heightwhere all individual dwelling units and contiguousattic and crawl spaces are separated from each otherand public or common areas by at least 1-hour firepartitions and each individual dwelling unit has anexit directly to a public way, exit court or Automatic fire alarm automaticfire alarm system shall be installed in Group R-1 occu-pancies. In addition to the automatic fire alarm systemrequirements of Section , smoke detectors shall beinstalled in all public corridors serving dwelling unitsand in accordance with Section :An automatic fire detection system is notrequired in buildings that do not have public corridorsserving dwelling units and each dwelling unit has ameans of egress door opening directly to an exteriorexit access that leads directly to an Smoke detectors within dwelling detectors and audible notification appliancesshall be installed in dwelling units and shall be annunci-ated by dwelling unit at a constantly attended locationfrom which the fire alarm system is capable of beingmanually activated. Smoke detectors are required in thefollowing areas:1. In sleeping In every room in the path of the means of egressfrom the sleeping area to the door leading from thedwelling In each story within the unit, includingbelow-grade stories. For dwelling units with splitlevels and without an intervening door betweenthe adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on theupper level shall suffice for the adjacent Group automatic fire alarm system with-out alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accor-dance with this section in Group R-2 occupancies, otherthan student apartments, where such occupancy satisfiesany one of the following conditions:1. Any dwelling unit is located three or more storiesabove the lowest level of exit discharge, includingdwelling units in penthouses of any area;2. Any dwelling unit is located more than one storybelow the highest level of exit discharge of exits serv-ing the dwelling unit; or3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling of smoke detectors shall not initiate a signal toalarm notification appliances. The activation of any detectorrequired by this section shall initiate a signal at a central sta-tion or a constantly attended location. Smoke detectors shallbe located as follows:1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer,telephone equipment or similar room, greater than 75square feet ( m2) in In air distribution systems in accordance with Section606 of theNew York City Mechanical In elevator machine rooms and in elevator Group R-2 student themain use or dominant occupancy of a building is classi-fied as R-2 student apartments, as defined in , fire alarm systems shall be installed in accordancewith Section Where the main use or dominantoccupancy of a building is not classified as R-2 studentapartments and the building is occupied partially byGroup R-2 student apartments, fire alarm systems shallbe installed in accordance with Sections Manual fire alarm manualfire alarm system shall be installed throughout allpublic corridors serving student apartments and stu-dent-related uses. Student-related uses shall includecommon spaces such as recreation rooms, lounges,dining rooms, laundry rooms and storage :1. A manual fire alarm system is not required inbuildings not over two stories in heightwhere all individual dwelling units and con-tiguous attic and crawl spaces are separatedfrom each other and public or common areasby at least 1-hour fire partitions and eachindividual dwelling unit has an exit directlyto a public way, exit court or NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:19 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screen2. A manual fire alarm system is not required inbuildings containing fewer than 15 Automatic fire alarm auto-matic fire alarm system without alarm notificationappliances shall be installed in accordance with thissection in Group R-2 student apartments and student-related uses. The activation of any smoke detectorrequired by this section shall initiate a signal at a cen-tral station or a constantly attended location. Smokedetectors shall be located as follows:1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical,transformer, telephone equipment or similarroom, in elevator machine rooms, and in eleva-tor In air distribution systems in accordance withSection 606 of theNew York City Throughout all public corridors serving studentapartments and student-related uses. Student-related uses shall include common spaces suchas recreation rooms, lounges, dining rooms,laundry rooms and storage rooms. However,smoke detectors shall not be required in suchpublic corridors in buildings containing fewerthan 15 student :An automatic fire alarm systemis not required in buildings not over two sto-ries in height where all individual dwellingunits and contiguous attic and crawl spacesare separated from each other and public orcommon areas by at least 1-hour fire barriersand each individual dwelling unit has an exitdirectly to a public way, exit court or Smoke alarms shall beinstalled as required by Section Single- and multiple-station smoke single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall beinstalled in accordance with the provisions of this code andthe household fire-warning equipment provisions Where or multiple-stationsmoke alarms shall be installed in the locations describedin Sections Smoke alarms in Groups R-2, R-3,and or multiple-station smoke alarmsshall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3,and I-1, regardless of occupant load at all of the fol-lowing locations within a dwelling unit:1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each roomused for sleeping purposes within 15 feet (4572mm) from the door to such In each room used for sleeping In each story within a dwelling unit, includingbelow-grade stories and penthouses of anyarea, but not including crawl spaces and unin-habitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling unitswith split levels and without an interveningdoor between the adjacent levels, a smokealarm installed on the upper level shall sufficefor the adjacent lower level provided that thelower level is less than one full story below theupper Power smoke alarms shallreceive their primary power from a dedicated branch cir-cuit or the unswitched portion of a branch circuit alsoused for power and lighting, and shall be equipped with abattery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal whenthe batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent andwithout a disconnecting switch other than as required forover-current more than onesmoke alarm or detector is required to be installed withinan individual dwelling unit in Group R-2, R-3, or withinan individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in GroupR-1, the smoke alarms or detectors shall be intercon-nected in such a manner that the activation of one alarmor detector will activate all of the alarms or detectors inthe individual unit. The alarm or detector shall be clearlyaudible in all bedrooms over background noise levelswith all intervening doors Acceptance the installation ofthe alarm devices is complete, each detector and inter-connecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devicesshall be tested in accordance with the household firewarning equipment provisions of NFPA Group R-2 alarms shallbe provided with the capability to support visible alarmnotification appliances in accordance with Special amusement approvedautomatic smoke detection system shall be provided in spe-cial amusement buildings in accordance with this :In areas where ambient conditions will causea smoke detection system to alarm, an approved alterna-tive type of automatic detector shall be of any single smokedetector, the automatic sprinkler system or any otherautomatic fire detection device shall immediately soundan alarm at the building at a constantly attended locationfrom which emergency action can be initiated, includingthe capability of manual initiation of requirements inSection System following minimumsystem actuations and responses shall be required uponapproval by the department and the Fire activation of two or more smoke detectors, a singlesmoke detector with alarm verification, the automatic2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE189FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:19 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screensprinkler system or other approved fire detection deviceshall automatically:1. Cause illumination of the means of egress withlight of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at thewalking surface level;2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds andvisual distractions; and3. Activate an approved directional exit marking thatwill become apparent in an emergency. Such sys-tem response shall also include activation of a pre-recorded message, clearly audible throughout thespecial amusement building, instructing patrons toproceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used inconjunction with the prerecorded message shallproduce a sound that is distinctive from othersounds used during normal operation. The wiringto the auxiliary devices and equipment used toaccomplish the above fire safety functions shall bemonitored for integrity in accordance with Emergency voice/alarm emergency voice/alarm communication sys-tem, which is also allowed to serve as a public addresssystem, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72,and shall be audible throughout the entire special amuse-ment High-rise constructed inaccordance with Section 403 and having floors used forhuman occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm)above the lowest level of fire department vehicle accessshall be provided with automatic fire detection connected toan automatic fire alarm system in accordance with and an emergency voice/alarm communicationsystem in accordance with Section :1. Open parking garages in accordance with Buildings with an occupancy in Group Low-hazard special occupancies in accordancewith Section Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 orH-3 in accordance with Section Automatic fire addition tosmoke detection otherwise required by this code, smokedetectors shall be provided in accordance with this sec-tion. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automaticfire alarm system. The activation of any detector requiredby this section shall operate the emergency voice/alarmcommunication system. Smoke detectors shall belocated as follows:1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, trans-former, telephone equipment or similar room, inelevator machine rooms and in elevator In air distribution systems in accordance with Sec-tion 606 of theNew York City Mechanical In Group R-1 occupancies a listed smoke detectoris allowed to be used in each return air riser carry-ing not more than 5,000 cfm ( m3/s) and servingnot more than 10 air inlet for Group R-2 occupancies:In R-2 occu-pancies, the activation of smoke detectors shall initi-ate a signal at a central station or a constantly attendedlocation and shall not initiate a signal to an alarm noti-fication Emergency voice/alarm operation of any automatic fire detector,sprinkler water-flow device or manual fire alarm boxshall automatically sound an alarm tone followed by livevoice instructions giving approved information anddirections on a general or selective basis to the followingareas on a minimum of the alarming floor, the floorabove and the floor below in accordance with theNewYork City Fire Elevator Rooms and tenant spaces exceeding 1,000 squarefeet (93 m2) in Dwelling units in Group R-1 Areas of rescue assistance as defined in I-1 and I-2 Group I-1and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in aconstantly attended area and a general occupantnotification shall be broadcast over the over-head R-2 occupancies 125 feet or less voice/alarm communica-tion systems shall not be required in Group R-2occupancies in buildings 125 feet (33 100 mm)or less in R-2 occupancies greater than 125 feetin Group R-2 occupied buildingsgreater than 125 feet (33 100 mm) in height,activation of any smoke detector or sprinklerwater flow device shall initiate a signal at a cen-tral station or constantly attended location andshall not initiate a signal to an alarm notificationappliance. An emergency voice/alarm commu-nication system shall not be required. However,a one-way voice communication shall be pro-vided between the fire command center for useby Fire Department personnel and the follow-ing terminal Within dwelling units. An intercomsystem may be utilized when providedwith an override feature for use by FireDepartment personnel. Such intercomsystem shall comply with rules promul-1902008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:19 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screengated by the commissioner establishinginstallation Within required exit stairs. Annuncia-tion devices shall be located at least onevery other story. Such annunciationdevices shall comply with rules pro-mulgated by the commissioner estab-lishing installation Manual manual overridefor emergency voice communication shall be pro-vided for all paging zones with all-call capability Live voice emergencyvoice/alarm communication system shall havemultichannel capability to allow live voice messagesvia independent audio channels to the stairs, to all orselected floors without automatic interruption of thealarm tones on the floor of incidence, floor above orfloor emergency voice/alarmcommunication system shall be designed andinstalled in accordance with NFPA 72 as modified inAppendix Fire Department communication approved two-way, fire department communicationsystem designed and installed in accordance with NFPA72 shall be provided for Fire Department use. It shalloperate between a fire command center complying withSection 911 and elevators, elevator lobbies, emergencypower rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge andinside enclosed exit stairways. The Fire Departmentcommunication device shall be provided at each floorlevel within each enclosed :1. Fire Department radio systems where approvedby the Fire Department may be installed in lieuof a two-way Fire Department Group R-2 Atriums connecting more than two alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with anatrium that connects more than two stories. The system shallbe activated in accordance with Section Such occu-pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emer-gency voice/alarm communication system complying withthe requirements of Section High-piled combustible storage auto-matic fire detection system shall be installed throughouthigh-piled combustible storage areas where required by theNew York City Fire Delayed egress delayed egresslocks are installed on means of egress doors in accordancewith Section , an automatic smoke or heat detec-tion system shall be installed as required by that Aerosol storage storage rooms andgeneral-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall beprovided with an approved manual fire alarm system whererequired by theNew York City Fire Lumber, plywood and veneer ,plywood and veneer mills shall be provided with a manualfire alarm Underground buildings with smoke a smoke exhaust system is installed in anunderground building as required by Section 405, automaticfire detectors shall be provided in accordance with this Smoke minimum of one smokedetector listed for the intended purpose shall be installedin the following areas:1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer,telephone equipment, elevator machine or Elevator The main supply and return and exhaust air ple-num of each air-conditioning system serving morethan one story and located in a serviceable areadownstream from filters on supply ducts and inreturn/exhaust ducts downstream of the last Each connection to a vertical duct or riser servingtwo or more floors from return air ducts or ple-nums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioningsystems, except that in Group R occupancies, alisted smoke detector is allowed to be used in eachreturn air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm( m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air Alarm of the smokeexhaust system shall activate an audible alarm at a con-stantly attended Underground underground build-ings complying with Section 405 where the lowest level of astructure is more than 30 feet (18 144 mm) below the lowestlevel of exit discharge, the structure shall be equippedthroughout with a manual and automatic fire alarm system,including an emergency voice/alarm communication sys-tem installed in accordance with Section Public address undergroundbuildings complying with Section 405 where a fire alarmsystem is not required by Section , a public addresssystem shall be provided that shall be capable of trans-mitting voice communications to the highest level of exitdischarge serving the underground portions of the struc-ture and all levels Covered mall mall buildingsexceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor areashall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communi-cation system. An emergency voice/alarm communication2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE191FIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:20 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screensystem serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be acces-sible to the Fire Department. The system shall be providedin accordance with Section Battery approved automaticsmoke detection system shall be installed in areas con-taining stationary lead-acid battery systems having a liq-uid capacity of more than 50 gallons ( L). Thedetection system shall be supervised by an approved cen-tral, proprietary or remote station service or a local alarmthat will sound an audible signal at a constantly Manual fire alarm fire alarm boxes shallbe installed in accordance with Sections fire alarm boxes shall be locatednot more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to eachexit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located sothat travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200feet (60 960 mm). height of the manual fire alarm boxesshall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maxi-mum of 48 inches (1219 mm), measured vertically, from thefloor level to the activating handle or lever of the fire alarm boxes shall be red in fire alarm systems are not monitoredby a supervising station, an approved permanent sign thatreads:WHENALARMSOUNDS CALLFIREDEPARTMENT shall be installed adjacent to each manualfire alarm :Where the manufacturer has permanentlyprovided this information on the manual fire alarm Protective Fire Department is autho-rized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarmbox protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms orprovide the manual fire alarm box with protection fromphysical damage. The protective cover shall be transparentor red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility ofthe manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include properoperating instructions. A protective cover that emits a localalarm signal shall not be installed unless Power primary and secondary power sup-plies for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordancewith NFPA shall comply with the requirements oftheNew York City Electrical Codeand NFPA 72. Wireless pro-tection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devicesshall comply with the special requirements for supervision oflow-power wireless systems in NFPA an alarm notification system isrequired by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:1. A required automatic fire alarm Sprinkler water-flow Required manual fire alarm Other required types of automatic fire detection devicesor suppression Presignal systems shall not beinstalled unless approved by the Fire Department. Where apresignal system is installed, 24-hour personnel supervisionshall be provided at a location approved by the Fire Depart-ment. Where a connection to a supervising station is required,the transmission of the alarm signal to the supervising stationshall activate upon the initial alarm floor shall be zoned separately and a zoneshall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length ofany zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any :Automatic sprinkler system zones shall notexceed the area permitted by NFPA Zoning indicator zoning indicator paneland the associated controls shall be provided at the mainbuilding entrance accessible to responding Fire Departmentpersonnel and in other locations approved by the depart-ment and the Fire Department. The visual zone indicationshall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be can-celed by the operation of an audible alarm-silencing High-rise high-rise buildings con-structed in accordance with Section 403 and used for humanoccupancy that have occupied floors located more than 75feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire departmentvehicle access, a separate zone by floor shall be provided forall of the following types of alarm-initiating devices whereprovided:1. Smoke Sprinkler water-flow Manual fire alarm Other approved types of automatic fire detectiondevices or suppression Alarm notification notificationappliances listed for their purpose shall be Visible alarm notification appli-ances shall be provided in accordance with through :Visible alarm notification appliances shallnot be required in Public and common alarmnotification appliances shall be provided in public areasand common Employee work employeework areas have audible alarm coverage, the wiring sys-tems shall be designed so that visible alarm notificationappliances can be integrated into the alarm Groups R-1 dwelling units inaccordance with Table shall be provided with avisible alarm notification appliance, activated by boththe in-room smoke detector and the building fire NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:20 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screen[F] TABLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMSNUMBER OFDWELLING UNITSDWELLING UNITS WITHVISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS6 to 25226 to 50451 to 75776 to 1009101 to 15012151 to 20014201 to 30017301 to 40020401 to 50022501 to 1,0005% of total1,001 and over50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1, Audible alarm notification appli-ances shall be provided and shall sound a distinctive soundthat is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a firealarm. The audible alarm notification appliances shall pro-vide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above theaverage ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximumsound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, which-ever is greater, in every occupied space within the minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 70 dBA inoccupancies in Groups R and I-1; 90 dBA in mechanicalequipment rooms and 60 dBA in other occupancies. Themaximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notifica-tion appliances shall be 120 dBA at the minimum hearingdistance from the audible appliance. Where the averageambient noise is greater than 105 dBA, visible alarm notifi-cation appliances shall be provided in accordance withNFPA72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall notbe required to provide a maximum sound pressure levelabove 120 :Visible alarm notification appliances shallbe allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appli-ances in critical-care areas of Group I-2 Fire safety a fire alarm system isrequired by Section , automatic fire detectors utilized forthe purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be con-nected to the building's fire alarm control panel. Detectorsshall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and acti-vate the alarm notification appliances or a visible and audiblesupervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In build-ings not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, theautomatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electricalservice and, upon actuation, perform the intended detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA Duct smoke a fire alarm system isprovided, duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the build-ing's fire alarm control panel. Activation of a duct smoke detec-tor shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at aconstantly attended location. Duct smoke detectors shall not beused as a substitute for required open-area :1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended loca-tion is not required where duct smoke detectors acti-vate the building's alarm notification In occupancies not required to be equipped with a firealarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall acti-vate a visible and audible signal in an approved loca-tion. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activatea visible or audible signal in an approved location andshall be identified as air duct detector shall be provided to each detector forperiodic inspection, maintenance and Fire-extinguishing a fire alarm sys-tem is required by another section of this code or is otherwiseinstalled, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be con-nected to the building fire alarm required by this chapter or theNewYork City Fire Code, an approved supervising station in accor-dance with NFPA 72 shall monitor fire alarm :Supervisory service is not required for:1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms requiredby Section Smoke detectors in Group I-3 Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarmshall not be connected to any Fire Department telephone num-ber unless approved by the Fire Acceptance completion of the installationof the fire alarm system, alarm notification appliances and cir-cuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervisory-signalinitiating devices and circuits, signaling line circuits, and pri-mary and secondary power supplies shall be tested inaccordance with NFPA Record of record of completion inaccordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has beeninstalled in accordance with the approved construction docu-ments and specifications shall be , testing and maintenanceinstructions, and record drawings ( as builts ) and equipmentspecifications shall be provided at an approved Inspection, testing and mainte-nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm andfire detection systems shall be in accordance with theNew YorkCity Fire BC 908EMERGENCY ALARM Group H alarms for the detec-tion and notification of an emergency condition in Group H2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE193FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:20 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenoccupancies shall be provided in accordance with Group H-5 alarms for notifica-tion of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be pro-vided as required in Section A continuousgas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases inaccordance with Section Highly toxic and toxic gas detection sys-tem shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxicand toxic gases to detect the presence of gas at or below the per-missible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit of the gas forwhich detection is provided. The system shall be capable ofmonitoring the discharge from the treatment system at or belowone-half the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) :A gas detection system is not required for toxicgases when the physiological warning properties are at alevel below the accepted PEL for the gas detection system shall initiate alocal alarm and transmit a signal to a constantly attendedcontrol station when a short-term hazard condition isdetected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible andshall provide warning both inside and outside the areawhere gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinctfrom all other :Signal transmission to a constantly attendedcontrol station is not required when not more than onecylinder of highly toxic or toxic gas is Shutoff of gas gas detection systemshall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source ongas supply piping and tubing related to the system beingmonitored for whichever gas is :Automatic shutdown is not required forreactors utilized for the production of highly toxic ortoxic compressed gases where such reactors are:1. Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds persquare inch gauge (psig) ( kPa).2. Constantly Provided with readily accessible emergency shut-off Valve automatic closure of shutoffvalves shall be in accordance with the following:1. When the gas-detection sampling point initiating thegas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet orexhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabi-net or exhausted enclosure for the specific gasdetected shall automatically Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating thegas detection system alarm is within a gas room andcompressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets orexhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gaslines for the specific gas detected shall Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating thegas detection system alarm is within a piping distribu-tion manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for thecompressed container of specific gas detected supply-ing the manifold shall automatically :When the gas-detection sampling point initi-ating the gas-detection system alarm is at a use locationor within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line down-stream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoffvalve in the gas valve enclosure for the branch linelocated in the piping distribution manifold enclosureshall automatically Ozone gas-generator gas-generatorrooms shall be equipped with a continuous gas-detection sys-tem that will shut off the generator and sound a local alarmwhen concentrations above the PEL Repair flammable-gas detection systemshall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by enu-merated gases in accordance with Section Refrigerant rooms shall contain arefrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. Thedetector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shallbe located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen-trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than thecorresponding TLV-TWA values for the refrigerant classifica-tion indicated in theNew York City Mechanical Code. Detec-tors and alarms shall be placed in approved detectors shall initiate all functions as required bytheNew York City Mechanical CodeandNew York City :Detectors are not required in ammonia systemmachinery rooms equipped with a vapor detector in accor-dance with theNew York City Mechanical Carbon monoxide alarms and mon-oxide alarms and detectors shall be provided and installed inaccordance with Sections through Group I-1 and R carbon mon-oxide alarms or detectors shall be installed as monoxide detectors and audiblenotification appliances shall be installed in affecteddwelling units as per Section and shall beannunciated by dwelling unit at a constantly attendedlocation from which the fire alarm system is capableof being manually I-1, R-2 and monoxide alarmsshall be installed in affected dwelling units as per Sec-tion Affected dwelling monoxidealarms or detectors shall be required within the followingdwelling units:1. Units on the same story where carbon monoxide-producing equipment or enclosed parking Units on the stories above and below the floorwhere carbon monoxide-producing equipment orenclosed parking is NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:21 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screen3. Units in a building containing a carbon monoxide-producing furnace, boiler, or water heater as partof a central Units in a building served by a carbon monoxide-producing furnace, boiler, or water heater as partof a central system that is located in an adjoining orattached Required locations within monoxide alarms or detectors shall belocated within dwelling units as follows:1. Outside of any room used for sleeping pur-poses, within 15 feet (4572 mm) of the entranceto such In any room used for sleeping On any story within a dwelling unit, includingbelow-grade stories and penthouses of anyarea, but not including crawl spaces and unin-habitable Installation alarms or detectors shall comply with thepower source, interconnection, and acceptance test-ing requirements as required for smoke alarms inaccordance with Sections Group E, I-2 and I-4 carbonmonoxide alarms or detectors shall be installed as follows:1. Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed within anyoccupied space containing carbon monoxide-produc-ing equipment and in all occupied spaces above andbelow the story where carbon monoxide-producingequipment or enclosed parking is Carbon monoxide detectors and audible notificationappliances shall be installed within any unoccupiedspace containing carbon monoxide-producing equip-ment. Such detector shall activate an audible alarm ata constantly attended monoxide alarms and detec-tors shall be listed in accordance with UL 2034 and Medical gas pressure monitoring andalarm systems shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 99and NFPA Flammable within buildings containingflammable gas distribution piping operating at levels above 15pounds per square inch gauge (psig) ( kPa) shall be pro-vided with an approved flammable gas detection-alarm BC 909SMOKE CONTROL Scope and section applies to mechanicalor passive smoke control systems when they are required byother provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is toestablish minimum requirements for the design, installationand acceptance testing of smoke control systems that areintended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation orrelocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended forthe preservation of contents, the timely restoration of opera-tions or for assistance in fire suppression. Smoke control sys-tems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than thesmoke- and heat-venting provisions found in Section smoke control systems shall not be consideredexhaust systems under Chapter 5 of theNew York City Mechan-ical definitions are added for thepurposes of Section 909 SMOKE PURGE mechanicalor natural ventilation system intended to move smoke fromthe smoke zone to the exterior of the and maintenance of pres-sure levels in zones of a building, including elevator shaftsand stairwells, that are higher than the pressure level at thesmoke source, such pressure levels being produced by posi-tive pressures of a supply of uncontaminated air; byexhausting air and smoke at the smoke source; or by a com-bination of these solid and liquid particulates and gasesevolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combus-tion, including the quality of air that is entrained or other-wise mixed into the Section CONTROL predefined operationalconfiguration of a system or device for the purpose of CONTROL SYSTEM, system that uses mechanical fans to producepressure differences across smoke barriers or that estab-lishes airflows to limit and direct smoke CONTROL SYSTEM, system ofsmoke barriers arranged to limit the migration of CONTROL space within a buildingenclosed by smoke Section airflow within buildings causedby temperature environment in whichthe quality and location of smoke is limited or otherwiserestricted to allow for ready evacuation through the General design , structures orparts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control sys-tem or systems shall have such systems designed in accordancewith the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the gener-ally accepted and well-established principles of engineeringrelevant to the design. The construction documents shallinclude sufficient information and detail to adequately describethe elements of the design necessary for the proper implemen-tation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall beaccompanied by sufficient information and analysis todemonstrate compliance with these NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE195FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:21 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default Special inspection and test additionto the ordinary inspection and test requirements that buildings,structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smokecontrol systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shallundergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify theproper commissioning of the smoke control design in its finalinstalled condition. The design submission accompanying theconstruction documents shall clearly detail procedures andmethods to be used and the items subject to such inspectionsand tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance withgenerally accepted engineering practice and, where possible,based on published standards for the particular testinginvolved. The special inspections and tests required by this sec-tion shall be conducted under the same terms in Section Periodic control systems shall beperiodically tested to ensure proper operation. A record ofeach inspection and test shall be maintained on the premisesby the owner or lessee, and the records for at least the last 2years of operation shall be made available for inspection bythe department and the fire rational analysis supporting the types ofsmoke control systems to be employed, their methods of opera-tion, the systems supporting them and the methods of construc-tion to be utilized shall accompany the submitted constructiondocuments and shall include, but not be limited to, the itemsindicated in Sections through The basis ofdesign and design analysis of the smoke control system shall besubmitted to the Stack system shall be designed suchthat the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effectwill not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. Indetermining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude,elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall Temperature effect of and expan-sion caused by the design fire in accordance with shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed suchthat these effects do not adversely interfere with the system' Wind design shall consider the adverseeffects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent withthe wind-loading provisions of Chapter HVAC design shall consider theeffects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning(HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. Theanalysis shall include all permutations of systems design shall consider the effects of the fire on the design shall consider the effects oflow temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Airinlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow orice Duration of portions of active orpassive smoke control systems shall be capable of continuedoperation after detection of the fire event for not less than Smoke barrier barriers shallcomply with Section 709, and shall be constructed and sealedto limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. Themaximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate areacalculated using the following leakage area ratios:1. Walls:A/Aw= Exit enclosures:A/Aw= All other shafts:A/Aw= Floors and roofs:A/AF= :A= Total leakage area, square feet (m2).AF= Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).Aw= Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings dueto doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall beincluded in calculating the total leakage Leakage total leakage area of the barrieris the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied bythe allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other open-ings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shallbe determined by achieving the minimum air pressure dif-ference across the barrier with the system in the smoke con-trol mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passivesmoke control systems tested using other approved meanssuch as door fan testing shall be approved by the departmentand the fire Opening in smoke barriersshall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated bythe required controls for the mechanical smoke control sys-tem. Door openings shall be protected by door assembliescomplying with Section :1. Passive smoke control systems with auto-matic-closing devices actuated by spot-typesmoke detectors listed for releasing serviceinstalled in accordance with Section Fixed openings between smoke zones that are pro-tected utilizing the airflow In Group I-2, where such doors are installed acrosscorridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors with-out a center mullion shall be installed havingvision panels with approved fire-rated glazingmaterials in approved fire-rated frames, the area ofwhich shall not exceed that tested. The doors shallbe close fitting within operational tolerances andshall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. Thedoors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals orrabbets at meeting edges, and automatic-closingdevices. Positive-latching devices are Group Openings between smoke zones with clear ceilingheights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and1962008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:21 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenbank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes asdetermined by the design fire Ducts and air transfer andair transfer openings are required to be protected with aminimum Class II, 250 F (121 C) smoke damper com-plying with Section Pressurization primary mechanicalmeans of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differencesacross smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environmentis not required in the smoke control zone of fire Minimum pressure minimumpressure difference across a smoke barrier shall water gage ( kPa) in fully sprinkleredbuildings. In buildings permitted to be other than fullysprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed toachieve pressure differences at least two times the maxi-mum calculated pressure difference produced by the designfire, but in no case less than the values indicated in :TABLE PRESSURE DIFFERENCESACROSS SMOKE BARRIERSCEILING HEIGHTMINIMUM DESIGNPRESSURE DIFFERENCELess than 15 feet (4572 mm) water gage ( kPa)Equal to or greater than 15feet (4572 mm), but less than21 feet (6401 mm) water gage ( kPa)Equal to or greater than 21feet (6401mm) water gage ( kPa) Maximum pressure maximum airpressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be deter-mined by required door-opening or closing forces. Theactual force required to open exit doors when the system isin the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Sec-tion Opening and closing forces for other doorsshall be determined by standard engineering methods forthe resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated forceto set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be deter-mined by:F=Fdc+K(WAP)/2(W-d)(Equation 9-1)where:A= Door area, square feet (m2).d= Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet(m).F= Total door opening force, pounds (N).Fdc= Force required to overcome closing device, pounds(N).K= Coefficient ( ).W= Door width, feet (m). P= Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). Air flow design approved by the depart-ment, smoke migration through openings fixed in a perma-nently open position, which are located between smoke controlzones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. Thedesign air flow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the firezone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to preventflow reversal from turbulent minimum average velocity through afixed opening shall not be less than:v= [h(Tf-To)/(Tf+ 460)]1/2(Equation 9-2)For SI:v= [h(Tf-To)/Tf]1/2where:h= Height of opening, feet (m).Tf= Temperature of smoke, F ( K).To= Temperature of ambient air, F ( K).v= Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). Prohibited method shall not beemployed where either the quantity of air or the velocity ofthe airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smokecontrol system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plumedynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflowtoward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute ( m/s).Where the formula in Section requires airflow toexceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be Exhaust approved by the department,mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such asin atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaustmethod. The design exhaust volumes shall be in accordancewith this Exhaust height of the lowest horizontalsurface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be main-tained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surfacethat forms a portion of a required egress system within thesmoke zone. The required exhaust rate for the zone shall bethe largest of the calculated plume mass flow rates for thepossible plume configurations. Provisions shall be made fornatural or mechanical supply of air from outside or adjacentsmoke zones to make up for the air exhausted. Makeup air-flow rates, when measured at the potential fire location,shall not increase the smoke production rate beyond thecapacity of the smoke control system. The temperature ofthe makeup air shall be such that it does not expose tempera-ture-sensitive fire protection systems beyond their plume mass flow rate(mp), in pounds per second (kg/s), shall be determined byplacing the design fire center on the axis of the space beinganalyzed. The limiting flame height shall be determined by:zl= (Equation 9-3)For SI:zl= :mp= Plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s).2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE197FIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:22 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenQ= Total heat Convective heat output, British thermal units per sec-ond (kW). (The value ofQcshall not be taken as lessthan ).z= Height from top of fuel surface to bottom of smokelayer, feet (m).zl= Limiting flame height, feet (m). Thezlvalue must begreater than the fuel equivalent diameter (see ).forz>zlmp= + SI:mp= + SI:mp= <zlmp= SI:mp= convertmpfrom pounds per second of mass flow to avolumetric rate, the following equation shall be used:V=60mp/ (Equation 9-4)where:V= Volumetric flow rate, cubic feet per minute (m3/s). = Density of air at the temperature of the smoke layer,pounds per cubic feet (T:in F) [kg/m3(T:in C)]. Balcony spill plume mass flow rate(mp) for spill plumes shall be determined using the geomet-rically probable width based on architectural elements andprojections in the following equation:mp= (QW2)1/3(zb+ )(Equation 9-5)For SI:mp= (QW2)1/3(zb+ )where:H= Height above fire to underside of balcony, feet (m).mp= Plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s).Q= Total heat Plume width at point of spill, feet (m).zb= Height from balcony, feet (m). Window plume mass flow rate (mp)shall be determined from:mp= (AwHw1/2)1/3(zw+a)5/3+ (Equation 9-6)For SI:mp= (AwHw1/2)1/3(zw+a)5/3+ :Aw= Area of the opening, square feet (m2).Hw= Height of the opening, feet (m).mp= plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s).zw= Height from the top of the window or opening to thebottom of the smoke layer, feet (m).a= Plume contact with a plume contactsone or more of the surrounding walls, the mass flow rateshall be adjusted for the reduced entrainment resulting fromthe contact provided that the contact remains constant. Useof this provision requires calculation of the plume diameter,which shall be calculated by:d= [(Tc+ 460)/(Ta+ 460)]1/2z(Equation 9-7)For SI:d= (Tc/Ta)1/2zwhere:d= Plume diameter, feet (m).Ta= Ambient air temperature, F ( K).Tc= Plume centerline temperature, F ( K).= (Ta+ 460)Qc2/3z-5/3+Taz= Height at whichTcis determined, feet (m).For SI:Tc= + Design design fire shall be based on a Q of notless than 5,000 Btu/s (5275 kW) unless a rational analysis isperformed by the registered design professional and approvedby the department. The design fire shall be based on the analy-sis in accordance with Section and this Factors engineering analysis shallinclude the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effectsincluded by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steadyor Separation of the designfire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spac-ing and configuration. The ratio of the separation distance tothe fuel equivalent radius shall not be less than 4. The fuelequivalent radius shall be the radius of a circle of equal areato floor area of the fuel package. The design fire shall beincreased if other combustibles are within the separationdistance as determined by:R=[Q/(12 q")]1/2(Equation 9-8)where:q= Incident radiant heat flux required for nonpilotedignition, Btu/ft2 s(W/m2).Q= Heat release from fire, Btu/s (kW).R= Separation distance from target to center of fuel pack-age, feet (m).1982008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:22 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default Heat-release analysis shallmake use of best available data from approved sources andshall not be based on excessively stringent limitations ofcombustible Sprinkler effectiveness docu-mented engineering analysis shall be provided for condi-tions that assume fire growth is halted at the time ofsprinkler such as, but not limited to,fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall besuitable for its intended use, suitable for the probable exposuretemperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and asapproved by the Exhaust of exhaust fans shallbe rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probabletemperature rise to which the components will be temperature rise shall be computed by:Exception:ReducedTsas calculated based on the assur-ance of adequate dilution (Qc/mc)+(Ta)(Equation 9-9)where:c= Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature,Btu/lb F (kJ/kg K).m= Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).Qc= Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).Ta= Ambient temperature, F ( K).Ts= Smoke temperature, F ( K). materials and joints shall be capableof withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures towhich they are exposed as determined in accordance withSection Ducts shall be constructed and supportedin accordance with theNew York City Mechanical shall be leak tested to times the maximum designpressure in accordance with nationally accepted leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design of such testing shall be a part of the documentationprocedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resis-tance-rated structural elements of the building by substan-tial, noncombustible :Flexible connections (for the purpose ofvibration isolation) complying with theNew York CityMechanical Code, that are constructed of approvedfire-resistance-rated Equipment, inlets and shallbe located so as not to expose uninvolved portions of thebuilding to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shallbe located so as to minimize the potential for introducingsmoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall belocated so as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into thebuilding and to limit exposure of the building or adjacentbuildings to an additional fire Automatic dampers,regardless of the purpose for which they are installed withinthe smoke control system, shall be listed for their addition to other requirements,belt-driven fans shall have times the number of beltsrequired for the design duty, but not less than two. Fans shallbe selected for stable performance based on normal temper-ature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calcula-tions and manufacturer's fan curves shall be part of thedocumentation procedures. Fans shall be supported andrestrained by noncombustible devices in accordance withthe requirements of Chapter 16. Motors driving fans shallnot be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilo-watts), as determined from measurement of actual currentdraw, and shall have a minimum service factor of Power smoke control system shall besupplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be thenormal building power systems. Secondary power shall befrom an emergency source complying with theNew York CityElectrical Code. The emergency power source and its transferswitches shall be in a separate room from the normal powertransformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a roomconstructed of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated firebarriers ventilated directly to and from the exterior. Power dis-tribution from the two sources shall be by independent to full emergency power shall be automatic and within60 seconds of failure of the primary power. The systems shallcomply with theNew York City Electrical Power sources and power ofthe smoke management system relying on volatile memo-ries or similar systems shall be supplied with uninter-ruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span a15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of thesmoke management system susceptible to power surgesshall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors orother approved Detection and control detection systemsproviding control input or output signals to mechanical smokecontrol systems or elements thereof shall comply with therequirements of Chapter 9 and NFPA 72. Such systems shall beequipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listedas smoke control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shallinclude provisions for verification. Verification shall includepositive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override,the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and,through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence report, abnor-mal conditions audibly, visually and by printed addition to meeting requirements oftheNew York City Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless ofvoltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous control systems shall be acti-vated in accordance with this Pressurization, airflow or exhaust smoke control systems using the pressuriza-tion, airflow or exhaust method shall have completelyautomatic NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE199FIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:23 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default Passive smoke control sys-tems actuated by spot-type detectors listed for releasingservice shall be Automatic completely automaticcontrol is required or used, the automatic-control sequencesshall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automaticsprinkler system complying with Section , manualcontrols that are readily accessible to the Fire Departmentand any smoke detectors required by engineering Section for manual control Control air air tubing shall be of suffi-cient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall beflushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall beadequately supported and protected from damage. Tubingpassing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and pro-tected from abrasion and electrolytic air tubing shall be hard drawncopper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42,ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 andASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, sol-der type, in accordance with ASME B or ASME Changes in direction shall be made with appropriatetool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used atfinal connection to devices; other joints shall be brazedusing a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100 F(593 C) and liquids below 1,500 F (816 C). Brazing fluxshall be used on copper-to-brass joints :Nonmetallic tubing used within control pan-els and at the final connection to devices, providing all ofthe following conditions are met:1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency forflame and smoke Tubing and connected devices shall be completelyenclosed within galvanized or paint-grade steelenclosure of not less than inch ( mm)(No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) thickness. Entry tothe enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a pro-tective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suit-able brass compression to male-barbed Tubing shall be identified by appropriately docu-mented Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported withinenclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door ormoveable device shall be of sufficient length toavoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall beprotected against abrasion. Tubing servingdevices on doors shall be fastened along Isolation from other tubingserving other than smoke control functions shall be isolatedby automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent air tubing shall be tested at threetimes the operating pressure for not less than 30 minuteswithout any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to finalconnection to Marking and detection and con-trol systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accessesand Control control diagrams show-ing all devices in the system and identifying their location andfunction shall be maintained current and kept on file with thedepartment, the Fire Department and in the fire command cen-ter in format and manner approved by the Fire Fire-fighter s smoke control fire-fighter ssmoke control panel for Fire Department emergency responsepurposes only shall be provided and shall include manual con-trol or override of automatic control for mechanical smokecontrol systems. The panel shall be located in a fire commandcenter complying with Section 911, and shall comply with Sec-tions through Where required in Section912, the post-fire smoke purge system shall be manually acti-vated from the fire-fighter s control Panel within the building shallbe shown on the fire-fighter s control panel. A clear indica-tion of the direction of airflow and the relationship of com-ponents shall be displayed. Status indicators shall beprovided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated byfan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in theirnormal status Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in theiroff or closed status Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in theiron or open status Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in afault status Panel fire fighter s control panelshall provide control capability over the completesmoke-control system equipment within the building as fol-lows:1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual pieceof operating smoke control equipment that can also becontrolled from other sources within the includes stairway pressurization fans; smokeexhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; eleva-tor shaft fans and other operating equipment used orintended for smoke control OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individualdampers relating to smoke control and that are alsocontrolled from other sources within the ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke con-trol and other critical equipment associated with a fireor smoke emergency and that can only be controlledfrom the fire-fighter scontrol panel. Thefire-fighter s control panel shall be configured asdescribed in Section :1. Complex systems, where approved, wherethe controls and indicators are combined to2002008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:23 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screencontrol and indicate all elements of a singlesmoke zone as a Complex systems, where approved, wherethe control is accomplished by computerinterface using approved, plain Control action and fire-fighter scontrol panel actions shall be as follows:1. ON-OFF, OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall havethe highest priority of any control point within thebuilding. Once issued from the fire-fighter's controlpanel, no automatic or manual control from any othercontrol point within the building shall contradict thecontrol action. Where automatic means are providedto interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment opera-tion or produce a specific result to safeguard thebuilding or equipment ( , duct freezestats, ductsmoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, tempera-ture-actuated linkage and similar devices), suchmeans shall be capable of being overridden by thefire-fighter's control panel. The last control action asindicated by each fire-fighter's control panel switchposition shall prevail. In no case shall control actionsrequire the smoke control system to assume morethan one configuration at any one :Power disconnects required by theNew York City Electrical Only the AUTO position of each three-positionfire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow auto-matic or manual control action from other controlpoints within the building. The AUTO position shallbe the NORMAL, nonemergency, building controlposition. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in theAUTO position, the actual status of the device (on,off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by thestatus indicator described above. When directed by anautomatic signal to assume an emergency condition,the NORMAL position shall become the emergencycondition for that device or group of devices withinthe zone. In no case shall control actions require thesmoke control system to assume more than one con-figuration at any one System response system activa-tion shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropri-ate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke controlsystems shall activate individual components (such as dampersand fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damageto the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposesof smoke control, the fire-fighter's control panel response timeshall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control actioninitiated from any other building control point. The totalresponse time, including that necessary for detection, shut-down of operating equipment and smoke control systemstartup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achievedbefore the conditions in the space exceed the design smokecondition. The system response time for each component andtheir sequential relationships shall be detailed in the requiredrational analysis and verification of their installed conditionreported in the required final Acceptance , equipment, componentsand sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addi-tion to those required by other provisions of this code, shallconsist of determination of function, sequence and, whereapplicable, capacity of their installed Detection or fire detectors that area part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accor-dance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. Whenapplicable, this testing shall include verification of airflowin both minimum and maximum that are part of a smoke control sys-tem shall be traversed using generally accepted practices todetermine actual air shall be tested for function intheir installed Inlets and and outlets shall be readusing generally accepted practices to determine air shall be examined for correct of voltage, amperage, revolutions per min-ute (rpm) and belt tension shall be Smoke using inclinedmanometers or other approved calibrated measuringdevices shall be made of the pressure differences acrosssmoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted foreach possible smoke control smoke zone, equipped with anautomatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation bythe actuation of one such device. Each additional devicewithin the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequencewithout requiring the operation of fan motors in order toprevent damage. Control sequences shall be verifiedthroughout the system, including verification of overridefrom the fire-fighter's control panel and simulation of emer-gency power Special inspections for smoke systems shall be tested by a special inspector inaccordance with Chapter Scope of inspections shall beconducted in accordance with the following:1. During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal-ment for the purposes of leakage testing andrecording of device Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completionfor the purposes of pressure-difference testing,flow measurements, and detection and control inspectors for smokecontrol shall have a certification as air balancers andexpertise in fire protection engineering or complete report of testing shallbe prepared by the special inspector or approved NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE201FIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:23 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenThe report shall include identification of all devices bymanufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measuredvalues and identification tag or mark. The report shall bereviewed by the responsible engineer and, when satisfiedthat the design intent has been achieved, the l engineershall seal, sign and date the Report copy of the final reportand each inspection report shall be filed with thedepartment and Fire Commissioner, and an identicalcopy shall be maintained in an approved location atthe Identification and ,drawings and other documents identifying and locatingeach component of the smoke control system, and describ-ing its proper function and maintenance requirements, shallbe maintained on file at the building as an attachment to thereport required by Section Devices shall have anapproved identifying tag or mark on them consistent withthe other required documentation and shall be dated indicat-ing the last time they were successfully tested and by Reacceptance smoke control sys-tem shall require a reacceptance test after any modificationsto the system or physical changes to the building that mayaffect system System , or portions thereof,required by this code to comply with this section shall not beissued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the depart-ment determines that the provisions of this section have beenfully complied with, and that the Fire Department has receivedsatisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic andmanual, of the :In buildings of phased construction, the depart-ment may issue a temporary certificate of occupancy pro-vided that those portions of the building to be occupied meetthe requirements of this section and that the remainder doesnot pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposedoccupants or adjacent Smokeproof required by , a smoke proof enclosure shall be constructed inaccordance with this section. Where access to the roof isrequired by theNew York City Fire Code, such access shall befrom the smoke proof enclosure where a smoke proof enclo-sure is required. Smokeproof enclosures shall consist of one ofthe following systems:1. An enclosed interior exit stairway constructed in accor-dance with Section and accessed through an openexterior An enclosed interior exit stairway constructed in accor-dance with Section and accessed through a natu-rally ventilated An enclosed interior exit stairway constructed in accor-dance with Section and accessed through amechanically ventilated A pressurized interior exit stairway constructed in accor-dance with Section to the interior exit stairway shallbe by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony, unlesssuch stairway is pressurized in accordance with The minimum dimension of the vestibule or openexterior balcony shall not be less than the required width ofthe corridor leading to the vestibule or open exterior balconybut shall not have a width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm)and shall not have a length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm)in the direction of egress smoke proof enclosure shallbe separated from the remainder of the building by not lessthan a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier without open-ings other than the required means of egress doors. The ves-tibule shall be separated from the stairway by not less than a2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier. The open exteriorbalcony shall be constructed in accordance with thefire-resistance-rating requirements for floor Door in a smoke proof enclo-sure shall be self-closing or shall be automatic-closingby actuation of a smoke detector installed at thefloor-side entrance to the smoke proof enclosure inaccordance with Section The actuation of thesmoke detector on any door shall activate the closingdevices on all doors in the smoke proof enclosure at alllevels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordancewith Section Natural ventilation provisionsof Sections through shall apply toventilation of smoke proof enclosures by natural Balcony access to the stairwayis by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assemblyinto the enclosure shall be a fire door in accordance withSection Vestibule access to the stair-way is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into thevestibule shall be a fire door complying with The door assembly from the vestibule to the stair-way shall have not less than a 90-minute fire protectionrating complying with Section Vestibule vestibule shallhave a minimum net area of 16 square feet ( m2)ofopening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or publicway that is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) in Mechanical ventilation provi-sions of Sections through shall applyto ventilation of smoke proof enclosures by Vestibule door assembly from thebuilding into the vestibule shall be a fire door complyingwith Section The door assembly from the vesti-bule to the stairway shall have not less than a 90-minutefire protection rating in accordance with Section door from the building into the vestibule shall beprovided with gaskets or other provisions to minimize Vestibule vestibule shall besupplied with not less than one air change per minute and2022008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:23 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenthe exhaust shall not be less than 150 percent of air shall enter and exhaust air shall dischargefrom the vestibule through separate, tightly constructedducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enterthe vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor top of the exhaust register shall be located at the topof the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm)down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely withinthe smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall notobstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controllingdampers are permitted where necessary to meet thedesign requirements, but dampers are not Engineered ventilation specially engineered system is used, the systemshall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emer-gency operation mode and shall be sized to handlethree vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectorsshall be located at the floor-side entrance to each ves-tibule and shall activate the system for the affectedvestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accor-dance with Section Smoke vestibule ceiling shall be atleast 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door openinginto the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and toprovide an upward-moving air column. The height shallnot be decreased unless approved and justified by designand Stair shaft air movement stairshaft shall be provided with a dampered relief openingand supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimumpositive pressure of inch of water (25 Pa) in the shaftrelative to the vestibule with all doors closed. The systemshall maintain a maximum of inch of water (87 Pa)in the shaft relative to the building measured with allstairway doors closed under maximum anticipated Door opening opening forceshall not exceed limits in Section Stair pressurization thebuilding is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem in accordance with Section , the vestibuleis not required, provided that interior exit stairways are pres-surized to a minimum of inch of water (37 Pa) and amaximum of inch of water (87 Pa) in the shaft relativeto the building measured with all stairway doors closedunder maximum anticipated stack Ventilating activation of venti-lating equipment required by the alternatives in and shall be by smoke detectors installedat each floor level at an approved location at the entrance tothe smokeproof enclosure. When the closing device for thestair shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke detec-tion or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall acti-vate and operate at the required performance levels. Smokedetectors shall be installed in accordance with Ventilation enclosureventilation systems shall be independent of other build-ing ventilation systems. The equipment and ductworkshall comply with one of the following:1. Equipment and ductwork shall be located exteriorto the building and directly connected to thesmokeproof enclosure or connected to thesmokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire Equipment and ductwork shall be located withinthe smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaustdirectly from and to the outside or throughductwork enclosed by 2-hour fire-resistance-ratedfire Equipment and ductwork shall be located withinthe building if separated from the remainder of thebuilding, including other mechanical equipment,by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire Emergency vestibule andstair shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detectionsystems shall be powered by an emergency power systemconforming to Section and Chapter Acceptance and the mechanicalequipment is approved, the system shall be tested in thepresence of the department or approved agency to confirmthat the system is operating in compliance with Underground building smoke exhaust required in accordance with Section for under-ground buildings, a smoke exhaust system shall be provided inaccordance with this Exhaust compartmentation isrequired, each compartment shall have an independent,automatically activated smoke exhaust system capable ofmanual operation. The system shall have an air supply andsmoke exhaust capability that will provide a minimum of sixair changes per smoke exhaust system shall beoperated in the compartment of origin by the following,independently of each other:1. Two cross-zoned smoke detectors within a single pro-tected area of a single smoke detector monitored by analarm verification zone or an approved The automatic sprinkler Manual controls that are readily accessible to the Alarm of the smoke exhaustsystem shall activate an audible alarm at a constantlyattended NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE203FIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:24 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenSECTION BC 910SMOKE AND HEAT required by this code or otherwiseinstalled, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaustsystems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements ofthis :Frozen-food warehouses used solely for stor-age of Class I and II commodities where protected by anautomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Where and heat vents designed inaccordance with Section shall be installed in the roofs ofbuildings or portions thereof occupied for the uses set forth inSections through Vents shall be installed at thetop of a closed shaft in accordance with Section Groups F-1 and and portionsthereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having morethan 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in undivided :Group S-1 aircraft repair Group and portions thereof used as aGroup H occupancy as shown:1. In occupancies classified as Group H-2 or H-3, any ofwhich are over 15,000 square feet (1394 m2) in undi-vided area or area greater in depth than 100 feet (30480 mm) from Fire Department apparatus :Buildings of noncombustible con-struction containing only noncombustible In areas of buildings in Group H used for storingClass 2, 3, and 4 liquid and solid oxidizers, Class 1and unclassified detonable organic peroxides, Class 3and 4 unstable (reactive) materials, or Class 2 or 3water-reactive materials as required for a high-hazardcommodity :Buildings of noncombustible con-struction containing only noncombustible High-piled combustible andportions thereof containing high-piled combustible stock orrack storage in any occupancy group in accordance withSection 413 and theNew York City Fire Design and design and installation ofsmoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified inthis section and Table Vent and heat vents shall belisted and labeled and shall be capable of being operated byapproved automatic and manual means. Automatic opera-tion of smoke and heat vents shall conform to the provisionsof this Gravity-operated drop-out smoke and heat vents containing heat-sensitiveglazing designed to shrink and drop out of the vent open-ing when exposed to fire shall fully open within 5 min-utes after the vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire,represented by a time-temperature gradient that reachesan air temperature of 500 F (260 C) within 5 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMSTABLE FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTSaOCCUPANCYGROUP ANDCOMMODITYCLASSIFICATIONDESIGNATEDSTORAGE HEIGHT(feet)MINIMUM DRAFTCURTAIN DEPTH(feet)MAXIMUM AREAFORMED BY DRAFTCURTAINS(square feet)VENT AREATO FLOOR AREARATIOMAXIMUMSPACING OFVENT CENTERS(feet)MAXIMUMDISTANCE TOVENTS FROM WALLOR DRAFTCURTAINSb(feet)Group F-1 Hcbut 450,0001:10012060Group S-1I-IV(Option 1) 20610,0001:10010060> 20 4068,0001:7510055Group S-1I-IV(Option 2) 2043,0001:7510055> 20 4043,0001:5010050Group S-1High hazard(Option 1) 2066,0001:5010050> 20 3066,0001:409045Group S-1High hazard(Option 2) 2044,0001:5010050> 20 3042,0001:307540For SI: 1 foot = mm, 1 square foot = Requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with theNew York City Fire Code. For solid-piled storage heights inexcess of those indicated, an approved engineered design shall be The distance specified is the maximum distance from any vent in a particular draft curtained area to walls or draft curtains which form the perimeterof the draft cur-tained H is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor. :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:24 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default Sprinklered installed inbuildings provided with an automatic sprinkler system inaccordance with Section , smoke and heat ventsshall be designed to operate Nonsprinklered installedin buildings not provided with an automatic sprinklersystem, smoke and heat vents shall operate automaticallyby actuation of a heat-responsive device rated at between100 F (38 C) and 220 F (104 C) above :Gravity-operated drop-out vents comply-ing with Section Vent effective venting area shallnot be less than 16 square feet ( m2) with no dimensionless than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters havinga total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm). Vent and heat vents shall belocated 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot linesand fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire bar-rier walls. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roofarea above high-piled storage areas, with considerationgiven to roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler locationand structural Draft required, draft curtains shallbe provided in accordance with this :Where areas of buildings are equipped withearly suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, draftcurtains need not be provided within these areas. Draftcurtains shall only be provided at the separation betweenthe ESFR sprinklers and the conventional curtains shall be con-structed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board orother approved materials that provide equivalent perfor-mance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and connec-tions shall be smoke Location and location and mini-mum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance withTable Mechanical smoke approved by thedepartment, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall be anacceptable alternate to smoke and heat fans shall be uniformly spacedwithin each draft-curtained area and the maximum distancebetween fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). shall have a maximum individual capac-ity of 30,000 cfm ( m3/s). The aggregate capacity ofsmoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation:C=A 300(Equation 9-10)where:C= Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cubicfeet per minute (m3/s).A= Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m2)inaccordance with Table smoke exhaust fans shallbe automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler sys-tem or by heat detectors having operating characteristicsequivalent to those described in Section Individualmanual controls of each fan unit shall also be Wiring and for operation and con-trol of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of themain disconnect and protected against exposure to tempera-tures in excess of 1,000 F (538 C) for a period of not lessthan 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be imme-diately accessible to the fire service from the exterior of thebuilding and protected against interior fire exposure by firebarriers having a fire-resistance rating not less than onehour. The location of manual controls is subject to theapproval of the Fire Supply air for exhaust fans shall be pro-vided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to provide aminimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. Openings forsupply air shall be uniformly distributed around the periph-ery of the area combination comfort air-han-dling/smoke removal systems or independent comfortair-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut downin accordance with the approved smoke control Smoke venting of closed closed shafts hav-ing a floor area exceeding 4 square feet ( m2) shall be pro-vided with a smoke vent in accordance with Sections :Elevator and dumbwaiter shafts in accordancewith Chapter Smoke vent vents may beconstructed as windows, louvers, skylights, vent ducts, orsimilar devices. Where a vent duct is installed, such ventducts shall be enclosed by construction having the samefire-resistance rating as required for the shaft Smoke vent effective ventingarea shall not be less than 31/2percent of the maximum shaftarea at any floor, but in no event less than 72 square inches( m2). Of the total required vent area, at least one-thirdshall be clear opening to the exterior in the form of fixed lou-vers, ridge vents, or hooded or goosenecked openings. Theremaining portion of the required vent area may be a win-dow or skylight glazed with plain glass not more ( mm) thick or with plastic :The clear opening to the exterior may beconstructed as a skylight or trapdoor arranged to openautomatically by fusible link or other mechanical devicewhen subjected to a temperature of 160 F (71 C) or to arapid rise in temperature at a rate of 15 F ( C) to 20 F( C) per Smoke vent vents shall be locatedin accordance with Section or , as Smoke vents located above the roof a closed shaft or smoke vent duct penetrates2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE205FIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:24 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screenthrough the roof of the building, the vent shall be locatedas follows:1. The vent shall be located at least 8 inches (203mm) above a noncombustible roof assembly or atleast 36 inches (914 mm) above a combustibleroof The vent shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm)from any window, door, exterior stairway, or inte-rior lot line. The vent may be located no less than 5feet (1524 mm) from any window or door pro-vided that the vent is located at a point higher thanthe top of such window or Where the vent is constructed as a window or lou-ver, the sill of the window or louver shall belocated at least 36 inches (914 mm) (above the roofassembly). Smoke vents located in an exterior the exterior wall serves as part of a shaft enclo-sure or where a smoke vent duct penetrates the exte-rior wall of the building, the vent shall be located atleast 30 feet (9144 mm) above and 5 feet (1524 mm)to the side of any other openings in the exterior BC 911FIRE COMMAND required by other sections of this code,a fire command center for Fire Department operations shall beprovided. The fire command center shall be located in thelobby of the building on the entrance floor as part of the firealarm control panel, elevator control panel or immediatelyadjacent thereto. The fire command center shall comply withNFPA 72 and shall contain the following features as applicable:1. The emergency voice/alarm communication The Fire Department communications Fire detection and alarm system annunciator Annunciator visually indicating the location of the ele-vators and whether they are Status indicators and controls for air-handling The fire-fighter s control panel required by for smoke control systems installed in the Controls for unlocking stairway doors Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display Emergency power status A telephone for Fire Department use with controlledaccess to the public telephone Fire pump status Generator supervision devices, manual start and trans-fer Public address system, where specifically required byother sections of this Manual controls of postfire smoke purge system inaccordance with Section 912POSTFIRE SMOKE PURGE Scope and purpose of this section is toestablish minimum requirements for the design and installationof postfire smoke purge systems, which are intended for thetimely restoration of operations and overhaul activities once afire is extinguished. Postfire smoke purge systems are notintended or designed as life safety systems and are not requiredto meet the provisions of Section 909. Postfire smoke purgesystems shall be required in:1. High-rise buildings subject to Section Buildings with any story exceeding 50,000 square feet(4645 m2) in floor Building with spaces exceeding 100 feet (30 480 mm)from natural ventilation openings. Natural ventilationopenings shall consist of operable windows and doors ofat least 5 percent of the floor area or roof vents per Sec-tion High-piled stock or rack storage in accordance with theNew York City Fire :A postfire smoke purge system is notrequired in R-2 occupancies where either of the fol-lowing conditions postfire smoke purgesystem is not required where every habitableroom located in dwelling units is provided withwindows complying with Chapter 12 and all ofthe window window shall provide at least12 square feet ( m2) of glazed total area of all such windows shallnot be less than 10 percent of the floorarea of the room or space openable window shall provide a mini-mum of 6 square feet ( m2)ofopenable area. The total area of all suchopenings shall not be less than 5 percentof the floor area of the room or spaceserved. In addition, each requiredopenable area shall Located wholly at least 30inches (762 mm) above thefinished floor; Fully openable to the mini-mum 6 square feet ( m2),at all times and without limit-ing stops or devices. Suchopenings may be achievedthrough the use of dou-ble-hung, sliding, or similar2062008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODEFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:25 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screentypes of windows. However,in the event of the use of case-ment-, hopper-, pivot-, orawning-type windows, suchwindows shall satisfy therequirements of this sectiononly when they open to at least75 degrees ( rad) . postfire smokepurge system is not required where all exits areconstructed as smokeproof enclosures in accor-dance with Section Postfire smoke purge systems in occupancy groupsother than General design smokepurge systems are permitted to use dedicated equipment, thenormal building HVAC system or other openings and shallhave the capability to exhaust smoke from occupied removal may be by either mechanical or natural ven-tilation, but shall be capable of removing cold removed from a space must be discharged to a safelocation outside the building and shall not be recirculatedinto the building in accordance with theNew York CityMechanical Exhaust system shall have an airsupply and smoke exhaust capability that will provide aminimum of 6 air changes per hour or 1 cubic foot per min-ute per square foot (cfm/ft2) [ (s m2)], whicheveris greater. The system need not exhaust from all areas at thesame time, but is permitted to be zoned based on the largestfire area served. For the purpose of calculating system size,the height of a compartment shall be considered to run fromslab to slab and include the volume above suspended ceil-ings. Provisions shall be made for sufficient make-up provisions may include operable windows, doors,building leakage, or mechanical systems. In buildings hav-ing occupied floors located less than 75 feet (22 860 mm)above the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access,breakable windows may be postfire smoke purge system shallbe operated by manual controls that are part of the fire com-mand center, in accordance with Section 911, or fire alarmpanel when a fire command center is not required. Such con-trol center or panel shall display a graphic indicating theportions of the building served by each postfire smoke purgesystem. When a system is zoned into areas of operation lessthan the entire building, each zone shall have an individualcontrol. Fire Department manual controls of postfire smokepurge systems shall not override the manual or automaticoperation of the smoke control system. Such Fire Depart-ment manual controls shall override the fire shutdown sig-nal from the fire alarm Postfire smoke purge systems in occupancy smoke purge systems in R-2 occupancies shallcomply with either Section or Smokeremoved must be discharged to a safe location outside thebuilding and shall not be recirculated into the building in accor-dance with theNew York City Mechanical Stair top of all enclosed exit stairsshall be provided with a reversible fan system capable ofintroducing fresh air or exhausting air at a rate of 6 airchanges per hour or 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot(cfm/ft2) [ m3/(s m2)], whichever is greater, basedon the area of the largest floor. Such system shall be oper-ated by manual controls that are part of the fire commandcenter, as per Section 911, or fire alarm panel when a firecommand center is not required. Such control center orpanel shall display a graphic indicating the portions of thebuilding served by each post-fire smoke purge system. Theoperation of such system shall be controlled by Fire Depart-ment personnel by manually opening stair doors at theappropriate Corridor ducts and fans that pro-vide fresh air supply to the public corridors in accordancewith theNew York City Mechanical Codeshall be providedwith reversible fans and duct sizes capable of introducingfresh air to or exhausting air from the corridor at a rate of 6air changes per hour or 1 cubic foot per minute per squarefoot (cfm/ft2) [ m3/(s m2)], whichever is greater,based on the area of the largest apartment plus the area of thepublic corridor. Such system shall be operated by manualcontrols that are part of the fire command center, as per Sec-tion 911, or fire alarm panel when a fire command center isnot required. Each floor to be ventilated shall be by individ-ual controls. Such control center or panel shall display agraphic indicating the portions of the building served byeach postfire smoke purge building owner shall maintainpostfire smoke exhaust systems in good operational of testing shall be maintained on the premises forinspection by the department and Fire Department NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE207FIRE PROTECTION :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:25 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screen2082008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING :\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\ , August 14, 2008 8:53:25 AMColor profile: Generic CMYK printer profileComposite Default screen

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