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3 list of contents a. a brief survey of chief events an d developments in the course of british history 5 a.1 from the earliest times to the end of the 15th century 5


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BRITISH HISTORY AND CULTURE This text complements the e-learning material entitled THE UK 2006 . It has been prepared for extra-mural (C V) students. Stella Nangonov Ostrava 2008 2List of less frequently used abbreviations: = Anno Domini (na eho letopo tu) = before Christ b. = born cca. = about cc. = centuries cf. = compare = that is p. = page Further reading: Lucie-Smith, Edward, et al.: The New British Painting. Oxford: OUP, 1988 McDowall, David: An Illustrated History of Britain. London: Longman, 1991 Morgan, Kenneth O., et al.: The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: OUP, 1985 Morgan, N.: Famous Scientists. Wayland, 1993 Scholes, : The Oxford Companion to Music. Oxford: OUP, 1989 Vesey, G. and Foulkes, P.: Collins Dictionary of Philosophy. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1990 Watkin, David: English Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson, 2002 Wilton, Andrew: Five Centuries of British Painting. London: Thames and Hudson, 2001 Yarwood, Doreen: The Architecture of Britain. London: Batsford, 1990 3LIST OF CONTENTS A. A BRIEF SURVEY OF CHIEF EVENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COURSE OF BRITISH HISTORY 5 FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE END OF THE 15TH CENTURY 5 The mingling of the races 5 The Iberians and the Celts 5 Roman Britain 5 The Anglo-Saxon period 6 From the Norman Conquest to the Hundred Years War: the feudal state 7 From the outbreak of the Hundred Years War to the end of the Wars of the Roses: the decay of feudalism 7 The Hundred Years War 8 The Black Death and the Peasants Revolt 8 The Wars of the Roses 8 Exercises 9 FROM THE TUDOR PERIOD TO THE END OF THE NAPOLEONIC WARS 10 The Tudor period 10 The Stuart era 11 The early Stuarts, the Civil War and the Republican period 11 From the restoration of the monarchy to the end of the Stuart era 11 The wars with France, the building of a colonial empire and the Industrial Revolution 11 I. Home and foreign policy 11 II. The Industrial Revolution 12 Exercises 12 DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES 14 The 19th century 14 Home affairs 14 Foreign affairs and colonial expansion 15 Economy 15 The 20th century 15 Home affairs 15 Foreign affairs 16 Economy 17 Exercises 17 MAPS 18 INDEX AND GLOSSARY 24 B. A BRIEF SURVEY OF DEVELOPMENTS IN BRITISH CULTURE 31 MAIN ARCHITECTURAL STYLES IN BRITAIN AND LEADING BRITISH ARCHITECTS 31 The Middle Ages 31 The late Tudor and Stuart periods 33 English Baroque and Classicism 36 Victorian historicism and the 20th century 38 A list of architectural terms used in this subchapter 40 Exercises 43 GREAT PAINTERS AND SCULPTORS ACTIVE IN BRITAIN 45 The 16th and 17th centuries 45 The 18th century 47 The 19th century 51 The 20th century 54 Glossary 56 Exercises 60 A SURVEY OF BRITISH PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING AND OF DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE AND MUSIC 61 Chief British philosophers and philosophical systems 61 Eminent British scientists and inventors 63 A brief outline of the development of British music 65 Index and Glossary 66 Exercises 69 C. KEY TO EXERCISES 71 5A. A BRIEF SURVEY OF CHIEF EVENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COURSE OF BRITISH HISTORY CHAPTER : FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE END OF THE 15TH CENTURY This chapter describes the oldest inhabitants of Britain, the settlers and invaders who kept coming there until 1066, and the feudal period in Britain. The mingling of the races ( ,000 11th century) The Iberians and the Celts ( ,000-55 ) The oldest human inhabitants probably came to Britain about 250,000 years ago over the landbridge that connected today s British Isles and the Continent of Europe at that time. The so-called Iberians reached Britain between 3,500 and 3,000 , probably coming from the Iberian Peninsula. Both the Iberians and the so-called Beaker people ( ,000 ; named after the beaker-shaped pots they made) settled in the south of England. The Iberians used stone and bone tools and their settlements were based on henges , great circles of earth banks and huge standing stones ( Stonehenge). The Beaker people brought the knowledge of bronze to Britain. ( ) Soon after 700 , Celtic tribes began to invade Britain. Between and 100 , they settled the whole of Britain. They formed tribal kingdoms that were frequently at war with each other. Roman Britain (55 5th century ) Britain became a sphere of Roman interest in the 1st century Julius Ceasar attempted to conquer Britain twice, in 55 and 54 , his main aim being to prevent the Britons from providing their kinsmen in today s France with military aid. But the actual Roman conquest of Britain by Emperor Claudius took place in 43 By 80 , the Romans had conquered today s England, Wales and southern Scotland, but problems in other parts of their empire made them withdraw behind the so-called Hadrian s Wall in the first half of the 2nd century. After crushing the Britons resistance, the Romans Romanised the southern areas ( they imposed their civilisation and way of life on native people); northern Britain and Wales were placed under military control and the natives were allowed to carry on with their own way of life. A system of roads was constructed throughout Britain. ( ) Roman rule in Britain declined towards the end of the 4th century as the whole Roman Empire was falling apart. The last Roman legions were withdrawn from Britain in the 5th century. Oldest inhabitants Iberians Beaker people Celts Caesar s invasions Claudius s conquest (43 AD) Roman rule End of Roman Britain The Anglo-Saxon period (5th -11th cc.) Anglo-Saxons (Angles, Saxons and Jutes) were Germanic tribes living in today s northern Germany and Denmark. They had already started attacking the south coast of Britain in the 3rd century, but in the 5th century they conquered and settled. the whole of today s England. They destroyed the Romano-British civilization and established their own, agricultural one. In the course of the 6th century, a number of rather unstable kingdoms arose in England. Four of them successively held supremacy over the others: Kent, Northumbria, Mercia and finally Wessex. ( ) Christianity reached England from Ireland and from Rome at the end of the 6th century. It played a highly important role in establishing medieval society and in developing the statehood in England: the Church served as the model for feudal kingdoms and gave kingship a sacred character. England was finally united under the kings of Wessex in the 10th century. Danish Vikings had conquered a large part of north-eastern England and created a confederation of Scandinavian communities called Danelaw (878-975) there. ( ) Alfred the Great of Wessex ( ) defeated the Danes and his successors reconquered the Danelaw in the 10th century. However, a new Danish invasion shattered England in 978: in 1016, Canute (1016-35), the King of Denmark and Norway, became the first king of a fully united England. His Scandinavian Empire, however, broke up under his incompetent successors and the Saxon heir, Edward the Confessor (1042-66), was restored to the throne of England. Edward unwittingly prepared the way for the Norman Conquest: he introduced Norman nobles into high state offices and left behind a disputed succession. After his death, Harold, son of the mightiest English nobleman, was chosen to become king. But the Duke of Normandy and the King of Norway claimed the English throne too, and both of them attacked England almost simultaneously in 1066. Harold defeated the Norsemen, but he was himself defeated and killed in the battle of Hastings in October 1066 by William of Normandy, who succeeded him on the English throne. The Norman Conquest had been completed by 1069, and it had far-reaching consequences for the development of England: England s relations with Scandinavia were cut off and the country came under French cultural influence; three languages were used in England: Norman-French, the language of the ruling aristocracy and law courts; Latin, the language of educated people; and English, spoken by common Englishmen. England was given a new, Norman-French king and ruling class; the country was reorganised into a strong feudal state protected by the English channel; as a result, no further conquests have since occurred. Anglo-Saxon conquest Anglo-Saxon kingdoms Christianity Viking invasions Unification of England Battle of Hastings (1066) Norman Conquest: its consequences From the Norman Conquest to the Hundred Years War: the feudal state (11th 13th cc.) This period was marked by: a struggle between the centralising power of the king and the growing challenge from the leading barons; a considerable development of trade and towns, which helped to disintegrate the feudal system. The gradual character of the Conquest and the support of the Church enabled William the Conqueror (1066-87) to establish a strong centralised state which was in sharp contrast to the anarchy of political feudalism prevailing on the Continent. The Anglo-Saxon system of shires was revived, and a royal officer was placed at the head of each; besides, William prevented the creation of great baronies independent of the royal power. He also established the fiscal basis of the state by ordering a detailed survey of property value in every shire to be made (the Domesday Book, 1086-87). The process of strengthening the power of the state was continued by William s son Henry I (1100-35) and especially by Henry II (1154-89), who ascended the throne after thirty years of anarchy (the War of Succession, 1135-54). He ruled over a vast empire comprising England, Normandy and a larger part of France than that controlled by the king of France. ( ) He restored the royal rights, tightened the control over sheriffs and tried to get all courts under the royal control (he failed with ecclesiastical courts cf. his conflict with Thomas Becket). Henry also started the English conquest of Ireland, which was never fully completed. Henry s sons were weak kings: Richard I (Lion Heart, 1189-99) because he spent most of his reign fighting in Palestine (in the Third Crusade) and in France; and John (Lackland, 1199-1216) because his misrule alienated his barons: in 1215, they forced John to grant them the Magna Carta (Great Charter of Liberties), which limited the royal power and laid the foundations for the later Parliamentary monarchy. Edward I (1272-1307), as able a monarch as Henry II, ascended the throne after another civil war (1264-66). He will always be remembered for summoning the Model Parliament (1295), called so because it contained representatives of the three estates of Barons, Clergy and Commons ( all the elements of a future parliament). Edward conquered north Wales (1285), but failed to conquer Scotland: the Scottish kingdom kept its independence from England until 1714. From the outbreak of the Hundred Years War to the end of the Wars of the Roses: the decay of feudalism (14th + 15th cc.) These two centuries form the period of transition from feudalism to pre-industrial era. The long war with France helped to form a sense of national identity: a native English culture was born and English became the official language of the country. Character of the period Strong feudal state: William I Henry I and Henry II Magna Carta (1215) Edward I: Model Parliament (1295) Conquest of Wales and failure in Scotland The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) This long war broke out after Edward III (1327-77) claimed the throne of France, but its real objective was to bring Flanders (the main English wool trade market) and Gascony (the chief supplier of wine and salt) under English control. The long war is traditionally divided into three stages, with periods of uneasy truce between them: The first stage (1337-60) was successful for England, because the English army consisted of well-organised professional soldiers, while the French army was an undisciplined feudal host. The French suffered two crushing defeats at Cr cy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), and gained large territories in France. The second stage (1369-75) was successful for France: the French adopted the strategy of guerrilla war, and gradually reconquered the lost territory except for two ports. The third stage (1415-53): The war was resumed by Henry V (1413-22), the second Lancastrian king: he dealt the French another crushing defeat at Agincourt (1415) and gradually extended his territory. In 1420, he was acknowledged heir to the French throne. Though he died in 1422, the war continued and, in 1428, the French were defending their last stronghold at Orleans. The appearance of Joan of Arc in 1429, however, led to a French revival. The war dragged on for more than twenty years, until the battle of Chatillon finally ended it in 1453. ( ) The war exhausted England and led to political disruption, which enabled the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses. The Black Death (1348-51) and the Peasants Revolt (1381) In the mid-14th century, an epidemic of bubonic plague called Black Death swept across Europe. It reduced the English population by nearly a half, which caused a severe shortage of labour. As a result, free workers were able to obtain higher wages and serfs demanded compensation for labour services. By the end of the 1370s, however, the population had increased and the peasants could no longer demand either higher wages or release from serfdom. High taxes were demanded in order to pay for the war in France: in 1379, the so-called Poll Tax was imposed on every male over sixteen. This situation resulted in the outbreak of a revolt in 1381: the rebels marched on London and held the government at their mercy. King Richard II (1377-99), who was a boy of fourteen at that time, promised to meet all their demands, but as soon as they dispersed, the revolt was brutally crushed. Yet, there was no return to the previous system, and serfdom had disappeared by the end of the 15th century. The Wars of the Roses (1455-85) This series of wars was a dynastic struggle between two powerful families, the Lancastrians and the Yorkists, both descendants of Edward III: they fought for the crown. The Wars were marked by indecisive victories and defeats on both sides. During Causes of the war Three stages of the war: the first stage the second stage the third stage its consequences Black Death Poll Tax Peasants Revolt (1381) Consequences Character of the Wars 9the thirty years of intermittent fighting, the feudal nobility was impoverished and almost exterminated, while the Crown became wealthy, as a result of confiscations of their estates for the benefit of the Crown after each battle. This paved the way for the establishing of Tudor absolutism. Exercises: 1. Complete this table: PEOPLE TIME OF ARRIVAL THE ORIGINAL HOME / LEADER The first inhabitants --------- The Iberian Peninsula --------- The Celts --------- 55 Emperor Claudius The 5th century Denmark 1066 2. Explain why the coming of Christianity was so important. 3. Why can it be said that Edward the Confessor unwittingly prepared the way for the Norman Conquest ? 4. What helped William the Conqueror establish a strong centralised state and what limited the power of English sovereigns later? 5. What led to the outbreak of the Hundred Years War? Which of its three stages were successful for England and why? 6. What led to the Peasants Revolt? 7. What caused the Wars of the Roses and how can you characterise them? 8. What were the consequences of: a. the Norman Conquest? b. the Hundred Years War? c. the Peasants Revolt? d. the Wars of the Roses? 9. Arrange these events in chronological order: The Black Death ravages England. Emperor Claudius conquers Britain. Duke William defeats King Harold at Hastings. The Hundred Years War ends. Christianity reaches England. King John grants his barons the Great Charter of Liberties. The Wars of the Roses end. Alfred the Great defeats the Danish Vikings. The Peasants Revolt breaks out. 10. Questions for reflection: a. Can the consequences of the Battle of Hastings be compared to those of the Battle of White Mountain near Prague (1620)? Why (not)? b. Would it have been good or bad for England if Henry V had become King of France? Give reasons for your answer. c. What do you think were the rebelling peasants demands in 1381, and why was their revolt unsuccessful? Their consequences 10CHAPTER : FROM THE TUDOR PERIOD TO THE END OF THE NAPOLEONIC WARS The Tudor period can be regarded as the beginning of modern times: an absolute monarchy and the National Church controlled by the state were established, and England laid the foundations for its maritime supremacy. But the temporary balance of power that marked the period collapsed in the Stuart era, and the conflict between the Crown and Parliament resulted in the Civil War. The principles of constitutional monarchy were laid in the 1688-89. In the 18th century, Britain became a great maritime, trading and financial power, as a result of successful wars with France and the Industrial Revolution. The Tudor period (1485-1603) Henry VII (1485-1509) made use of the situation after the end of the Wars of the Roses to establish an absolute monarchy. He created a new nobility from the upper middle class: the new noblemen were entrusted with state offices, especially in the Privy Council, the predecessor of the modern Cabinet, and in the prerogative courts Henry had set up. He avoided military conflicts, but protected trade and manufacturing and encouraged overseas expeditions. ( ) That is why Tudor absolutism was supported by practically the whole nation. Under Henry VIII (1509-47), the Church was subjected to the state power, as a result of the king s quarrel with the Pope over divorcing his first wife (the English Reformation, the 1530s). This act removed the last power of the feudal period that hampered the development of parliamentary government. Though Henry was acknowledged Head of the Church of England, he remained Catholic. Protestantism penetrated into England after his death. Mary Tudor (1553-58) unsuccessfully tried to recatholicise the country, but the religious struggles were ended under Elizabeth I (1558-1603; the Elizabethan Settlement): the English Church became the official Church of England and its doctrine was clearly formulated. In 1588, England defeated its greatest rival, Spain: a huge fleet called the Armada was crushed by the English navy and the adverse weather. This meant the end of Spanish maritime supremacy. Wales was fully incorporated into England in 1535. Ireland was, however, treated like a colony: revolts against English attempts to impose Protestantism on Ireland were crushed and followed by clearance and plantation , driving Irish people away from their land and resettling it with Englishmen. The Tudor economy was afflicted by: galloping inflation aggravated by a rise in population; vagrancy resulting from intensified enclosures. On the other hand, both internal trade and overseas commerce flourished. Henry VII s absolute monarchy Henry VIII s Reformation (the 1530s) Elizabeth I Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) Wales + Ireland Economy The Stuart era (1603-1714) The early Stuarts, the Civil War and the Republican period (1603-60) James VI of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth on the English throne as James I (1603-25). His financial difficulties, combined with his belief in the divine right of kings and unwise religious and foreign policy, angered Parliament. An organised opposition to the Crown emerged, however, under his son Charles I (1625-49) due to his desire for absolute power, as well as his unparliamentary methods of obtaining money. The growing conflict led to the outbreak of the Civil War (1642-49) between the supporters of the King (Royalists or Cavaliers ) and of Parliament (parliamentary party or Roundheads ). The victory of the radical wing of the Parliamentary party led by Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) in the Second Civil War resulted in the king s execution and the establishment of a republican regime, the Commonwealth (1649-54). It was, however, soon followed by Cromwell s Protectorate (1654-59), a Puritan military dictatorship. The new state became recognised and respected abroad. Ireland was cruelly pacified and Ulster resettled with British settlers; Scotland and Ireland were annexed to England. But the religious and intellectual tyranny of the Puritans and high taxes alienated English people and, soon after Cromwell s death, the republican regime collapsed and the monarchy was restored. From the restoration of the monarchy to the end of the Stuart era (1660-1714) Together with the monarchy, represented by Charles II (1660-85), the House of Lords and the Anglican Church were restored in 1660. Two factions developed in parliament, the Tories (defenders of divine right monarchy and Anglicanism) and the Whigs (supporters of Parliamentary monarchy and religious toleration); they gradually formed two distinct political parties. The attempt of Charles s brother James II (1685-88) to usurp absolute power led to the so-called Glorious Revolution (1688-89): James was peacefully replaced by William III (of Orange, 1689-1702) and James s Protestant daughter Mary. Thus the basic principles of the constitutional monarchy were established. William and Queen Anne (1702-14) kept executive power, but their policy was controlled by Parliament. The wars with France, the building of a colonial empire and the Industrial Revolution (1714-1815) I. HOME AND FOREIGN POLICY The United Kingdom of Great Britain was formed in 1707, by the Union of Scotland and England. Ireland was treated as a cruelly exploited colony after William defeated James II at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690; in 1800, it was incorporated into the UK of Great Britain and Ireland. The Stuart dynasty Charles I s policy Civil War (1642-49) Cromwell s Commonwealth and Protectorate Restoration of the monarchy (1660) Glorious Revolution (1688-89) Union of Scotland and England (1707),and Ireland (1808) 12The modern system of government was established after the ascension of the Hanoverian dynasty to the British throne in 1714: the Prime Minister and his Cabinet replaced the Sovereign as the head of the executive. The wars with France had started under William III, whose main aim was to protect his native Holland from French aggression. War conflicts continued throughout the 18th century as Britain and France were fighting for naval supremacy and colonial power. The most serious conflicts were the Seven Years War (1756-63, often described as the first world war) and the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1793-1815, which followed the French revolution of 1789). As a result of these wars, Britain built its colonial empire, though the American colonies were lost after the American War of Independence (1775-83). Britain gained maritime supremacy and became world superpower. II. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION This gradual process of changing Britain from a predominantly agricultural country into an industrial power had been prepared by the economic developments in the second half of the 17th century. The term Industrial Revolution is rather misleading, because this process was a slow evolution rather than a revolution , and it did not only concern industry. It included developments in the sphere of finance, as sufficient capital had to be accumulated; in transport: a network of canals, roads and later railways had to be built to speed up transporting raw materials and goods; in agriculture: small strips of land were enclosed and changed into large fields to enable the use of agricultural machines ( ); new methods of farming were introduced too; in manufacturing, the factory system replaced the formerly used domestic industry, first in the textile industry and coal mining and later also in iron and steel industry; the invention of a number of machines made this change possible, the most important of them being James Watt s steam engine (1765-66). As a result of the Industrial Revolution: Britain became the economic, financial and commercial superpower; it had no serious rivals until the second half of the 19th century; the centre of the economy shifted from the agricultural south and east to the centre (the Black Country ) and to the north; these areas also became the most densely populated parts of the country ( ); two new social classes emerged: factory workers and industrialists. Exercises: 1. Complete this table: THE RULER OR PERIOD IMPORTANT EVENTS 1. The absolute monarchy is established. Trade, manufacturing and overseas expeditions are encouraged. Modern system of government Wars with France Colonial empire Character of the process Its consequences 13 2. Henry VIII 3. Elizabeth I 4. Charles I 5. The Commonwealth and the Protectorate are established. 6. 1660-1714 7. 1714-1815 2. What helped Henry VII to create an absolute monarchy, and why can it be called absolutism by consent ? 3. What were the chief economic problems of 16th-century England? 4. What led to: a. the 17th-century civil war in England, and what was its main issue? b. the Glorious Revolution , and why was it important for England? 5. What helped Britain to become a great world power at the beginning of the 19th century? In which spheres did it lead the world? 6. How did the Cabinet government develop? 7. How and when was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland formed? 8. What was the character of: a. the 17th-century Commonwealth and Protectorate? b. the Tory and Whig factions in 17th-century Parliament? c. the Industrial Revolution? 9. What were the consequences of: a. the defeat of the Spanish Armada? b. the Industrial Revolution? 10. Questions for reflection: a. Who do you think sat in the Privy Council? b. Why did Cromwell s regime collapse after his death? c. How do you think the 17th-century Tory and Whig factions differed from modern political parties? 14CHAPTER : DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES In the 19th century, Britain held the leading position in the world: its great industrial empire was protected by its powerful navy and its colonial empire was at its height. In the 20th century, however, Britain gradually lost this position and became one of the middle powers . The 19th century (1815-1901) Home affairs The century witnessed a number of political and social reforms: they were meant to deal with the problems that had accumulated in the course of the warring 18th century, when no reforms were possible: a) PARLIAMENTARY REFORMS: as the House of Commons no longer represented the nation, three Reform Acts (1832, 1867, 1884) gradually extended the right to vote to all men; voting by secret ballot was introduced in 1873; a modern system of local government by elected councils was established in 1835 and 1888. The two main political parties were now called the Liberals (the former Whigs and a part of the Tory party) and the Conservatives (the former Tories). b) SOCIAL REFORMS: the workers working and living conditions were improved by a series of acts: they limited the working hours, restricted or abolished female and children s labour in mines and factories, improved relations between employers and employees, and made workers dwellings healthier; slavery was abolished in the British Empire; four Education Acts (1870, 1876, 1880, 1891) made school attendance free and compulsory up to the age of thirteen. The main internal problem of the period was the situation in Ireland. All land there belonged to landowners, mostly of British origin, and Irish peasants had to sell most of their produce to pay high rents. As a result, they practically lived on potatoes. When a disease destroyed the potato crop in two successive years, a terrible famine broke out: between 1845 and 1851, cca. 800,000 people died of starvation and fever and about one million Irishmen emigrated, mostly to the USA. A series of Land Acts were passed to rectify the situation, and a struggle for home rule started in the second half of the century. Reforms: parliamentary social reforms Political parties Irish question: potato famine (1845-51) Land Acts struggle for home rule Foreign affairs and colonial expansion In the 19th century, Britain did not take part in the European wars except for the Crimean War (1854-56), which was fought in order to stop Russia s advance towards India. Britain, however, supported liberal movements in the Mediterranean and in the South and Central Africa so as to weaken its European rivals: Austria, Russia and Prussia. Though European states began to form themselves into alliances, Britain remained outside these pacts, practising the policy of splendid isolation . The core of the British Empire was formed by India (the keystone of the whole structure of British industry and finance in the 19th century), Canada and later, Australia and New Zealand (to which systematic emigration began in this period); and South Africa: this part of the Empire was secured after two Boer Wars (1880-81, 1899-1902). Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa had the status of dominions. In the second half of the century, British expansion in Africa started. By the end of the 19th century, the British Empire covered almost one fifth of the globe and comprised a quarter of the world s population. Economy The railway fever of the 1820s and 30s stimulated a great development of all industrial branches. The years 1845-75 can be described as a period of prosperity, increased by following the policy of free trade. Britain s monopoly on world markets seemed unshakable, but seeds of crisis were present in the very core of this prosperity: there was little investment in the modernisation of factories or creation of new products. When the first economic rivals emerged, especially the USA and Germany, the age of prosperity ended in the depression of 1875-88. By the beginning of the 20th century, Britain had become but one of several industrial countries of the world. The 20th century (from 1901 to the present) Home affairs Britain s main internal problem of the 20th century was, besides the war difficulties and damage, the Irish question. As the granting of home rule to Ireland had been put off before World War I, the so-called Easter Rebellion broke out in Dublin on Easter Sunday 1916. Though it was crushed, the independent Irish Republic, formed in 1916, was declared in existence in 1919, and a war against Britain started. After three years of guerrilla warfare, the Irish Free State was formed in 1922, with the status of a dominion. Ulster, however, remained part of the UK, as the Protestant majority of its inhabitants demanded in a referendum. In 1937, the Irish Republic or Eire got a new constitution and was proclaimed an independent state. It remained neutral in World War II and, in 1949, left the British Commonwealth of Nations. The Irish Republic joined the European Union in 1973, the same year as the UK. The Catholic minority in Ulster felt discriminated by the Protestant majority. In 1968, Catholics started a civil rights movement. Peaceful demonstrations soon changed into a serious conflict, when extremist organisations, both Catholic and Protestant, Crimean War Support of liberal movements Splendid isolation British Empire 1845-75 prosperity <= free trade Economic depression (1875-88)Problems in Ireland: Easter Rebellion Irish Free State Independent Eire Ulster problem 16started using terrorist methods. The British government felt obliged to send troops to Ulster to keep order. More than three decades of disturbances caused by both Catholic and Protestant terrorist organisations followed. Periods of terrorist attacks and street fighting were followed by attempts to achieve power-sharing, which Protestants refused. As late as 2006 formal talks between representatives of the Catholic and Protestant parties started. In 2007, Northern Ireland finally got its own executive and legislature, Northern Ireland Assembly, which has mechanisms to ensure effective power-sharing: consequently, representatives of both Catholics and Protestants sit in the Assembly. In the course of the century, the Labour Party replaced the Liberals as one of the two leading political parties. The right to vote was extended to women in 1918 and 1928; the powers of the House of Lords were reduced by several Acts of Parliament and life peers were created in 1958. In 1948, the Labour government provided Britain with a system of social security and medical care covering everyone in the country (the Welfare State) and important parts of the economy were nationalised in 1948-50. An Age of Affluence (the late 1950s and the 1960s) was, however, followed by economic troubles in the 1970s, strengthened by prolonged strikes. After Mrs Thatcher became Prime Minister as the leader of the Conservative Party, she reduced the overlarge powers of British trade unions and embarked on a programme of denationalisation. She supported private enterprise and initiated cuts in public expenditure, especially social services. As a result, British economy started to recover, but the slump that started in the USA in 2008 may affect it adversely. Foreign affairs As the balance of powers in Europe was collapsing at the beginning of the 20th century, Britain abandoned the policy of splendid isolation and joined the Allied powers ( Britain, France and Russia). British soldiers fought in World War I (1914-18) on the side of the Allies. In the interwar period, Britain pursued the policy of appeasement ( trying to prevent the outbreak of another war by giving Hitler what he demanded), together with other western states. As a result, Britain was not prepared for World War II (1939-45). In 1940, Britain was left alone to fight Germany and its allies, but it managed to defeat the German attempt to bomb it to submission in the Battle of Britain and to continue fighting until the victory in 1945. Britain joined the NATO in 1949, and it was involved in five wars in the second half of the 20th century: the Korean War (1950-53), the Suez Crisis (1956), the Falkland Crisis (1982), the Gulf War (1993) and again in Iraque (the 2010s). The British Empire changed into a voluntary association of independent states, called the British Commonwealth of Nations, between 1931-49; the adjective British was dropped in the 1960s. The Commonwealth comprises over 50 members at present. ( ) Political parties and Parliament Welfare State Nationalisation World War I Appeasement World War II The NATO and other wars British Empire => Commonwealth of Nations 17In 1973, Britain joined the European Union, though it has not accepted the Euro as its currency yet. Economy In the first half of the 20th century, Britain lost its position of economic superpower. The main reasons for this were: the two world wars: Britain became indebted to the USA and it was badly damaged, especially by World War II; the loss of the Empire, which had provided cheap raw materials and markets for British goods; economic reasons: the continuing lack of investment at home, decreasing productivity and the growing inability of the traditional industries ( mining, steel and iron, shipbuilding and textiles) to compete with other industrial states, especially the USA: by the end of the 1970s, Britain had fallen behind all the leading industrial nations of western Europe (cf. the table below). The situation described above led to the restructuring of British economy: new industries appeared, traditional ones were closed or restructured. The discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s- 80s was another economic asset. Britain kept its position of world importance mainly in financial services. Exercises: 1. Arrange these events chronologically: a. Ireland gains independence as the Irish Free State. b. The first Reform Act is passed. c. The system of social welfare is introduced and the British economy is partly nationalised. d. The Irish potato famine breaks out. e. The British Empire changes into the Commonwealth of Nations. f. The Easter Rebellion is crushed. g. The problems in Ulster start. h. Britain enjoys the greatest economic prosperity. 2. Which political and economic factors caused the change of Britain s position in the world in the 20th century? 3. Outline: a. the developments in Ireland in the 19th and 20th centuries, and English attempts to conquer Ireland in previous centuries; b. the development of parliamentary government in Britain in the course of centuries, and the growth and development of the main political parties; c. the economic developments in the 19th and 20th centuries; d. the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; e. the development of the British Empire and its change into the Commonwealth, explaining the difference between the two; f. the foreign policies that Britain pursued in the 19th and 20th centuries, explaining the reasons why Britain embarked on each of them. 4. Questions for reflection: a. Which of the reforms carried out in the 19th and 20th centuries do you consider the most important and why? b. Why do you think so many reforms were carried out in the 19th century? c. Do you think that the internal policies pursued by Mrs Thatcher were beneficial or harmful for the UK? Give reasons for your answer. European Union Reasons for losing economic power Restructuring of the economy 18 5. Explain these terms: a. Romanise; b. henge; c. feudalism; d. guerrilla war; e. absolutist rule; f. clearance and plantation; g. enclosures; h. divine rights of kings; i. home rule; j. life peers; k. policy of appeasement. : MAPS Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 19Figure 2 20Figure 5 Figure 7 21Figure 6 Figure 9 22Figure 8 23 Figure 10 INDEX AND GLOSSARY The figures in brackets at the end of each entry are numbers of pages on which the terms and names occur. A Agincourt [&d inko:t] Battle of: bitva vybojovan u Agincourtu nedaleko Calais; lu i tn ci Jind icha V. porazili vojsko francouzsk ch ryt , a koli Francouzi byli v p esile; a Francouz bylo zabito a zajato, zat mco Angli an ztratili jen p es 100 mu (8) Allied powers: spojenci stoj c proti tzv. st edn m mocnostem v 1. sv tov v lce a proti tzv. Ose ve 2. sv tov v lce ( 16) American War of Independence (1775-83): boj 13 americk ch koloni proti Brit nii; v jej m pr b hu byly ustaveny Spojen st ty americk (1776) (12) Angles [&Ngl@z]: Anglov , jeden ze t germ nsk ch kmen ze severn ho N mecka, kter v 5. stolet dobyly dne n Anglii a daly j jm no (6) Anne, Queen (1665-1714): dcera Jakuba II. Stuarta, anglick kr lovna v letech 1702-14; zem ela bez potomk , proto po n nastoupila Hanoversk dynastie (11) appeasement [@"pi:zm@nt], policy of: politika usmi ov n dikt tor pomoc stupk , kterou ve 30. letech 20. stolet praktikovaly z padn st ty ve snaze odvr tit v lku (16) Armada [a:ma:d@] mohutn pan lsk lo stvo, kter roku 1588 vyslal Filip II. pan lsk , aby se pokusilo o invazi do Anglie (10) B Battle of Britain: Bitva o Brit nii (1940-41), tj. obrana Brit nie proti n meck m leteck m tok m, kter m ly p ipravit n meckou invazi do zem (16) Beaker people: lid zvoncov ch poh r , kter p i el do Brit nie kolem roku 2000 p ed Kristem ze pan lska (5) Becket [bekit], Thomas ( ): canterbursk arcibiskup, kter se postavil Jind ichu II. ve sporu o pravomoci c rkevn ch soud a kr l ho nechal zavra dit v jeho katedr le, z n se tak stalo proslul poutn m sto (7) Black Death: d m jov mor, kter se roz il z ny do Evropy a v letech 1348-51 na n j v Anglii zem ely 2 miliony lid (8) Boer [bo:] Wars: b rsk v lky (1800-81 a 1899-1902): koloni ln v lky, kter Brit nie vedla proti B r m, holandsk m osadn k , kte v ji n Africe zalo ili Kapskou kolonii, Oran sk svobodn st t a Transvaal (15) Boyne [boin]: eka ve v chodn m Irsku, u n Vil m III Oran sk porazil Jakuba II. Stuarta a jeho francouzsko-irsk vojsko roku 1690 (11) British Empire: britsk koloni ln e (12, 14, 15, 16, 17) C Cabinet (10) Caesar, Julius [si:z@, d u:li@s] ( p ed Kristem) (5) Canute [k@n"ju:t] ( ; anglick forma jm na Knut): d nsk kr l v letech 1019-35, norsk kr l 1028-33; vpadl do Anglie se sv m otcem Svenem (Sweyn) roku 1013; v letch 1016-35 kr l Anglie (6) 25Cavaliers [!k&v@"li@z]: pojmenov n royalist , stoupenc Karla I. v anglick ob ansk v lce 1642-49 (11) Celts [kelts, selts]: lid pravd podobn poch zej c z jihoz padn ho N mecka, odkud se roz il do Evropy a po Britsk ostrovy a do Mal Asie (5) Charles I (1600-49): syn Jakuba I.; kr lem Anglie 1625-49 (11) Charles II (1630-85): syn Karla I.; kr lem Anglie 1660-85 (11) Chatillon [ ati"joN]: m sto v jihoz padn Francii, u n ho byla vybojov na posledn bitva Stolet v lky (8) Church of England: Anglik nsk c rkev (10) civil war: 1. ob ansk v lka v letech 1264-66 proti Jind ichu III (7); 2. ob ansk v lka v letech 1642-49 proti Karlu I. (11) Claudius [klo:dj@s] (10 p ed Kristem 54): msk c sa (41-54), jeho legie dobyly Brit nii v roce 43 (5) clearance and plantation, policy of: politika etnick ch istek: vyh n n Ir z jejich p dy a jej osazov n Brity (10) Commonwealth [komnwelT]: 1. republik nsk re im ustaven Cromwellem po poprav Karla I. (11); 2. (Britsk ) Spole enstv n rod (16) Conservative Party (14,16) Cr cy [kre:si], Battle of: bitva u Kres aku v severn Francii, v n Angli an roku 1346 porazili Francouze b hem Stolet v lky (8) Crimean [kraimi@n] War (1854-56): Krymsk v lka (15) Cromwell, Oliver (1599-1658): zeman z Huntingdonu a len tzv. Dlouh ho parlamentu (1640), kde se stal v dcem purit n ; zaslou il se o ustaven tzv. Vzorn arm dy (Model Army), kter v ob ansk v lce porazila royalisty; v letech 1653-59 dikt tor Anglie s titulem Lord Protektor (11) Crusades [kru:"seidz]: k ov v pravy: ada vojensk ch v prav, uskute n n ch v 11. a 13. stolet , jejich c lem bylo osvobozen Palestiny z muslimsk ch rukou; Angli an se z astnili T et k ov v pravy (1189-92) (7) D Danelaw [deinlo:] (878-975): konfederace skandin vsk ch komunit v severov chodn Anglii pod d nsk m z konem (6) depression (1875-88) (15) divine right of kings: bo sk pr vo kr l , tj. teorie, kterou h jili stuartov t kr lov ; podle n jen Bohem dosazen vlada m pr vo o v em rozhodovat a nem e podl hat dn m omezen m ani kritice (11) Domessay Book ["du:mzdei !buk] (1086-87): soupis ve ker ho majetku a jeho vlastn k v Anglii, kter rozk zal zhotovit Vil m I. Dobyvatel jako podklad pro zdan n ; p ezd valo se j Kniha Posledn ho soudu , proto e proti z pis m v n nebylo odvol n (7) E Easter Rebellion (1916) (15) Education Acts: soubor z kon o vzd l n z 19. a 20. stolet (14) 26 Edward the Confessor [k@n"fes@] ( ): Edvard Vyznava , nazvan tak pro svou zbo nost; kr l Anglie v letech 1042-66 (6) Edward I (1239-1307): syn Jind icha III. a kr l Anglie v letech 1272-1307 (7) Edward III (1312-77): syn Edwarda II. a kr l Anglie v letech 1327-77 (8) Eire [e@r@]: keltsk jm no pro Irsko (15) Elizabeth I (1533-1603): dcera Jind icha VIII. a kr lovna Anglie v letech 1558-1603; zem ela bezd tn , proto po n nastoupila stuartovsk dynastie (10) Elizabethan Settlement: tzv. Al b tinsk vyrovn n , uskute n n pomoc tzv. Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity (1559; Z kony o svrchovanosti a jednot ) a Thirty-nine Articles; znovu nastolilo Anglik nskou c rkev a dalo j pevn podklad, m ukon ilo n bo ensk rozbroje (10) enclosures [in"kl@u @z]: tzv. ohrazov n ; ve st edov ku byla jeho elem p em na orn p dy v pastviny pro ovce; v 18. stolet pak scelov n pol ek ve v t celky, na nich bylo mo n pou vat nov zem d lsk stroje (10,12) English Reformation (10) European Union (15,16) F Falkland [fo:lkl@nd] crisis (1982): ne sp n pokus Argentiny zmocnit se Falklandsk ch ostrov , le c ch v ji n m Atlantiku, 400 mil severov chodn od Hornova mysu; roku 1833 je zabrali Britov , ale d lala si na n n rok i Argentina (16) feudalism [fju:d@lizm]: st edov k spole ensk syst m; byl zalo en na dr b p dy a na lenn ch vztaz ch: kr l nomin ln vlastnil v echnu p du a prop j oval ji sv m vazal m v m nou za vojenskou slu bu; roln ci dostali p du prop j enu od sv ch feud ln ch p n v m nou za pr ci na jeho pol ch a p esn stanoven d vky (6,7) Flanders [fla:nd@z]: Flandry, nyn sou st Belgie, Holandska a Francie; ve st edov ku nejd le it j centrum v roby sukna a d le it odb ratel anglick vlny (8) free trade policy: politika voln ho obchodu, tzn. obchodu neomezen ho ochrann mi cly (15) G Gascony [g&sk@ni]: Gasko sko, oblast v jihoz padn Francii, kter dlouho pat ila Anglii a byla hlavn m dovozcem v na do t to zem (8) Glorious Revolution: Slavn Revoluce , nekrvav v m na katol ka Jakuba II. Stuarta za protestanta Vil ma III. Oran sk ho v roce 1688; v roce 1689 byl p ijat tzv. Bill of Rights (Z kon o pr vech), kter potvrdil kontrolu parlamentu nad panovn kem (11) Gulf War (1993): v lka v Z livu na obranu Kuwaitu p ed ir ckou invaz (16) H Hadrian [heidrj@n]: msk c sa (76-138), kter nechal v Brit nii postavit asi 74 mil dlouhou ze (122-128) od st eky Tyne k st eky Solway jako obranu zem kontrolovan many (5) Harold [h&r@ld] ( ): syn nejmocn j ho anglick ho velmo e Godwina a posledn sask kr l (1066) (6) Hastings [heistiNz], Battle of (1066) (6) henge [hend ] (5) 27 Henry I (1068-1135): nejmlad syn Vil ma Dobyvatele a kr l Anglie v letech 1100-35 (7) Henry II (1133-89): vnuk Jind icha I. a kr l Anglie v letech 1154-89 (7) Henry V (1387-1422): druh kr l z dynastie Lancaster (jeho otec Jind ich IV. sesadil vnuka Edwarda III., Richarda II., a prohl sil se kr lem; vl dl Anglii v letech 1413-22 (8) Henry VII, Tudor [tju:d@] (1457-1509): zakladatel tudorovsk dynastie; vl dl Anglii v letech 1485-1509 (10) Henry VIII (1491-1547): druh syn Jind icha VII.; vl dl Anglii v letech 1509-47 (10) Hitler [hitl@], Adolf (1889-1945) (16) home rule: politick samospr va (p ibli n statut dominia v r mci Britsk e) (14,15) Hundred Years War (1337-1453): Stolet v lka: 1. f ze 1337-60; 2. f ze 1369-75; 3. f ze 1415-53 (7,8) I Iberians [ai"bi@rj@nz]: Iberov (5) Industrial Revolution (12) Ireland (7,10,11,14,15) Irish Free State (1922-37) (15) J James I (1566-1625): syn Marie Stuartovny; Jakub VI. Skotsk a prvn stuartovsk kr l na anglick m tr n (1603-25) (11) James II (1633-1701): bratr Karla II., katol k; anglick m kr lem v letech 1685-88 (11) Joan of Arc ["d @un @v"a:k] (1412-31): Jana z Arku, zvan Panna Orle nsk , rolnick d vka ze severov chodn Francie a n rodn hrdinka; usly ela hlasy sv tc , kter j na dily, aby dovedla korunn ho prince do Reme e, kde byl korunov n jako Karel VII.; vedla francouzskou arm du proti Angli an m p i dobyt Orl ansu (1429); zajata Burgun any (1430) a prod na Angli an m, kte ji nechali up lit jako kac ku; roku 1920 kanonizov na (8) John I Lackland (1167-1216): Jan Bezzemek (byl tak nazv n, proto e mu otec Jind ich II. nezanechal dn l na); vl dl Anglii v letech 1199-1216 (7) Jutes [d u:ts]: Jutov , jeden ze t germ nsk ch kmen , kter v 5. stolet dobyly dne n Anglii; poch zel z Jutsk ho poloostrova a usadil se v dne n m Kentu (6) K Korean [k@"ri@n] War (1950-53): v lka mezi Severn Koreou, podporovanou komunistickou nou, a Ji n Koreou, podporovanou OSN (16) L Labour Party (16) Lancastrians [!l&N"k&stri@nz]: p slu n ci jedn z mocn ch rodin, kter vedly tzv. V lky R (1455-85), potomci Jana z Gauntu, t et ho syna Edwarda III. (8) Land Acts: pozemkov z kony z 2. poloviny 19. stolet , jejich c lem bylo usnadnit irsk m n jemc m v kup p dy od britsk ch statk ; n jemci v ak museli za koupi platit st tu, co mnoh o ebra ilo (14) 28legion [li:d @n]: legie, vojensk jednotka v arm d starov k ho ma (5) Liberals (14) life peers (16) M Magna Carta ["m&gn@ "ka:t@] (1215): Velk listina svobod (ov em pouze pro svobodn lidi, nikoli pro nevoln ky) (7) Mary I, Tudor [tju:d@] (1516-58): prvorozen dcera Jind icha VIII., katoli ka; vl dla Anglii v letech 1553-58; pokusila se n siln pokatoli tit Anglii, proto se j p ezd v Krvav Marie (10) Mary II (1662-94): protestantsk dcera Jakuba II., kr lovna Anglie v letech 1689-94 spolu s man elem Vil mem III. Oran sk m (11) Mercia [m@: j@]: Mercie, anglosask kr lovstv v centr ln Anglii, zalo en kolem roku 500; m lo dominantn postaven v 7. a 8. stolet , ale v 9. stolet je pohltilo Danelaw; posl ze bylo v len no do Wessexu (6) Model Parliament (1295): Vzorn parlament (7) N NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organisation: v roce 1949 je zalo ily tyto st ty: Belgie, Kanada, D nsko, Francie, Island, It lie, Lucembursko, Holandsko, Norsko, Portugalsko, Brit nie a USA (16) Norman Conquest [koNkw@st]: (1066) (6,7) Northern Ireland (cf. Ulster) North Sea Oil (17) Northumbria [no:"Tambri@]: anglosask kr lovstv zalo en kolem roku 605 a prost raj c se od eky Forth v dne n m ji n m Skotsku po eku Humber v severov chodn Anglii; m lo dominantn postaven v 7. stolet , kdy se stalo i centrem vzd lanosti (6) O Orl ans [o:rleiaN]: m sto le c na ece Loi e v severn Francii, kter Jana z Arku dobyla na Angli anech roku 1429 (8) P Peasants Revolt (1381) (8) Poitiers [pw&tjei], Battle of (1356): syn Edwarda III. zvan ern princ vybojoval u tohoto m sta v centr ln Francii v t znou bitvu, a koli Francouzi byli v po etn p evaze (8) Poll [p@ul] Tax (1379): da z hlavy; jej zaveden usp ilo rolnick povst n roku 1381 (8) potato famine (14) prerogative [pri"rog@tiv] court: soud maj c zvl tn pravomoci (10) Prime Minister (12,16) Privy [privi] Council: Tajn rada , poradn sbor 20 a 30 ministr Jind icha VII. a p edch dce dne n ho Kabinetu (10) Protectorate [pr@"tekt@rit] (11) 29Puritans [pju@rit@nz]: potomci protestantsk ch v dc , kte str vili dobu perzekuce za vl dy Marie I. v Kalv nov enev , co byl p sn protestantsk teokratick m stsk st t; byli nespokojeni s polovi atou anglickou Reformac , proto po adovali o i t n (purity => Puritan) Anglik nsk c rkve od v ech zbytk katolicizmu (11) R Reform Acts: ada z kon z 19. a 20. stolet , kter postupn roz i ovaly volebn pr vo (14) Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1793-1815): v lky, kter Brit nie vedla, sama i se spojenci, nejd ve proti revolu n Francii a potom proti Napoleonovi (12) Richard I, Lion Heart (1157-99): Richard Lv Srdce, syn Jind icha II. a anglick kr l v letech 1189-99; v t inou bojoval ve Francii nebo v Palestin , v Anglii str vil pouze 6 m s c sv vl dy (7) Richard II (1367-1400): syn Edwarda ern ho prince a vnuk Edwarda III., vl dl Anglii v letech 1377-99; pora en bratrancem Jind ichem Bolingbrokem, synem Richardova str ce Jana z Gauntu, sesazen parlamentem a posl ze zavra d n ve v zen (8) Roman Empire: msk e, zalo en Oktavi nem Augustem v 1. stolet ; trvala do 5. stolet , kdy jej postaven p evzala Byzanc (5) Roundheads: Kulatohlavci , p ezd vka len Parlamentn strany v ob ansk v lce 1642-49, proto e vesm s nosili kr tk esy (11) S Saxons [s&ks@nz]: Sasov , jeden z germ nsk ch kmen , kter v 5. stolet napadly Brit nii; obsadili jihoz pad dne n Anglie (6) Scandinavian Empire: voln spojen politick jednotka pod vl dou kr le Knuta v 11. stolet a skl daj c se z Anglie, D nska a Norska (6) secret ballot: neve ejn volba do parlamentu (14) Seven Years War (1756-63): Sedmilet v lka, n kdy pova ovan za prvn celosv tovou v lku, proto e se b hem n bojovalo v Evrop , v Severn Americe a v Indii; Rakousko, Rusko a Francie bojovaly proti Prusku a Brit nii (12) splendid isolation policy: izolacionistick politika, kterou Brit nie sledovala koncem 19. stolet a po tkem 20. stolet , pokud si uchov vala v d postaven ve sv t (15) steam engine: parn stroj (12) Suez [su:iz] Crisis (1956): pot , co egyptsk prezident N sir obsadil Suezsk kan l, Brit nie a Francie napadly Egypt, ale na p n USA se musely st hnout; kan l byl znovu otev en roku 1957 (16) T Thatcher [T& @], Margaret ( ): britsk konzervativn politi ka a ministersk p edsedkyn 1979-90 (16) Tories [to:riz] (11,14) U Ulster [alst@]: nejsevern j st Irska, p ev n os dlen protestanty britsk ho p vodu v 16. a 17. stolet ; p ed ustaven m Svobodn ho irsk ho st tu (1922) rozhodlo obyvatelstvo v referendu, e si p eje z stat sou st Spojen ho kr lovstv jako Severn Irsko (11,15,16) Union of Scotland and England (1707) (11) United Kingdom of Great Britain (1707), - of Great Britain and Ireland (1800), - of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1922) (11) 30 V vagrancy [veigr@nsi]: potulka, tul ctv , metla tudorovsk Anglie: v d sledku ohrazov n (srovnej enclosures) se p es roln k ocitlo bez prost edk ; asto se sdru ovali do nebezpe n ch tlup (10) Vikings [vaikiNz]: Vikingov , skandin v t v le n ci a mo eplavci: v 8. a 10. stolet obsadili st severn Francie (Normandii) a Anglii, Island a Gr nsko; dostali se a na americk kontinent a po ek ch p es Rusko a do Ca ihradu (6) W Wales, conquest of (1285) (7); its unification with England (10) War of Succession (1135-54): v lka o anglick tr n mezi Matildou, dcerou Jind icha I., a t p nem z Blois (7) Wars of the Roses (1455-85): V lky R (8) Watt [wot], James (1736-1819): skotsk in en r, kter v letech 1765-66 podstatn vylep il Newcomen v parn stroj, tak e jej bylo mo n vyu t k tov rn v rob (12) Welfare State (1948-50): soci ln st t (16) Wessex [wesiks]: sask kr lovstv , zalo en koncem 5. stolet a prost raj c se v jihoz padn Anglii a v dol eky Tem e; z skalo dominantn postaven v d sledku sp n ch boj s Vikingy a v 9. stolet jeho kr lov po prv sjednotili Anglii (6) William I, the Conqueror [koNk@r@] ( ): normandsk v voda, kter roku 1066 dobyl Anglii a spojil ji se sv m v vodstv m (6,7) William III, of Orange: stadtholder neboli guvern r Holandska (1672-1702) a v dce evropsk opozice proti agresivn politice francouzsk ho kr le Ludv ka XIV.; o enil se s Mari , protestantskou dcerou Jakuba II. Stuarta; kr lem Anglie 1689-1702 (11) World War I (1914-18) (15,16,17) World War II (1939-45) (16,17) Y Yorkists: p slu n ci jedn z mocn ch rodin, kter vedly tzv. V lky R (1455-85), potomci druh ho a tvrt ho syna Edwarda III.(8) 31 B. A BRIEF SURVEY OF DEVELOPMENTS IN BRITISH CULTURE Czech equivalents with necessary explanations and illustrations can be found in the last subchapter of each part. CHAPTER : MAIN ARCHITECTURAL STYLES USED IN BRITAIN AND LEADING BRITISH ARCHITECTS The Middle Ages ( c. 16th c.) Few buildings from the Anglo-Saxon period have survived due to the damage of wars, later rebuilding and the quality of materials: timber was mostly used by Anglo-Saxon builders, the first stone buildings only appeared with the coming of Christianity at the end of the 6th century. Anglo-Saxon architecture was rather simple structurally, but external walls were richly decorated with geometrical ornaments. After the Norman Conquest (1066), Norman style ( ), a version of the Romanesque style, was brought to England. Its typical features were: massiveness: inside, the think walls were divided into three stories (cf. Durham Cathedral); outside, they were supported by flat buttresses; arches were round and windows comparatively small; the wood ceiling over the nave was flat, but aisles and crypts were covered by barrel (tunnel) vaults or, later, groin vaults; decoration both inside and outside was mostly of geometrical character and very rich, especially in doorways; cathedrals usually had two towers in the west front and the central tower over the crossing. The Normans brought another novelty to England: the feudal castle. Its oldest type was the so-called motte-and-baily castle, a wooden or stone castle on a hill with a court (or bailey) around it, enclosed by a stockade or wall and a Anglo-Saxon architecture Norman style: typical features Feudal castle 32ditch. In the 12th century, this type was replaced by a square (later round) keep with very thick walls. The Gothic style ( ) was brought to England around the mid-12th century from France, and adapted to the English taste. It continued to be used and developed until the mid-16th century. Its three main features were: the pointed arch, the rib vault, the Gothic buttress. The long period of Gothic architecture can be divided into three stages: Early English ( ) was characterised by the sharply pointed arch and four-part rib vault. Cathedrals were much longer than Continental ones, but not so high. The west front usually had a screen facade decorated by a series of statues in niches, the east end was rectangular. Decorated Gothic ( ): windows were wider, the upper part was filled with tracery and the lower was divided by vertical stone bars; the pointed arch was of obtuse or ogee type; the vault was more complex, as a number of additional ribs, a ridge rib and bosses were added for decoration; the simple flying buttresses appeared as the walls were getting thinner. Perpendicular Gothic ( ) was characterised by homogenity: it was achieved by using panelled decoration on walls (the division into three stories finally disappeared); in large windows, now divided both vertically and horizontally, and enclosed by obtuse or four-centred arches, as well as doors; and in the fan vault. The area of solid walls contracted, as large Gothic style: typical features 3 stages: Early English Decorated Perpendicular 33windows were taking up ever more of it; that is why the walls had to be supported by elaborate flying buttresses. This version of Gothic was developed in England and later spread to the Continent. Gothic castles were concentric in the late 13th century, they consisted of rings of walls, one inside the other, while the central space contained the main buildings (cf. BEAUMARIS CASTLE); in the 14th century, rectangular castles replaced them ( CASTLE). Castles lost their importance in the 15th century. Medieval palaces survived only fragmentarily (cf. WESTMINSTER HALL); the best preserved early Tudor palace is HAMPTON COURT, built around several courts. The late Tudor and Stuart periods ( ) The main architectural expression of the Elizabethan age was the great country house. It was symmetrical, mostly built around an open court on an E- or H-plan (cf. Gothic castles Great Elizabethan houses 34HARDWICK HALL), with large windows and an entrance porch. The main material was stone, but half-timbered houses were also constructed. The Jacobeans produced variations on this type, mostly built of brick and stone (cf. HATFIELD HOUSE). The man who stimulated a stylistic revolution in England was Inigo Jones ( ), one of the three greatest British architects: he brought the Italian Renaissance to England in the 1620s. He had studied the works of Andrea Palladio (1508-80), an Italian architect, in Italy and after returning to England, he adapted Palladio s system of harmonic proportions to English taste: that is why his style is called Palladianism. Palladio required that the length of a building should be twice the width or height, and each room should be proportioned to its neighbour and to the whole building. Jones s buildings are, however, mostly long rectangles like the QUEEN S HOUSE at Greenwich, the first Palladian villa in England and a model for many 17th- and 18th-century houses. The BANQUETING HOUSE in London is a Palladian town palace. Both buildings contain Renaissance (or Classical) features, columns, pilasters, balustrades terminating the facades or pediments above the windows. The second half of the 17th century was dominated by Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723), who used a mixture of Italian Classicism and Baroque to construct his Inigo Jones: Palladianism Christopher Wren: 35buildings. He got an opportunity to show his talent after the Great Fire of London (1666) when he was commissioned to rebuild the City churches and St Paul s Cathedral. Wren s city churches clearly reveal his originality and inventiveness, as he had no English precedent to work upon. Nearly all his churches are Classical in conception and none is quite like the other, though their interiors are always light: some have nave and aisles, others are hall churches or centrally planned ones, with a dome (cf. ST STEPHEN WALBROOK). Their steeples, however, show the richness of Wren s imagination more clearly than anything else: some are surmounted by small domes on tall drums, sometimes colonnaded (cf. ST MARY-LE-BOW), others by an obelisk etc. Wren s masterpiece is ST PAUL S CATHEDRAL: it is built on the Latin cross plan, with a long nave and a magnificent colonnaded dome set on a high drum and situated over the crossing. The west front contains a portico with a double order of coupled columns and two towers: their steeples are Baroque in treatment, with their curves and countercurves. Wren also constructed exquisite secular buildings. The finest of them are: the GREENWICH ROYAL HOSPITAL, which consists of twin colonnaded blocks terminating in great Baroque domes; it is one of the most splendid structures of their kind in Europe; city churches St Paul s Cathedral secular buildings 36 the south and east wings Wren added to HAMPTON COURT PALACE: they were inspired by French Baroque and built of rose-colour brick and Portland stone. What makes Wren the greatest British architect is the combination of brilliant technical ingenuity and supreme artistic gifts. English Baroque and Classicism ( ) The Baroque style was too closely connected with Catholicism and Counter-Reformation to make a great impact on Britain. Besides, its emotional violence and voluptuousness did not suit the English temperament. The main features of Continental Baroque were: the illusion of movement, mainly achieved by a free use of curves; boldly massed structures; lavish display, achieved by dramatic colours, light effects and richness of decorative detail. Baroque made a brief appearance in Britain between and 1730: it was more restrained than its Continental counterpart, though the movement, strong massing of shapes and large-scale grandeur were preserved. It was pioneered by Sir Christopher Wren, and its main monuments are: several great houses, such as CASTLE HOWARD or BLENHEIM PALACE, grouped structures of powerful masses; exquisite London churches, such as ST MARY WOOLNOTH built by Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661-1736) or ST MARTIN-IN-THE-FIELDS by James Gibbs (1682-1754). Gibbs s finest work is, however, the RADCLIFFE LIBRARY at Oxford, a circular, domed building. Wren s importance Continental Baroque English Baroque 37 Around 1710, a group of architects decided to purify British architecture of Baroque extravagances and return to Palladian Classicism. Classicism imitated the works of Graeco-Roman civilisation; it was characterised by order, clarity and grace, and it used Classical orders (Doric, Ionic and Corinthian), balustrades and other typical ornamental motifs. Palladian architects mostly constructed country houses consisting of the main block and side pavilions, with a luxurious interior and plain exterior, whose main decoration was a projecting six-column portico ( HOLKHAM HALL by William Kent, 1685-1748). These houses were mostly situated in landscape gardens, an English invention that spread all over the world. 18th century Palladianism Landscape gardens 38The Palladians exerted a profound influence on the development of town planning. Rows of houses were designed as Classicist terraces in spa towns like Bath and in London ( THE ROYAL CRESCENT in Bath by John Wood the Younger, 1728-81/2). The second half of the 18th century was dominated by the third greatest British architect, Robert Adam (1728-92), the leading exponent of Neo-Classicism. Adam created a new form of Classical design that influenced architecture world-wide. These are its main features: rooms of contrasting shapes and sizes were put next to each other, their dimensions were seemingly changed by adding column screens, semi-domes and apses (cf. KENWOOD LIBRARY); delicate arabesque ornament in low relief, made of stucco and set in panels of different shapes; the colour of the relief ornament contrasts with that of its background (cf. the dining room at SYON HOUSE). Regency architecture ( ) was the last stage of the development of genuine Classicism in Britain. It was marked by elegance and fine proportions: cf. the buildings constructed by John Soane (1753-1837) or the London terraces designed by John Nash (1752-1835). Victorian historicism and the 20th century ( to the present) The Victorian era ( ) was marked by imitating historical styles, mainly Gothic and Classicism. Even utilitarian buildings like factories, railway stations Terrace building Robert Adam: Neo-Classicism Regency architecture Victorian historisism 39or houses were constructed in this way. Simpler buildings heralding modern architecture appeared as late as the end of the century. That is why the most important contribution of the Victorians was in constructing (suspension) bridges, docks and similar structures. The imitation of historical styles continued until the 1930s (cf. Edwardian Baroque, a monumental, even bombastic style, the CARDIFF HALL AND LAW COURTS). Modern architecture reached Britain in the 1930s, without any transitory period. This functional architecture of international character was only practised by a few architects before World War II, but after 1945 the extensive war damage required simple buildings without unnecessary decoration, constructed as fast as possible. Modern architecture Edwardian Baroque 40Modernist architecture of the 1950s-70s preferred simple geometrical shapes and the use of steel, concrete and plate glass, though brick and stone, typical English materials, were also utilised. One version of Modernism was Brutalism: it appeared in the 1960s and was marked by using massive blocks of reinforced concrete or brick (cf. the NATIONAL THEATRE in London or the LIBRARY GROUP at Oxford. In the 1970s, architects began to tire of the austerity, greyness and lack of variety that characterised Modernism. The two main forms of reaction to it were: High Tech, which flourished in the 1980s and displayed naked engineering like service pipes and ducts externally (cf. Richard Rogers s [ ] LLOYDS BUILDING in London); Post-Modernism (from the 1980s on), an eclectic style characterised by colour and playfulness; it delights in symbols and historical references and decoration. A list of architectural terms used in this subchapter A aisle [ail] bo n lo katedr ly apse [&ps] apsida, p lkruhov v stupek arabesque [!&r@"besk] arabeska, plo n ornament ze stylizovan ch kv t , list apod. arch [a: ] oblouk Modernism: Brutalism Reaction to Modernism: High Tech Post-Modernism 41B bailey [beili] hradn n dvo balustrade [!b&l@"streid] sloupkov z bradl Baroque [b@"rok] baroko barrel (tunnel) vault [b&r@l (tanl) vo:lt] valen klenba (viz obraz u vault) boss [bos] svorn k (viz obraz u vault) buttress [batris] op rn pil C colonnade [!kol@"neid] sloupo ad column [kol@m] sloup concentric [k@n"sentrik] soust edn concrete [koNkri:t] beton Corinthian [k@"rinTi@n] korintsk (viz obraz u order) crossing [krosiN] k en (hlavn lodi a p n ch lod (viz obraz u aisle) crypt [kript] krypta, podzemn poh ebi t v podob kaple pod chr mov ch prostorem curve [k@:v] k ivka D Decorated Gothic [goTik] zdobn , vrcholn gotika ditch [di ] p kop dome [d@um] kupole Doric [do:rik] d rsk (viz obraz u order) drum [dram] v lcov blok nesouc kupoli E Early English Gothic ran gotika F facade [f@"sa:d] pr el , fas da fan [f&n] vault v j ov klenka (viz obraz u vault) flying buttress op rn oblouk s op rn m pil em G groin [groin] vault k ov klenka (viz obraz u vault) H !half-"timbered house hr zd n d m, tzn. d ev n konstrukce vypln n cihlami i jin m materi lem hall church s ov kostel (v echny lodi jsou stejn vysok ) I 42Ionik [ai"onik] j nsk (viz obraz u order) K keep hradn v L landscape garden anglick park, tzn. zahrada napodobuj c otev enou krajinu Latin cross latinsk k (jedno rameno del ) M motte-and-bailey [mot@nbeili] castle ran typ hradu (viz ) N nave [neiv] hlavn lo katedr ly (viz obraz u aisle) niche [ni ] v klenek ve zdi O obtuse [@b"tju:s] arch tup lomen oblouk (viz obraz u arch) ogee [@ud i:] arch k lov oblouk (viz obraz u arch) order 1. d; 2. jeden z typ staro eck ch sloup a jejich pozd j ch verz P pavilion [p@"vili@n] 1. pavil n; 2. st budovy spojen s hlavn m blokem chodbou apod. pediment [pedim@nt] fronton, t t s msou v podob troj heln ku nebo oblouku Perpendicular [ pe:p@n"dikjul@] Gothic pozdn , tzv. svisl gotika pilaster [pi"l&st@] pilastr, ploch hranat v stupek ve st n s hlavic a patkou plan p dorys E-plan p dorys ve tvaru p smene E (hlavn blok, dv k dla v prav m hlu k n mu a al b tinsk kryt vchod) H-plan p dorys ve tvaru zplo t l ho p smene H (ob k dla prota en dop edu i dozadu) plate glass tabulov sklo pointed arch lomen oblouk porch [po: ] kryt vchod portico [po:tik@u] sloupov hala p ed vchodem, portikus p ed monument ln budovou 43Portland stone portlandsk v pence (t en v Dorsetu) R reinforced [!!!ri:in"fo:st] concrete armovan beton, elezobeton relief [ri"li:f] reli f, plastika vystupuj c nad z kladn plochu nebo m rn zapadaj c pod rove plochy rib vault ebrov klenba (viz obraz u vault) ridge [rid ] rib vrcholov ebro (viz obraz u vault) Romanesque [!!r@um@"nesk] rom nsk S screen facade fas da sest vaj c z ad v klenk se sochami (viz obrazy katedr l ve Wellsu, Salisbury i Exeteru) semi-dome [!semi"d@um] polokupole steeple [sti:pl] kosteln v (doln st i hrot) stockade [sto"keid] palis da, hradba z k l stucco [stak@u] tuk, jemn om tka pou van pro plastickou v zdobu st n a strop suspension bridge [s@"spen nbrid ] visut most T terrace [ter@s] 1. terasa; 2. adov domy timber [timb@] stavebn d evo tracery [treis@ri] gotick kru ba transept [tr&ns@pt] p n lo (viz obraz u aisle) V vault [vo:lt] klenba Exercises 1. What were the typical features of: a. the Norman style? b. Gothic generally and its three stages? c. Elizabethan and Jacobean great houses? d. Baroque generally and English Baroque? e. Classicism? f. 18th-century Palladian houses? (Explain how they differed from Inigo Jones s houses.) g. Regency architecture? h. Modernism and Brutalism? i. Post-Modernism and High Tech? 442. Look at the picture of Anglo-Saxon and Norman buildings and say: a. what they differed in. b. what (if anything) they had in common. 3. How did Norman castles differ from Gothic ones, and why did, in your opinion, the importance of castles decline in the 14th and 15th centuries? 4. What was the main contribution of the Victorians to British architecture? 5. Explain: a. what makes Inigo Jones one of the three greatest British architects; b. what his style is based on and what its typical features are; c. which famous buildings he constructed and how they differ. 6. Explain: a. what makes Sir Christopher Wren the greatest British architect; b. what his style is based on and what its typical features are; c. which famous buildings he constructed and how they differ. 7. Look at the pictures of Wren s buildings and decide which features of which styles they contain. 8. Explain: a. what makes Robert Adam one of the three greatest British architects; b. what the name and the typical features of his style are. 45CHAPTER : GREAT PAINTERS AND SCULPTORS ACTIVE IN BRITAIN This chapter will only get you acquainted with the character of individual periods and with the greatest painters and sculptors that lived and worked in Britain. You should bear in mind that numerous other artists were active there in the course of centuries and great works of art were also produced in the Middle Ages. The 16th and 17th centuries After the 16th-century Reformation in England, religious painting disappeared, and portrait painting became the chief genre, but new genres appeared in the Restoration period. The main glory of native visual art was definitely miniature painting in those centuries. Until the 18th century, the greatest artists active in Britain were of foreign origin, though a few native ones were definitely comparable with them. Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8-1543), a German by origin, was active in England between 1526 and He painted German merchants (cf. GEORG GISCHE), French envoys (cf. THE AMBASSADORS) and courtiers. After becoming court painter to Henry VIII, he executed both dynastic and intimate portraits of the king and his family. Each of Holbein s portraits proves his power to bring a living person authentically before us: each reveals the sitter s character, while the objects that often surround him denote his role in life and his interests, thus rounding off his character. The portrait of HENRY VIII presents the sitter as a great monarch and a tyrannous king. Holbein emphasises the small, humourless eyes and mouth in the massive face, flat cheeks and chin. The bulky figure breathes formidable authority. Holbein was also a master of portrait miniatures, and his example was at the root of the tradition of miniature painting in England: it especially flourished in the Elizabethan period, and its greatest representative was Nicholas Hilliard (1547-1619). His miniatures have an intimate character. They are mostly oval in shape, and they are Holbein Portrait miniatures: Hilliard Portraiture: 46marked by clear and brilliant colours and decorative simplicity. Though his sitters characters are fully convincing, the miniatures are often highly poetic and symbolic: Compare MAN CLASPING A HAND FROM A CLOUD, in which a number of meanings is encoded, or YOUNG MAN AMONG ROSES, which embodies both pains of love (as the inscription above declares) and pensive, pleasurable melancholy, so fashionable in the Elizabethan period. Holbein s 17th-century counterpart was Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641), a Flemish painter and court painter to Charles I. His style was based on the styles of Rubens, his teacher, and Titian. In England, Van Dyck applied all the resources of Baroque art to portraiture. That is why he managed to express the spirit of Charles I s autocratic r gime so exquisitely: he created the image of Carolean noblemen as they wished to be seen. Van Dyck s portraits are marked by courtly grace, elegance and decorative splendour, expressed by the relation of figure and background (landscape or glimpses of stately architecture) or of the sitters: Compare CHARLES I IN HUNTING DRESS, where Van Dyck managed to depict this small and slim man as a symbol of manhood and of noble kingship, and to build an aura of romantic melancholy around him at the same time; or PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST WITH ENDYMION PORTER, showing two figures with complementary characters. In the second half of the 17th century, two new genres were introduced to England by minor foreign artists: landscape painting and decorative mural painting. This period also witnessed the activity of the greatest woodcarver that has ever lived in Britain: Grinling Gibbons (1618-1721). Van Dyck New genres Woodcarving: Gibbons 47 He developed a unique style in which he tried to recapture the realism and vitality of natural forms: he carved in high relief, almost in the round, each object was detached from the others and laid with apparent casualness. He covered picture frames, door cases and other objects with garlands of flowers, leaves and fruits, musical instruments, birds and other forms. Unfortunately, his art died with him. The 18th century The native genius matured in this century and Britain could at last boast great painters comparable with foreign masters. The century was pre-eminently the great age of British portraiture and satire, though the so-called conversation piece and history painting appeared and landscape painting was developed. The genre that contributed to its development was sporting art, the depiction of hunting or horse racing, especially the work of George Stubbs (1724-1806), one of the most original painters of the century. Stubbs was basically an animal painter. He gained a remarkable skill in painting horses, whose anatomy he had studied, but he also created perfectly balanced compositions (cf. MARES AND FOALS IN LANDSCAPE), or highly impressive depictions of violence and terror (cf. HORSE ATTACKED BY A LION, based on an interplay of diagonals and horizontals and the contrast between the peaceful countryside in the background and the violent scene in the foreground). The three great portraitists were: Genres Stubbs Great portraitists: 48William Hogarth (1697-1764) started a distinctive English school of painting; he passionately rejected all foreign influences. His portraits are penetrating studies of characters that are depicted with incomparable liveliness. His sitters were mostly middle-class and ordinary people. Compare his SHRIMP GIRL, a true embodiment of vitality and enjoyment of life, or SELF-PORTRAIT, in which he depicted himself with objectivity and humour. Hogarth also developed the conversation piece into dramatic scenes of everyday life: they exposed such contemporary evils as political corruption accompanying elections, cruelty or foolishness of polite society and merchants, doctors and lawyers. These so-called modern Moral Subjects consist of series of pictures that tell stories like chapters in novels. A good example is MARRIAGE-A-LA-MODE, a tragic story of a marriage concluded without love, for money and social prestige; notice Hogarth s power of composition, sense of theatre and interest in detail. Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-92) was the first president of the Royal Academy (founded in 1768) and an important aesthetic theorist of his time: unlike Hogarth, he wanted British painting to resume contacts with the Hogarth: portraits Moral Subjects Reynolds 49Continental tradition, learning from such Italian painters as Michelangelo and Raphael. He mostly portrayed upper-class people, depicting them with sympathy, vividness and an almost inexhaustible variety of pose. He often based his sitter s pose on a figure painted by an old master: SARAH SIDDON s pose is based on Michelangelo s Isiah on the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Reynolds s style is marked by Classical elegance and richness of colour. While Reynolds was rational and methodical and he used a Classical approach, Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) was intuitive, impressionist and lyrical. Though he earned his living by painting portraits, he preferred landscape painting, and he can be considered one of the founders of the British landscape school: he paved the way for Constable s naturalistic approach (cf. CORNARD WOOD) and often set his sitters in landscape compositions (cf. THE MORNING WALK). In portraiture, he was the true heir of Van Dyck s easy elegance. Compare his ability to evoke soft flesh, satins and background landscapes or glimpses of stately architecture in PORTRAIT OF THE HONORABLE MRS GRAHAM or the freshness and lyricism of portraits of his daughters (THE PAINTER S DAUGHTERS PURSUING A BUTTERFLY). Gainsborough: landscapes portraits 50 Gainsborough was undoubtedly the most poetic artist of his age. Caricature was introduced to Britain in the first half of the 18th century. It was the most eloquent expression of the satirical spirit of the age, often crude and brutally vital. The leading 18th-century caricaturists were: James Gillray (1756-1815), the greatest political caricaturist. He attacked politicians and the royal family, but after Britain declared war on revolutionary France, he increasingly concentrated on the Frenchmen and British Radicals. He adapted high Baroque compositions to his art, drawing masses of figures in absurd configurations (cf. THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOCHE). Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) was social, rather than political caricaturist: he mostly concentrated on social life in towns and country, but without Hogarth s moralistic overtones. He crammed his caricatures with varying human types grouped naturally. His line loops and curls , and each new curve is a new person or activity (cf. THE EXHIBITION STARE-CASE ). Caricature: Gillray Rowlandson The 19th century In the 19th century, portraiture no longer dominated British painting. The main genres were narrative and landscape painting. Narrative painting was represented by Victorian anecdotal painting, which tried to depict contemporary life with documentary realism, and the so-called Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. The members of this group were young artists whose aim was to break with Neo-Classicist academic art and return to descriptive truthfulness which they believed to have flourished before the High Renaissance ( before Raphael Santi ). They concentrated on individualised detail, often used symbols and painted in the open air. Their paintings are marked by glowing colours. John Everett Millais (1829-96) was the most technically gifted of the Pre-Raphaelites, but Edward Burne-Jones (1833-98) was perhaps the most important of them, because he influenced the Aesthetic Movement in Britain and European Symbolism: he insisted that art should be removed from common life and ordinary experience and a painting should be but a beautiful romantic dream (cf. THE GOLDEN STAIRCASE). The most original artist of the Aesthetic Movement (the late 1860s the early 1890s) was an American naturalised in Britain: James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903). His paintings, especially his landscapes, represent as complete a break with subject and story as can be seen before the 20th century: orchestration of colour and line became more important for him than subject. To stress this, he used musical terms for the titles of his paintings, such as symphony or arrangement . Whistler painted numerous seascapes in France and England and a series of evening views that evoke twilight and are painted with broad sweeps of the brush (cf. NOCTURNE IN BLUE AND GOLD: THE OLD BATTERSEA BRIDGE). His portraits reveal the same orchestration of colour and line, though the stress on shape is greater: cf. THE WHITE GIRL, with carefully related hues of white, and his most famous painting, ARRANGEMENT IN GREY AND BLACK : PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST S MOTHER. Narrative painting: Pre-Raphaelites Aesthetic Movement: Whistler portraits landscapes 52 In the 19th century, landscape painting became one of the glories of British visual arts: it was due to the freshness of touch, which foreigners recognised as its hallmark. It was the result of outdoor painting, already propagated by the Pre-Raphaelites. The two greatest landscapists of the age were: John Constable (1776-1837) concentrated on the local scene in Suffolk, the south-eastern coast and the countryside around Salisbury. His paintings helped to shape the general idea of a beautiful English landscape thanks to his unique capacity for rendering the freshness of atmosphere and the incidence of light. He rejected all idealisation, trying to paint what he saw as directly as possible. He depicted scenes from everyday life of country people: he believed that there were no ugly things in the world because light, shade and perspective made each object beautiful. Constable s watercolours and oil sketches ( WILLY Landscape painting: Constable 53LOTT S HOUSE NEAR FLATFORD MILL or WEYMOUTH BAY) painted in the open air are remarkable for their liveliness and spontaneity, achieved by swiftly made broken touches of colour: they animate the canvases with sparkling movement. They are often much more interesting than his finished pictures (cf. THE HAY WAIN, which was the sensation of the Paris Salon in 1824). No one before Constable had painted nature with such intensity, freedom and insight. Though he left little immediate impression on his own country, he became a source of inspiration to his French contemporaries and a forerunner of the Impressionists. Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) began his career as a topographical painter, but in the course of his career, he was getting ever more interested in luminous effects of colour and light (cf. MORTLAKE TERRACE, where light is the main topic of the painting). He and his friend Girtin developed a mode of watercolour painting which possessed richness and substance similar to oil painting (cf. THE GREAT FALLS OF REICHENBACH). This early painting shows that, unlike Constable, Turner mostly chose wild subjects; it is especially his later paintings that express elemental, dynamic forces in nature, endless spaces and moments of extreme violence (cf. SNOW STORM: STEAMBOAT OFF A HARBOUR MOUTH). His painting RAIN, STEAM, AND SPEED THE GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY is the first attempt to depict speed, which Turner Turner 54achieved by shedding unnecessary shapes and details and fully concentrating on colour and light. Turner s style had little effect in 19th-century Britain, but his art anticipated the free and abstract expression of the great Post-Impressionist painters C zanne and Gauguin. : The 20th century European Modernism was introduced to Britain through two Post-Impressionist exhibitions organised in London in 1910 and 1912. European Modernism dominated British painting until , especially Cubism, Futurism and Fauvism. Painters influenced by Surrealism and Abstraction appeared in the 1930s. After World War II, American movements started to affect both painting and sculpture, especially Pop Art and Op Art. At the same time, however, two greatest artists of the century paved the way for the return to figuration and the revival of British painting, which started in the 1980s. Francis Bacon (1909-92) achieved wider international recognition than any other British painter in the 20th century, probably because his paintings express better than those of his contemporaries the horrors of modern life marked by violence, loneliness and hopelessness. Some critics define him as a representative of a kind of Existentialist extension of Expressionism and Surrealism. Bacon s principal means of expressing the above-mentioned feelings was distortion: the distorted figure is usually placed in a bare room, threatened by the surrounding void, or in a transparent cage, imprisoned in its loneliness but endangered by the hostile world (cf. LYING FIGURE or PORTRAIT OF ISABEL ROWSTHORN). While for Bacon the human body was an object of fascination and passionate loathing at the same time, Lucien Freud (b. 1922 in Berlin) aimed to return it the dignity which it had lost in the carnage of the Second World War: he tried to present the Character of the period Francis Bacon Lucien Freud 55individual as a human being with a unique body and soul. Though he also painted still-lifes and landscapes, his most exquisite works are his male and female nudes. He believed that clothes and sophisticated surroundings symbolise social connections, that is why he painted men and women naked, in all their vulnerability, and in unimportant surroundings. He used richly textured brushwork to emphasise the material substance of the paint. In British sculpture, the Classicist tradition continued until the 1920s, when finally Jacob Epstein (1880-1959), a new York Jew naturalised in Britain, finally established modernist principles almost single-handedly. His influence changed the methods used by British sculptors: direct carving, working on a block of material directly, without making wax models first, became preferred to modelling; this enabled a direct dialogue between artist and material; a greater emphasis was laid on the density, colours and texture of the material; as a result, a rougher finish predominated over the illusionistic potential of the material. Two sculptors of international renown developed Epstein s ideas and made major changes in the approach to subject-matter: Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth. They enriched the traditional language of sculpture by introducing cavities or holes, so that space became almost as important as solid matter. Henry Moore (1898-1986) is considered one of the greatest sculptors of the century in the Sculpture: Epstein Moore 56world. His international reputation rests on a series of reclining female figures, in which human and natural forms are blended: He was able to see figures in the landscape and a landscape in the figures (cf. RECLINING FIGURE 1938, where breasts are metaphors for the hills, the waist slopes away into a gentle valley and the thighs rise up like mountains); sometimes the figures are fragmented, so the spectator no longer expects a naturalistic figure. Two other themes typical of Moore s work were the mother and child, and the family. The materials he used were stone, wood and bronze, and he used both direct carving and modelling. While Moore only experimented with abstraction, Barbara Hepworth s (1903-75) works are mostly abstract; they are, however, also linked with the organic world. Her finest works are smooth, pure, calm carvings of polished stone, wood or other materials, marked by harmonious elegance, as they respond to soft, sensual forms in nature (cf. PELAGOS, 1946). Glossary In this part of the chapter, you will find translations and explanations of terms and the pronunciation of less known names. Abstraction, Abstract art (abstrakce): opak figurace; um n , kter nep edstavuje lidi a p edm ty realisticky, ale um lcovy p edstavy o nich Aestheticism [i:s"Tetisizm] (est tstv ): teorie propaguj c n zor, e um n lze posuzovat pouze podle jeho vlastn ch krit ri , p edev m kr sy anecdotal [!&nik"d@utl] painting: popisuje p hody z dom c ho i venkovsk ho ivota nebo z popul rn literatury apotheosis [@! poTi"@usis] (apote za, zbo n n ) B Baroque [b@"rok] painting: vyzna ovalo se emocionalitou, dynamick m pohybem (postavy se pohybuj na hranic ch teatr lnosti), sv teln mi efekty a bohat mi barevn mi kombinacemi; postavy jsou v ak zobrazeny realisticky brushwork [bra w@:k] (pr ce se t tcem, mal sk rukopis) Burne-Jones [b@:nd @unz], Edward (cf. ) C canvas [k&nv@s] (mal sk pl tno) caricature [k&rik@ @] (karikatura): zesm uj c zobrazen osoby nebo v ci; zesm n n je dosa eno p ehn n m jejich n padn ch rys carving ( ezb stv , ezb sk pr ce) Hepworth 57C zanne [sei"z&n], Paul (1839-1906): post-impresionistick francouzsk mal , kter p edznamenal kubizmus; po adoval, aby v malb bylo obsa eno v e, co je nutn k jej mu porozum n , nesm obsahovat dn nar ky na d vn m ty apod. Classicism: klasicizmus v mal stv vy adoval racionalitu a harmonii, zd razn n obecn ch rys a potla en v ech p irozen ch nedokonalost a podru n ch detail composition: kompozice, tj. z m rn uspo d n a sep t jednotliv ch slo ek v tvarn ho d la Constable [kanst@bl], John (cf. ) conversation piece: nrov obr zek p tel i len rodiny v jejich vlastn m prost ed a b hem obl ben innosti Cubism [kju:bizm] (kubizmus): um leck sm r ran ho 20. stolet zalo en na neperspektivn m zobrazen skute nosti zhutn n do z kladn ch geometrick ch tvar ; osoby a v ci jsou sou asn naz r ny z r zn ch hl D decorative mural painting: iluzivn n st nn malby zdob c st ny a stropy barokn ch chr m a pal c ; vyu valy iluze otev en ho prostoru, kter um lci zapl ovali realistick mi postavami a vhodn m pozad m direct carving: opak modelov n , tzn., e socha vt luje svou p edstavu skulptury do zvolen ho materi lu p mo, bez p edb n ho vytv en model dynastic [di"n&stik] portrait: ofici ln portr t vlada e jako symbol jeho postaven ; postava je obvykle pojedn na staticky, ve strnul m postoji a bohat m od vu E Existentialism [!!egzi"sten @lizm] (existencializmus): filozofick teorie propaguj c n zor, e lov k byl vr en do absurdn ho sv ta beze smyslu a bez Boha, je v n m s m a proto zodpov dn za sv iny jen sob Expressionism [ik"spre @nizm] (expresionizmus): um leck sm r ran ho 20. stolet p edev m v N mecku; pou val deformaci tvar i barev a ostr linie ke zd razn n temn ch str nek lidsk du e a nep telstv odcizen ho sv ta F Fauvism [f@uvizm] (z fr. fauves = divok zv ata): um leck sm r ran ho 20. stolet ; pou val ostr ch, nerealistick ch barev a zd nliv hrub na rtnut kresby, proto e v il v emocion ln s lu barev figurative art, figuration (figurace): um n zobrazuj c osoby, zv ata a p edm ty; opak: abstrakce finish: kone n povrchov prava Freud [froid], Lucien ( ) Futurism [fju: @rizm]: um leck sm r ran ho 20. stolet oslavuj c dynamizmus sou asn techniky; kladl d raz na zobrazen pohybu, eho dosahoval sou asn m zobrazen m t la a jeho st v r zn ch pozic ch G Gainsborough [geinzb@r@], Thomas ( ) Gauguin [g@u"geN], Paul (1848-1903): francouzsk post-impresionistick mal ; pou val ist , ne ed n barvy kladen ve velk ch ploch ch 58Gibbons [gib@nz], Grinling ( ) Gillray [gilrei], James ( ) Girtin [g@:tin], Thomas (1775-1802): nadan anglick krajin , kter vynikal obzvl v akvarelu; spolu s Turnerem pozvedl akvarel na rove olejomalby H Hepworth [hepw@:T], Barbara ( ) Hilliard [hilj@d], Nicholas ( ) history painting: typ malby, kter vzne en m zp sobem ilustruje p b hy z historie, p edev m z antick ho starov ku, z m t a z Bible; p itom klade d raz na takov ideje jako spravedlnost, est a l ska k vlasti; jej mi typick mi rysy jsou idealizace a generalizace Hoche [o ], Louis Lazare: p edseda Revolu n ho tribun lu v letech 1793-94 za francouzsk revoluce Hogarth [h@uga:T], William ( ) Holbein [holbain], Hans, the Younger ( ) hue [hju:] (barevn odst n) I Impressionism [im"pre @nizm]: um leck sm r, kter se zformoval ve 2. polovin 19. stolet ve Francii; pomoc barev se sna il zachytit prchav dojem, kter vytv sv tlo dopadaj c na osoby a v ci, a vyj d it sp e atmosf ru ne zobrazit podrobnosti; barvy byly obvykle nan eny drobn mi doteky, nikoli irok mi tahy t tce Isaiah [ai"zai@]: jeden ze staroz konn ch prorok L landscape painting (krajinomalba) M Michelangelo [maik@"l&nd @l@u]: Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475-1564), florentsk mal , socha , architekt a b sn k, p edstavitel vrcholn renesance Millais [milei], Sir John Everett ( ) miniature [min@ @] (miniatura) modelling: 1. modelov n ; 2. p pravn f ze vytv en skulptury, kter se nejd ve vymodeluje z vosku nebo z hl ny Moore [mu@], Henry ( ) N narrative painting: malba, jej m c lem je zobrazit p b h nocturne [nokt@:n] (nokturno): hudebn skladba vyjad uj c lyrickou, klidnou no n n ladu; obraz no n krajiny 59nude [nju:d] (akt) O Op Art (zkr ceno z optic art): abstraktn um leck sm r z 60. let 20. stolet ; vyu val optick ch efekt , kter vytv ej na s tnici oka ry a te ky P Pelagos ( ecky): neohrani enost, nesm rnost perspective [p@"spektiv] (perspektiva): metoda zobrazov n trojrozm rn ch objekt na plo e Pop Art (zkr ceno z popular art): um leck sm r z 50. a 60. let 20. stolet ; vy el z teorie, e ve spole nosti je ada podkultur stejn hodnoty jako tzv. vysok kultura ; vyu val obraz spojen ch s konzumerizmem a masovou kulturou, nap . komiks i obal ze zbo , a asto kombinoval kol s malbou Post-Impressionism [ p@ust im"pre @nizm]: um leck sm r p edstavovan C zannem, Gauguinem a Van Goghem; t eba e byl zce propojen s impresionizmem, posunul se bli e k abstrakci; zkoumal nov , symbolick vztahy mezi barvami a tvary Pre-Raphaelites [pri:"r&f@laits] ( ) R Raphael [r&f@i@l]: Raffaello Sanzio (nebo Santi, 1483-1520), italsk mal a architekt, p edstavitel vrcholn renesance relief [ri"li:f] (reli f) Reynold [renoldz], Sir Joshua ( ) Rowlandson [r@ul@nsn], Thomas (50) Rubens [ru:binz], Peter Paul (1577-1640): vl msk barokn mal , mistr alegorick ch a mytologick ch n m t S Siddons [sidnz], Sarah (1755-1831): jedna z nejv t ch anglick ch trag dek Sistine [sistain] Chapel: Sixtinsk kaple, pape ova soukrom kaple ve Vatik nu proslul Michelangelov mi freskami still-life [stil "laif] (z ti ) Stubbs [stabz], George (47) Surrealism [s@"ri:@lizm]: um leck sm r 1. poloviny 20. stolet ; vyu val interakce p edm t , kter k sob nepat , asto fantastick ch, podle voln ch, podv dom ch asociac ; zobrazoval je do posledn podrobnosti Symbolism [simb@lizm]: um leck sm r, kter vznikl na p elomu 19. a 20. stolet ; charakterizovala jej sm s erotizmu, n bo ensk ho mysticizmu a est tstv ; asto vyu val dvojzna n ch symbol T texture [teks @]: vnit n uspo d n , struktura (um leck ho d la) 60Titian [ti j@n]: Tiziano Vecelli ( ), ben tsk mal n bo ensk ch a historick ch v jev ; jeho d la se stala z kladem barokn malby topographical [! top@"gr&fikl] painting: realistick malba skute n krajiny a budov Turner [t@:n@], Joseph Mallord William ( ) V Van Dyck [v&n "daik], Sir Anthony ( ) vanguard [v&nga:d]: p edvoj, pr kopn ci nov ch my lenek a sm r W watercolour [wo:t@kal@] (akvarel) Whistler [wisl@], James Abbott McNeill ( ) Exercises 1. Characterise these periods, mentioning the genres that flourished in each one as well as the leading artists: a. the 16th and 17th centuries; b. the 18th century; c. the 19th century; d. the 20th century. 2. Name four great foreign artists, both painters and sculptors active in Britain, characterize their work and explain what their contribution to the development of British art was. 3. The three great British portraitists: what were the characteristic features of their styles, what they had in common and how their works, attitudes and opinions differed. 4. Great British landscape painters: what were the characteristic features of their styles, what they had in common and how their works, attitudes and opinions differed. 5. How would you define caricature, and how do you think it differs from painting? Characterise the two main representatives of 18th-century caricature and explain how they differed from each other. 6. What makes Bacon and Freud the greatest painters of the 20th century, and why is Bacon better-known outside Britain than any other British painter? 7. Who were the greatest British sculptors? What makes them great? What did they have in common and how did they differ? 8. What makes Grinling Gibbons unique? 9. Which British artists influenced the development of art in the world, and in what respects? 10. In which periods did the following genres dominate: a. landscape painting? b. caricature? c. portraiture? 11. Explain these terms: a. abstraction figuration; b. miniature painting; c. conversation piece; d. sporting art; e. history painting; f. decorative mural painting; g. modern Moral Subject; h. narrative painting; i. Aestheticism; j. composition; k. perspective; l. direct carving modelling. 61CHAPTER : A SURVEY OF BRITISH PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING AND OF DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE AND MUSIC Chief British philosophers and philosophical systems In the Middle Ages, Britain gave the world both great Scholastics and some of the first critics of Scholasticism. The foremost among them were Roger Bacon and William of Occam, who anticipated later scientic discovery. Roger Bacon ( ) advocated observation and experience rather than the Scholastic method of argument; he considered experiment to be the door to knowledge and the criterion of truth. He was also interested in natural sciences (cf. ) and languages as he argued that the chief causes of error were ignorance of languages. William of Occam or Ockham ( ) initiated a divorce between faith and reason. His philosophy kept the philosopher preoccupied with the world around and left God to theology. He also believed in empiricism, knowledge coming from experience; he criticised the secular power of the Papacy and advocated the separation of the Church and the State. In the 16th century, the spiritual dictatorship of Scholasticism was brought to an end by humanistic philosophy. Great English humanists were, however, preoccupied with philology rather than philosophy, producing Greek and Latin grammars and translating from these languages. Some of them were also interested in principles of humanistic education. The leading philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries contributed to the development of rational thinking by their emphasis on experience as the chief source of knowledge. Empiricism, the philosophy that propounded this approach, matured in the 17th century: its most important representative was Francis Bacon (1561-1626), who prepared the way for modern experimental science. Inductive reasoning was the core of his philosophy of science: it means discovering general laws from particular facts or examples. In his major works, Bacon systematised the whole range of human knowledge; his classification of natural sciences became the model for later encyclopaedists. The leading philosophers and political thinkers of the 17th century were Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was a materialist and a rigid determinist: he held that all that exists is matter and philosophy means understanding results on the basis of causes; knowledge is based on experience; man is subject to the same laws as nature, and his desires and instincts determine his actions, his foremost interest being survival. In his political theory, Hobbes advocated absolutist rule, believing that only a monarch whose right will be as absolute as his power can maintain law and peace among individuals each of whom has a sacred right to self-preservation. John Locke s (1632-1704) philosophy also stems from empiricism: he held that knowledge of the world could only be gained by experience and reflection on it. That is Scholasticism: Roger Bacon Occam Humanism Empiricism: Francis Bacon Hobbes Locke 62why, in Locke s opinion, the human mind is a blank slade ( tabula rasa ) at birth, and everybody is therefore capable of being educated. Like Hobbes, Locke was interested in psychology of man: he argued that personal identity depends on self-consciousness. Locke s political theory is in direct opposition to Hobbes s theory: in Locke s opinion, governments derive their authority from popular consent, and a government may rightly be overthrown if it deprives people of their fundamental rights. He also suggested a separation of legislature, executive and judicial powers. That is why he can be looked upon as an inspirer of the Englightenment in France and of the US Constitution, and as a thinker who foreshadowed contemporary ideas of liberal democracy. The leading 18th-century philosopher was David Hume (1711-76), a Scottish empiricist philosopher, historian and economist. He is known for his philosophical scepticism, which restricted human knowledge to the experience of impressions and ideas and denied the possibility of ultimately verifying their truth: if all we know are sensations, we can prove neither the existence of matter nor the existence of mind. Hume s ideas deeply influenced the development of English and European thinking, especially Positivism (as he questioned causality) and Utilitarianism (as he considered utility to be the criterion of moral behaviour). While Positivism was not developed by any significant British philosophers, Utilitarianism and Liberalism were the chief philosophies of 19th-century Britain: Utilitarianism was a school of moral philosophy: its fundamental principle was that the action is right if it tends to promote happiness of everyone affected by it, and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness. Liberalism insisted on limiting the power of government: the state should not interfere with the economic life of the community by imposing any restrictions on trade (=> free market), and it should not do for the individual what he is able to do for himself. On the other hand, it aimed to protect the rights of each individual. Its main representative was John Stuart Mill (1806-73), a logician and ethical theorist. He realised the failings of the Utilitarian theory, namely that it did not distinguish between the quality of pleasures; for him, the social consequences and the nature of the act were the real criteria of good. Mill took an active part in many important issues of his era, the right to vote for women. 20th-century British philosophy was predominantly interested in analysing sciences and the language: Logical Positivism developed from Positivism. Its adherents declared philosophical questions to be artificial problems and conceived philosophy as a logical analysis of sciences, especially of formal logic and mathematics ( Bertrand Russell, 1872-1970, a philosopher and mathematician). Analytic and Linguistic Philosophy argued that traditional philosophical systems were in fact linguistic problems, because all human knowledge is expressed through language. The aim of philosophy should therefore be to solve problems that arise as a result of its imperfect understanding, and its proper activity should be the process of Hume Utilitarianism Liberalism: Mill Logical Positivism: Russell Analytical and Linguistic Philosophy: 63describing and clarifying language in use. The main representative of this philosophical stream was Ludwing Wittgenstein (1889-1951), an Austrian-born professor of philosophy at Cambridge and one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century. By way of conclusion, it is possible to say that British philosophical thinking is: practical, aiming to understand the requirements of the given time and to apply philosophical ideas to practice not to construct speculative systems; sober and realistic, preferring the concrete to the abstract, and induction to deduction. It has always been interested in the nature of language. Eminent British scientists and inventors Though England was situated on the edge of the known world in the early Middle Ages, it won fame as a centre of learning. The Saxon scholar Alcuin of York (735-804) was the principal figure in the educational programme of Charlemagne in the Carolingian Renaissance. The Venerable Bede (673-735), a Northumbrian monk, whose influence Alcuin carried to the Continent, is still thought to be one of the greatest historians. Other works of his concern chronology and the calendar. For a time in the 13th and 14th centuries, English scientists led all of Europe, and most of them worked at Oxford. Roger Bacon ( ) was primarily interested in optics and mathematics, in linguistic studies, and in experimental science generally. He foresaw the magnifying properties of convex lenses, the possibility of flying machines and mechanically propelled boats, and many other things. Science in the 17th century, especially physics, chemistry and mathematics, contributed to the enlargement of human knowledge, but it was not oriented towards transforming the economy. It started to flourish in the second half of the century, when the Royal Society was founded (1662). The greatest scientist of the period was Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), mathematician, physicist, astronomer and philosopher. His work remained at the basis of physics until Einstein s discoveries in the 20th century: he was the founder of classical mechanics as he formulated laws of motion and the law of gravity, which he applied to planetary motion. He also developed the theory of differential calculus; he laid the foundations for scientific optics and invented the reflecting telescope. Robert Boyle (1627-91), an Anglo-Irish scientist, developed the air pump invented by a German physicist and used it to investigate the properties of air: this led him to formulate the law of the compressibility of gasses. He was the first to define the chemical elements. Wittgenstein Character of British philosophical thinking The Middle Ages: Alcuin Bede R. Bacon 17th century: Newton Boyle 64Edmund Halley (1656-1742), an eminent astronomer, produced the first catalogue of stars visible in the southern hemisphere. He was also the first to predict the return of a comet, since known as Halley s comet, and he calculated its orbit. Medical science also advanced. William Harvey (1578-1657) discovered and convincingly demonstrated the circulation of blood in 1628. He also did important work in embryology. 18th-century science was mainly directed towards practice: it gave rise to numerous inventions of machines in industry and agriculture, as well as of accurately made instruments. The most important invention was that of the steam engine: in 1765, James Watt (1763-1819) made fundamental improvements to Newcomen s engine, thus enabling its widespread use. The unit of power is named after Watt. The leading economist of the age was Adam Smith (1723-90), the founder of modern classical economics. He argued that the labour of the nation is the source of its wealth and the standard of value. Smith attacked the mercantilist system and advocated the free working of individual enterprise, as well as the necessity of free trade . His ideas dominated the whole of industrial Europe and America until the 20th century. Medical science advanced, too: inoculation started to be used by Edward Jenner (1749-1823). In the 19th century, British scientists considerably contributed to the advance of scientific knowledge in the world. The scientific idea that most affected general thought was the doctrine of evolution and the survival of the fittest, which Charles Darwin (1809-82) propounded in his famous work On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection (1859). In it, he argued for a natural, not divine, origin of species. In spite of religious opposition, evolutionism quickly won acceptance. The most important discoveries of the century concerned medicine (the use of anaesthetics and antiseptics in surgery); electricity and various physical and chemical phenomena (Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, on which almost all forms of electric machinery are based; James Prescott Joule formulated the law of the conservation of energy; Lord Kelvin and many others made important discoveries). The most important inventions included the electric telegraph (1837), the steam turbine (1834) and the pneumatic tyres (John Dunlop, 1888). The British contribution to science was maintained in the 20th century: in that century, one third of all Nobel prizes awarded for scientific research went to Britain. The greatest advances were made in physics and chemistry: Joseph John Thomson discovered the electron; Lord Rutherford identified the alpha and beta particles and gamma rays formed in radioactive decay; he also discovered the atomic nucleus (1919) and the artificial transmutation of one element into another; in the 1930s, a machine for the bombardment of atoms was devised and the idea of chain reaction was discovered all this enabled the use of atomic energy. Halley Harvey 18th century: Watt Smith 19th century: Darwin Discoveries in: medicine electricity Inventions 20th century: physics 65The practical results of the research in chemistry are new substances with an industrial use, such as plastics, synthetic fibres and similar materials. Among the greatest triumphs of medical research are the discovery of the cause of sleeping illness and of penicillin: it was discovered by Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) in 1928 and manufactured since 1935. The leading British economist and financial expert was John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946): he gave a new analysis of the trade cycle, stressing changes in investment as the key to changes in total demand; he advocated certain measures of economic control by the state, income redistribution and full employment. His ideas determined the economic policies of Western nations for thirty years following World War II. British explorers contributed to the better knowledge of the Earth, especially of the Antarctic continent and the Himalayas (Sir Edmund Hillary, b. 1919, scaled Mount Everest in 1953). A brief outline of the development of British music Music held a prominent place both in Celtic Britain and in pagan Saxon England. Christian priests brought to England the so-called Gregorian plainchant: it consisted of a single, unaccompanied melodic line sung by the whole choir, though occasionally some elaborate melodies sung by soloists were added. This type of church music gradually developed into polyphony or counterpoint, in which further and different melodic lines were added to the basic one; all of them were sung simultaneously. This type of music was cultivated until the 17th century. In the early 15th century, English music went through a period of great and rapid stylistic development. Its rich and versatile style, rhythmic variety and an interest in large-scale musical architecture quickly became popular abroad. The greatest English composers of this period, Lionel Power ( ) and John Dunstable ( ), contributed to the musical language of the Renaissance. Another period of great flourishing of music in England was the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when English musicians had great reputation in continental Europe and players from the continent often came to England for instruction. The most popular instruments were keyboards, the virginal, the lute and the viol. The 16th century was the high point of pure contrapuntal music: Thomas Tallis ( ) composed music for the Anglican Church (he set the new Book of Common Prayer to music); William Byrd ( ) was the greatest of the numerous outstanding composers of the time: he developed the traditional polyphony practised by Tallis, but, at the same time, he looked forward to the future thanks to the melodic freedom that generates density of harmony; John Dowland (1562-1626) was a supreme composer of solo songs, mostly full of melancholy, with lute accompaniment. The Restoration era ( ) witnessed some changes in musical taste, largely due to continental influences brought to England by Charles II. The contrapuntal style was gradually replaced by a more harmonic and rhythmically simple style, with much more use of solo voices and orchestral accompaniment. It was also the time when chemistry medicine economics exploration of the Earth Middle Ages: Gregorian plainchant polyphony 15th century: Power Dunstable Late 16th and early 17th cc.: Tallis Byrd Dowland Restoration era: 66opera performances and first public concerts started to be held. The leading composer of the period and one of the greatest English composers of all times, was Henry Purcell ( ). He used both the old and new styles to compose instrumental music, songs and the first true English opera, Dido and Aeneas ( ). His music is the key to further developments in English music and he influenced great world composers: his choral style influenced Haendel when he had settled in England, and his large-scale anthems foreshadowed Bach s church cantatas. With the death of Purcell, a period of decline set in: music continued to be performed in England, but English composers no longer ranked with the greatest of Europe. A revival of English music came as late as the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries with Edward Elgar (1857-1934): he liberated English music from its insularity and stimulated the subsequent national school of music. In the first decades of the 20th century, British folk tune was a source of inspiration: Ralph Vaughan-Williams (1872-1958), the founder of the nationalist movement in British music, made use of elements of folk songs and Tudor music to develop a musical style at once highly personal and deeply English (cf. his Norfolk Rhapsodies, 1906). Many British 20th-century composers were influenced by modern developments in world music. Those who achieved international fame were Sir William Walton (1902-83) and especially Benjamin Britten (1913-76). He wrote a number of operas ( Peter Grimes, 1945), admired for their skilful setting of English words, orchestral interludes, dramatic aptness and depth of psychological characterisation; choral works ( song cycles or the War Requiem, 1962) and instrumental music. He was always willing to experiment with modern musical styles and forms, and he did much to widen general interest in opera and in serious music. Index and Glossary A Aeneas [i:ni@s]: hrdina Vergiliovy Aeneidy , syn trojsk ho kr le; po p du Tr je ztroskotal u africk ch b eh , kde se setkal s kartaginskou kr lovnou Dido (66) "air pump: v v va (63) Alcuin [aelkwin] of York: anglick teolog a u enec; pomohl p em nit dv r Karla Velik ho v C ch ch v kulturn a vzd l vac centrum (63) Analytic and Linguistic Philosophy (62) anthem [&nT@m]: polyfonn skladba na slova z Bible doprov zen varhany a s pas emi pro s lov hlasy (66) B Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685-1750): jeden z nejv t ch evropsk ch barokn ch skladatel polyfonn hudby (66) Bacon [beik@n], Francis: anglick st tn k (kancl Jakuba I.), filozof a esejista (61) Bacon, Roger: anglick franti k nsk filozof naz van doctor mirabilis pro svou velkou u enost (61) Purcell Decline and revival: Elgar Vaughan-Williams 20th century: Walton Britten 67Bede [bi:d], the Venerable: Ctihodn B da, mnich z kl tera v Jarrow; ve sv m spise Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731) pou il zcela novou historickou metodu; Alcuin p enesl jeho vliv na kontinent (63) Boyle [boil], Robert (63) Britten [britn], Benjamin (66) Byrd [b@:d], William (65) C cantata [k&n"ta:t@]: kr tk hudebn d lo, asto na n bo ensk n m t, zp van s listy, v t inou s doprovodem sboru a orchestru (66) Carolingian [!k&r@"lind i@n] Renaissance: o iven kultury a vzd lanosti v i Karla Velik ho (63) causality [ko:"z&l@ti]: p innost (62) Charlemagne [" a:l@"main] ( ): Karel Velik , kr l Frank a c sa Z padu (63) choral [ko:r@l]: sborov (66) contrapuntal [!kontr@"pantl]: kontrapunktick (65) counterpoint [kaunt@point]: kontrapunkt, polyfonie (65) D Darwin [da:win], Charles (64) deduction [di"dak n]: dedukce, tj. postup od obecn ho k jednotliv mu (63) determinism [di"t@:minizm]: u en o p inn ur enosti; p esv d en , e lidsk jedn n je p edur eno, determinov no vnit n mi a vn j mi p inami, kter nelze kontrolovat (61) Dido [daid@u]: podle legendy dcera tyrsk ho kr le, kter zalo ila Kart go a stala se jeho kr lovnou; zamilovala se do Aenea a sp chala sebevra du, kdy ji opustil (66) Dowland [daul@nd], John (65) Dunlop [danlop], John Boyd (1839-1921): irsk vyn lezce (64) Dunstable [danst@bl], John (65) E Einstein [ainstain], Albert (1879-1955): n meck matematick fyzik naturalizovan v USA; hluboce ovlivnil mnoho v deck ch odv tv , ale nejzn m j je d ky sv teorii relativity (63) Elgar [elga:], Sir Edward (66) Empiricism [im"pirisiz@m] (61,62) Enlightenment [inlaitnmnt]: Osv censtv , tj. obdob v 18. stolet , kdy se mnoho spisovatel a v dc p iklonilo k n zoru, e v da a rozum jsou d le it j ne n bo enstv a tradice (62) F Faraday [f&r@dei], Michael (64) Fleming [flemiN], Sir Alexander: britsk bakteriolog; roku 1945 dostal Nobelovu cenu za medic nu (65) G 68Gregorian [gr@"go:ri@n] plainchant: gregori nsk chor l (65) H Haendel [h&ndl], Georg Frederick (1685-1759): n meck hudebn k a skladatel, usadil se v Anglii; skl dal opery, oratoria (nap . Mesi ) a c rkevn i sv tskou hudbu (66) Halley [h&li], Edmund (64) Harvey [ha:vi], William (64) Hillary [hil@ri], Sir Edmund: novoz landsk horolezec (65) Hobbes [hobz], Thomas (61) humanism [hju:m@nizm]: my lenkov syst m, kter pova uje e en lidsk ch probl mu rozumov za d le it j ne spol h n na n bo enskou v ru (61) Hume [hju:m], David (62) I induction [in"dak n]: indukce, tj. typ sudku a metoda zkoum n , kdy se z jedine n ch v rok usuzuje na obecn z v r; postup od zvl tn ho k obecn mu (61,63) interlude [int@lu:d]: mezihra; meziaktn hudba (66) J Jenner [d en@], Edward: anglick l ka ; zjistil, e o kov n vakc nou z kravsk ch ne tovic ochr n p ed n kazou ern mi ne tovicemi (64) Joule [d u:l, d @ul], James Prescott (64) K Kelvin [kelvin], Lord (64) keyboard [ki:bo:d] (instrument): kl vesov n stroj (65) Keynes [keinz], John Maynard (65) L Liberalism (62) Locke [lok], John (61,62) Logical Positivism (62) lute [lu:t]: loutna (65) M matter: hmota (61,62) mercantilism [m@:k@ntilizm]: ekonomick teorie 16. a 17. stolet , podle n bohatstv a prosperita st tu z visela na mno stv zlat ch rezerv; jejich dostate n mno stv bylo mo no z skat podporou v vozu, omezen m dovozu a z kazem v vozu zlata (64) Mill, John Stuart [stju@t] (62) N Newcomen ["nju:!kam@n], Thomas (1663-1729): anglick in en r; roku 1705 vynalezl parn stroj k erp n vody z d ln ch achet (64) 69Newton [nju:tn], Sir Isaac (63) O Occam (or Ockham) [ok@m] (61) P plainchant [plein a:nt], also plainsong: chor l, jednohlas sborov zp v (65) polyphony [p@"lif@ni]: polyfonie, v cehlas, kontrapunkt (65) Positivism: jeden z filozofick ch sm r 19. stolet ; odm tal teologii a metafyziku a za hlavn c l filozofie pova oval zkouman jev , kter lze v decky ov it, a jejich klasifikaci (62) Power, Lionel (65) Purcell [p@:sl], Henry (66) R requiem [rekwi@m]: rekviem, hudebn skladba pro m i za zesnul ho (66) rhapsody [r&ps@di]: instrument ln skladba voln formy a dramatick ho obsahu (66) Russell [rasl], Bertrand (62) Rutherford [raD@f@d], Lord (1871-1937) (64) S Scholasticism [sk@"l&stisizm]: scholastizmus; synt za aristotelsk filozofie a k es ansk ho dogmatu; scholastikov se pokou eli sladit v ru s rozumem a podat nezvratn d kaz, e B h existuje; jako metodu zkoum n pou vali form ln disputaci (61) Smith, Adam (64) T Tallis [t&lis], Thomas (65) Thomson [tomsn], Sir Joseph John (1856-1940) (64) U Utilitarianism [!ju:tili"te@ri@nizm] (62) V Vaughan-Williams ["vo:n"wili@mz], Ralph (66) viol [vai@l]: viola (65) virginal [v@:d inl]: trsac strunn n stroj s klaviaturou, men forma cembala, roz en v Anglii v 16. a 18. stolet (65) W Walton [wo:lt@n], Sir William (66) Watt [wot], James: skotsk in en r (64) Wittgenstein [vitg@nstain], Ludwig (63) Exercises 1. What is the essence of: a. Empiricism? 70b. Utilitarianism? Why do you think it can be described as moral philosophy ? c. Liberalism? Consider the political and social consequences of the belief that the state should not do for the individual what he is able to do for himself . d. Logical Positivism? e. Analytic and Linguistic Philosophy? 2. Compare: a. Roger Bacon and William of Occam: what does their importance consist in? b. Hobbes and Locke: what do they have in common and what do they differ in? 3. Why do you think David Hume can be ranked among the greatest British philosophers? 4. What are characteristic features of British philosophical thinking? 5. Which British philosophers exerted most profound influence on European and world philosophical thinking? 6. Which British scientists contribution to the development of world science do you consider the greatest and why? 7. Which British discoveries and inventions do you consider most important and why? 8. Which sciences were primarily cultivated in Britain and in which periods? 9. In which periods did music flourish in Britain? 10. Which British composers contributed to the development of music in Britain and in the world most? 11. Which of them do you consider most important and why? 71C. KEY TO EXERCISES : 1. First inhabitants: ,000 years ago. Beaker people: ,000 Celts: Romans: 55 : Julius Caesar; 43 : Emperor Claudius. Anglo-Saxons: 5th c., Northern Germany and Denmark. Vikings: 9th c., Denmark. Normans: 1066, Normandy (William the Conquerer). 2. Christianity helped to develop the statehood in England + return of education. 3. He introduced Norman nobles into high state offices and left a disputed succession (he probably promised the English throne to the Duke William). 4. The gradual character of the Conquest + the support of the Church. Magna Carta (1215) and Parliament (1295) limited the sovereign s power. 5. Edward III claimed the French throne (his mother was a French princess) + the desire to bring Flanders and Gascony under English control. Stages successful for England: the first and the third ones (the latter only until Joan of Arc appeared). 6. The growth of population + high taxes (especially the Poll Tax) to pay the unsuccessful war in France. 7. The weak king (Henry VI) + political disruption after the Hundred Years War => dynastic struggle between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists. 8. a. French influence (Norman-French king, ruling class, language) + relations with Scandinavia cut off; a strong feudal state. b. Political disruption (bands of soldiers) + exhaustion. c. Gradual disappearance of serfdom (15th c.). d. Feudal nobility impoverished and almost exterminated + wealthy Crown => Tudor absolutism. 9. Emperor Claudius ...; Christianity ...; Alfred the Great ...; Duke William ...; King John ...; the Black Death ...; the Peasants Revolt ...; the Hundred Years Was ends; the Wars of Roses end. 10. a. Only partly: a single battle changed the course of history (but not for ever here) + the Austrian king + ruling class + the German language. b. It would not be good: the king would necessarily reside in Paris and England would change into a neglected province. c. They demanded: abolition of serfdom, commutation of all servile dues for a rent, the removal of all restrictions on freedom of labour and trade, general amnesty for the rebels, the formation of an ideal monarchy where all people would be equal and dependent directly on the king. : 1. 1. Henry VII. 2. The religious Reformation (the 1530s). 3. The Elizabethan Settlement + the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588). 4. The Civil War (1642-49). 5. Oliver Cromwell (1649-58). 6. The Restoration of the Monarchy (1660), the Glorious Revolution (1688-89), the ascension of the Hanoverian dynasty (1714). 7. The creation of a colonial empire (as a result of wars with France); the Industrial Revolution; gaining maritime supremacy. 2. The situation after the Wars of the Roses: the wealth of the Crown and replacing the old feudal nobility by a new one who cooperated with the king + new offices. Tudor absolutism was supported by practically the whole nation. 3. Galloping inflation + rise in population; vagrancy <= enclosures. 4. a. The conflict between the King and Parliament about who should control whom. b. James II s attempt to usurp absolute power; the Glorious Revolution resolved the main issue of the Civil War in favour of Parliament. 5. Britain controlled the seas, had a large colonial empire and was the workshop of the world as a result of the Industrial Revolution. It led the world in commerce and industry. 726. It developed from the 16th-century Privy Council; William III and Anne still kept control over it; the executive power passed to the Prime Minister after the ascension of the Hanoverians. 7. Scotland joined England in 1707; Ireland became part of the UK in 1800. 8. a. The 17th-century Commonwealth was a republican regime with a State Council and a one-chamber parliament. The Protectorate was a Puritan military disctatorship. b. The Tories defended divine right monarchy and Anglicanism; the Whigs supported Parliamentary monarchy and religious tolerance. c. The Industrial Revolution was a gradual process of changing Britain from a basically agricultural country into an industrial power. 9. a. It meant the end of Spanish maritime supremacy and the beginning of England s building its maritime power. b. Britain became the economic, financial and commercial superpower; the centre of the economy shifted to the centre and to the north // population; two new social classes (factory workers, industrialists) appeared. 10. a. Chief ministers chosen from the ranks of the new nobility: President of the Council, Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer, Lord Admiral, Principal Secretary etc. b. It rested on Cromwell s personality to a great extent. c. They lacked the organisation, unity and programme of a modern political party. : 1. b d h f a e c g. 2. Two world wars, loss of the Empire, lack of investment at home, decreasing productivity and decline of traditional industries. 3. a. First attempts under Henry II; suppressed rebellions + clearance and plantation policy in the 16th and 17th cc.; Ireland = Britain s cruelly exploited colony; potato famine (1845-51) Land Acts + struggle for home rule: not granted before World War I => Easter Rebellion (1916); Anglo-Irish war (1919-21) Irish Free State (1922); independent Irish Republic (without Ulster) in 1937; 1949: Ireland leaves the Commonwealth; 1973: Ireland joins the EU. b. Parliament set up in the second half of the 13th c. (1295: Model Parliament); two chambers in the 14th c.; 17th c.: struggle between Parliament and the Crown resolved in 1689 in favour of Parliament, which started controlling the executive; Parliament made representative of the nation thanks to Reform Acts (19th and 20th cc.). Two factions, Tories and Whigs, develop in Parliament in the Restoration period; they gradually change into political parties with firm structures and programmes renamed Conservatives and Labour in the 19th c.; the Labour Party replaces the Liberals as one of the two main parties in the 20th c. c. The 18th-century Industrial Revolution + the 1820s- 30s railway fever combined with the policy of free trade led to a long period of prosperity (1845-75), but it ended in the depression of 1875-88; Britain lost its economic primacy (with the exception of the financial sphere) in the 20th c. (cf. Question 2); it was restructured in the second half of the 20th c. + discovery of North Sea oil (the 1970s- 80s). d. 1707: the Union of England and Scotland; 1800: the United Kingdom of Britain and Ireland; 1922: the United Kingdom of Britain and Northern Ireland. e. 15th and 16th cc.: first voyages of discovery; 17th c.: first permanent colonies; 18th c.: many territories gained due to wars with France; 19th c.: the British Empire at its peak; 20th c.: liberation movements in colonies => the British Commonwealth of Nations (1931-49); the 1960s: the Commonwealth of Nations = an association of countries that joined voluntarily. f. Until the end of the 19th c., the policy whose objective was to keep balance of power in Europe; splendid isolation at the turn of the 19th and 20th cc. (no serious rivals); Britain joined the first alliances before World War I <= endangered by Germany. 4. b. The reason was that no reforms could be implemented in the 18th c. as Britain was at war for most of the time; that is why problems accumulated. 5. a. Impose the Roman language, way of life and culture generally on another nation. b. A great circle of earth banks, ditches and huge standing stones. c. A social system based on the tenure of land: people received land and protection from a nobleman, and worked and fought for him in return. d. Fighting in small secret groups. e. The ruler has unlimited control over all people and institutions in the country. f. Driving native people away from their land and resettling it with people from the country that 73pursues this policy. g. Enclosing fields and changing them into pastures for sheep or joining them together into larger areas that could be cultivated with the help of machines. h. The political theory that a king governs under unlimited authority given directly by God, to whom alone (s)he is responsible. i. Self-government, especially in internal matters, by a colony or dependent territory. j. Members of the House of Lords who were granted the peerage by the British Sovereign only for their lifetime. k. The policy of trying to prevent the outbreak of war in the 1930s by giving dictators what they demanded. : 1. a. Massiveness, round arches, barrel (tunnel) and later groin vaults, flat buttresses, rich geometrical decoration (especially in doorways). b. Pointed arch, rib vault, Gothic buttress (= Gothic generally); Early English: sharply pointed arch, four-part rib vault, west front with a screen fa ade, rectangular east end, lancet windows (single, in pairs of groups of up to five); Decorated Gothic: tracery, wider window divided by vertical bars, obtuse or ogee pointed arches, more complex rib vault (further ribs, ridge rib and bosses added); Perpendicular Gothic: homogeneity achieved by panelled decoration on walls, in widows enclosed by obtuse or four-centred arches, and in fan vaults, flying buttresses. c. Symmetry; E- or H-plans, large windows, entrance porch. d. Curves => illusion of movement, boldly massed structures, lavish display (= Baroque generally); English Barogue: large-scale grandeur of boldly massed structures, but more restrained (fewer curves, not so lavish decoration). e. Order, clarity, grace + use of Classical orders, balustrade and typical Classical ornaments. f. Plan: main block + side pavilions; projecting six-column portico; otherwise plain exterior, but luxurious interior; situated in landscape gardens. Inigo Jones s buildings used Classical decoration, but they also used Palladio s system of harmonic proportions. g. Elegance and fine proportions, basically Classicist. h. Modernism: simple geometrical shapes + use of steel, reinforced concrete and plate glass + brick. Brutalism: use of massive blocks of brick or reinforced concrete. i. Eclectic, colourful and playful (delight in symbols and historical decorative motifs). 2. a. Anglo-Saxon buildings were structurally simple + simple plans; inner walls plain, outer walls richly decorated. Norman buildings were more complex: cruciform plans, 3 towers, more massive, inner walls divided both horizontally and vertically. b. In common: delight in surface decoration, though used in different parts of buildings. 3. Norman castles were either of motte-and-bailey type or keep castles, more massive. Gothic ones were either concentric or rectangular, more complex. Their importance declined after gunpowder started to be used more widely. Besides, the nobility demanded more comfortable dwellings. 4. Their utilitarian structures, especially (suspension) bridges, docks and tunnels. 5. a. His starting a stylistic revolution by bringing the Italian Renaissance to England + the critical study of Palladio s buildings in Italy. b. Palladio s system of harmonic proportions, which he adapted to English taste. c. The Queen s House at Greenwich and the Banqueting House in London. 6. a. The combination of brilliant technical ingenuity and supreme artistic gifts. b. c. Italian Classicism and Baroque; variety in his City churches (in plan, interior, steeples); restrained Baroque in St. Paul s and secular buildings (colonnaded domes and blocks in the Greenwich Royal Hospital, French Baroque at Hampton Court, Classical decorative motifs). // 7. 8. a. He created a new form of Classical design that influenced architecture world-wide. b. Rooms of contrasting shapes and sizes put next to each other; seemingly changed dimensions; delicate arabesque ornament in low relief + colour contrasts. : 1. a. Mostly foreign artists: Hans Holbein, Anthony Van Dyck. Nicholas Hilliard and Grinling Gibbons (woodcarving). Main genres: portrait and miniature painting; in the second half of the 17th c., landscape painting and decorative mural painting introduced by second-rate foreign painters. b. Great native painters appeared: (George Stubbs), William Hogarth, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough. Main genres: portraiture, satire (Gillray, Rowlandson), conversation piece, history painting, landscape (and sporting) painting. 74c. Main genres: narrative painting (Victorian anecdotal painting, Pre-Raphaelites, Whistler and some other Aesthetists) and landscape painting (John Constable, William Turner). d. Influence of European Modernism in the first half of the century, and of American movements in the second half; Francis Bacon and Lucien Freud in painting; Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth in sculpture. 2. 1) Hans Holbein the Younger: portraits and portrait miniatures, ability to capture both the outward likeness and the character of the sitter (rounding it off by depicting the objects denoting his or her role in life and interests); his art was at the root of the tradition of English miniature painting. 2) Anthony Van Dyck: his style based on those of great Baroque painters, Rubens and Titian => he created a perfect image of Carolean noblemen, marked by courtly grace, elegance and decorative splendour; he influenced great 18th-century portraitists, especially Gainsborough; 3) James Abbot McNeill Whistler painted portraits and landscapes marked by orchestration of colour and line (= more important than the subject); his art foreshadowed 20th-century artistic streams. 4) Jacob Epstein established modernist principles in British sculpture (direct carving + rougher finish of his sculptures). 3. 1) William Hogarth rejected foreign influences => started a distinctive English school of painting; he portrayed middle-class and ordinary people = penetrating studies of character; his modern Moral Subjects = dramatic scenes of everyday life exposing contemporary evils; excellent composition, sense of theatre, interest in detail. 2) Joshua Reynolds: aesthetic critic (necessity to resume contacts with the Continental tradition); he portrayed upper-class people = vivid portraits, inexhaustible variety of pose; Classical elegance + richness of colours. 3) Thomas Gainsborough: one of the founders of the British landscape school + the true heir of Van Dyck s easy elegance as a portraitist (poetic, lyrical; set his sitters in landscape compositions). 4. John Constable painted scenes in Suffolk, the south-eastern coast and the area around Salisbury, helping to shape the general idea of a beautiful English landscape (freshness of atmosphere + incidence of light); realistic scenes from everyday life of country people painted with freedom and insight. William Turner concentrated on wild subjects and dynamic forces in nature; he got ever more interested in effects of colour and light, shedding unnecessary details and shapes. 5. Caricature: a funny drawing or picture of somebody that exaggerates some of his/her features; the painting is more or less realistic. James Gillray: a political caricaturist who attacked politicians, the royal family, British radicals and Frenchman; he adapted high Baroque compositions to his art. Thomas Rowlandson: primarily a social caricaturist who concentrated on social life in towns and country, but without moralistic overtones; naturally grouped diverse human types. 6. Francis Bacon s paintings expressed the prevailing feelings and fears of his contemporaries better than those of any other painter; his main means of expression = distortion of the human body and face. Lucien Freud tried to return the human body its dignity (nudes => to show the body s vulnerability); richly textured brushwork. 7. Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth; both used cavities => space nearly as important as solid matter; Moore: figuration (reclining female figures resembling landscapes, mother and child, family), while Hepworth s finest works are abstract. 8. His ability to recapture natural forms with exquisite realism and vitality; he carved in high relief and almost in the round. 9. Edward Burne-Jones influenced European Symbolism by his insistence on art being removed from ordinary existence and everyday life. John Constable inspired his French contemporaries by his free and intensive way of depicting nature, and he foreshadowed French Impressionism. William Turner anticipated great Post-Impressionists, especially C zanne and Gauguin, by his free and nearly abstract way of painting. Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth (cf. Question 7). 10. a. the 19th century; b. the 18th century; c. the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. 7511. a. art that does not represent people and objects in a realistic way; art which portrays, in however altered way, things perceived in the visible world; b. a very small detailed portrait; c. a group portrait of friends or family engaged in some favourite occupation; d. depiction of hunting or horse racing; e. the type of figure painting that illustrates historic or legendary incidents in a noble way, the emphasis being on moral ideas like honour or patriotism; f. illusionistic painting on walls and ceilings, in Baroque palaces and churches; g. a story from 18th-century life told in a series of paintings and castigating some social abuse; h. a painting whose chief intention is to tell a story; i. a theory of art which maintains that art can be judged only by its own standards; j. arrangements and combination of individual elements in a painting; k. the art of creating an effect of depth and distance in a painting; 1. working directly on a block of material without preliminary drawings or maquettes; use of materials such as wax or clay to create a form which is three-dimensional. : 1. a Experience is the chief source of knowledge. b. The action is right if it tends to promote happiness of everyone affected by it, and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness. It can be described as moral philosophy because it deals with moral aspects of human behaviour (= what is right and wrong). c. Governments should not interfere with the economy or do for their citizens what they are able to do for themselves (this opinion delayed the introduction of social welfare systems); each individual s rights should be protected. d. Philosophical questions are artificial problems; philosophy should concentrate on a logical analysis of sciences. 8. Traditional philosophical problems are in fact linguistic problems, as all human knowledge is expressed through language; the proper activity of philosophy is the process of describing and classifying language in use. 2. a. Both believed in empiricism and therefore anticipated later scientific discovery. Bacon was also interested in natural sciences and languages and Occam criticised the secular power of the Papacy. b. Both were empiricists and both were interested in psychology, but Hobbes was a materialist, determinist and pessimist. Their political theories differed: while Hobbes advocated absolutist rule, Locke held that governments derive their authority from popular consent. 3. Because his ideas deeply influenced the development of English and European philosophical thinking. 4. It is practical, sober and realistic, and deeply interested in the nature of language. 5. William of Occam, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and David Hume, partly also Bertrand Russell. 6 (possible answers): The Venerable Bede (historical method, calendar); Isaac Newton (laws of classical mechanics); William Harvey (circulation of blood); Adam Smith (classical economic) // Keynes (a new economic theory); Edward Jenner (pioneer in inoculation); Charles Darwin (natural origin of species); Michael Faraday (electromagnetic induction); Lord Rutherford (atom); Alexander Fleming (penicillin). 7 (possible answer): Watt s steam engine, as it enabled mass production in factories. 8. Physics, astronomy, chemistry, economics, medicine. 9. From the 15th to the 17th centuries; 20th century. 10. John Dunstable, Thomas Tallis, William Byrd, Henry Purcell, Edward Elgar, Ralph Vaugh-Williams, Benjamin Britten.

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